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20, 1824; came to Chicago in 1841, and, after
spending eleven years alternately in Galena and
Chicago, finally located permanently in Chicago,
in 1852; in 1853 was elected Clerk of the Record-
er's Court of Chicago, retaining the position five
years; was admitted to the bar in March, 1856,
and appointed United States Commissioner the
same year, remaining in office until his death,
Nov. 3, 1894. Mr. Hoyne was an officer of the
Chicago Pioneers and one of the founders of the
Union League Club.

HUBBARD, Gurdon Saltonstall, pioneer and
Indian trader, was born at Windsor, Vt., August
22, 1802. His early youth was passed in Canada,
chiefly in the employ of the American Fur Com-
pany. In 1818 he first visited Fort Dearborn, and
for nine years traveled back and forth in the
interest of his employers. In 1827, having em-
barked in business on his own account, he estab-
lished several trading posts in Illinois, becoming
a resident of Chicago in 1832. From this time
forward he became identified with the history
and development of the State. He served with
distinction during the Black Hawk and Winne-
bago Wars, was enterprising and public-spirited,
and did much to promote the early development
of Chicago. He was elected to the Legislature
from Vermilion County in 1832, and, in 1835,
was appointed by Governor Duncan one of the
Commissioners of the Illinois & Michigan Canal.
Died, at Chicago, Sept. 14, 1886. From the time
he became a citizen of Chicago, for fifty years,
no man was more active or public-spirited
in promoting its commercial development and
general prosperity. He was identified with
almost every branch of business upon which its
growth as a commercial city depended, from that
of an early Indian trader to that of a real-estate
operator, being manager of one of the largest pack-
ing houses of his time, as well as promoter of
early railroad enterprises. A zealous Republican,
he was one of the most earnest supporters of
Abraham Lincoln in the campaign of 1860, was
prominently identified with every local



for the maintenance of the Union cause, and, for
a year, held a commission as Captain in the
Eighty-eighth Regiment Illinois Volunteers,
known as the "Second Board of Trade Regiment. "'

HUGHITT, Marvin, Railway President, was
born, August, 1837, and, in 1850, began his rail-
road experience on the Chicago & Alton Railway
as Superintendent of Telegraph and Train-de-
spatcher. In 1862 he entered the service of the
Illinois Central Company in a similar capacity,
still later occupying the positions of Assistant
Superintendent and General Superintendent, re-
maining in the latter from 1865 to 1870, when he
resigned to become Assistant General Manager
of the Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul. In 1872
he became associated with the Chicago & North-
western Railroad, in connection with which he
has held the positions of Superintendent, General
Manager, Second Vice-President and President —
the last of which (1899) he still occupies.

HULETT, Alta M., lawyer, was born near
Rockford, 111., June 4, 1854; early learned teleg-
raphy and became a successful operator, but sub-
sequently engaged in teaching and the study of
law. In 1872, having passed the required exami-
nation, she applied for admission to the bar, but
was rejected on account of sex. She then, in
conjunction with Mrs. Bradwell and others,
interested herself in securing the passage of an
act by the Legislature giving women the right
that had been denied her, wliich having been
accomplished, she went to Chicago, was admitted
to the bar and began practice. Died, in Cali-
fornia, March 27, 1877.

HUNT, Daniel D., legislator, was born in
Wyoming County, N. Y., Sept. 19, 1835, came to
De Kalb County, 111., in 1857, and has since been
engaged in hotel, mercantile and farming busi-
ness. He was elected as a Republican Represent-
ative in the Thirty-fifth General Assembly in
1886, and re elected in l.'^HH. Two years later he
was elected to the State Senate, re-elected in
1894, and again in 1898 — giving him a continuous
service in one or the other branch of the General
Assembly of sixteen years. During the session
of 1895, Senator Hunt was especially active in
the legislation which resulted in the location of
the Northern Illinois Normal Institute at De

HUNT, George, lawyer, and ex-Attorney-Gen-
eral, was born in Knox County, Ohio, in 1841 ;
having lost both parents in childhood, came,
with an uncle, to Edgar County, 111., in 18.55. In
July, 1861, at the age of 20, he enlisted in the
Twelfth Illinois Infantry, re-enlisting as a veteran

in 1864, and rising from the ranks to a captaincy.
After the close of the war, he studied law, was
admitted to the bar, and, locating at Paris, Edgar
County, soon acquired a large practice. He was
elected State Senator on the Republican ticket in
1876, and again in 1880. In 1884 he received the
Republican nomination for Attorney-General, and
was renominated in 1888, being elected bntli
times and serving eight years. Among the im-
portant questions with which General Hunt had
to deal during his two terms were the celebrated
"anarchist cases" of 1887 and of lSi)i>-92. In the
former the condemned Chicago anarchists applied
through their counsel to the Supreme Court of
the United States, for a writ of error to the Su-
preme Court of Illinois to compel the latter to
grant them a new trial, which was refused. The
case, on the part of the State, was conducted 1 ly
General Hunt, while Gen. B. F. Butler of Massa-
chusetts, John Randolph Tucker of Virginia,
Roger A. Pryor of New York, and Jlessrs. W. P.
Black and Solomon of Chicago appeared for the
plaintiffs. Again, in 1890, Fielden and Schwab,
who had been condemned to life imprisonment,
attempted to secure their release — the former by
an application similar to that of 18S7, and the
latter by appeal from a decision of Judge Gresham
of the United States Circuit Court refusing a
writ of habeas corpus. The final hearing of
these cases was had before the Supreme Court of
the United States in .January, 1892, General
Butler again appearing as leading counsel for the
plaintiffs— but with the same result as in 1887.
General Hunt's management of these cases won
for him much deserved commendation l)oth at
home and abroad.

HUNTER, Andrew J., was born in Greencastle,
Ind., Dec. 17, 1831, and removed in infancy by
his parents, to Edgar County, this State. His
early education was received in the common
schools and at Edgar Academy. He commenced
his business life as a civil engineer, but, after
three j'ears spent in that profession, began tlie
study of law and was admitted to the bar. He
has since been actively engaged in practice at
Paris, Edgar County. From 1804 to 1868 he repre-
sented that county in the State Senate, and, in
1870, led the Democratic forlorn hope in the Fif-
teenth Congressional District against General
Jesse H. Moore, and rendered a like service to his
party in 1882, when Joseph G. Cannon was his
Republican antagonist. In 1886 he was elected
Judge of the Edgar County Court, and, in 1890,
was re-elected, but resigned this office in 1892,
having been elected Congressman for the State-



at-large on the Democratic ticket. He was a can-
didate for Congress from the Nineteenth District
again in 1896, and was again elected, receiving a
majority of 1,300 over Hon. Benson Wood, his
Republican opponent and immediate predecessor.
HUNTER, (Gen.) David, soldier, was born in
Washington, D. C, July 21, 1802; graduated at
the United States Military Academy in 1822,
and assigned to the Fifth Infantry with the rank
of Second Lieutenant, becoming First Lieutenant
in 1828 and Captain of Dragoons in 1833. During
this period he twice crossed the plains to the
Rocky Moimtains, but, in 1836, resigned his com-
mission and engaged in business in Chicago,
Re-entering the service as Paymaster in 1842, he
was Chief Paymaster of General Wool's command
in the Mexican War, and was afterwards stationed
at New Orleans, Washington, Detroit, St. Louis
and on the frontier. He was a personal friend of
President Lincoln, whom he accompanied when
the latter set out for Washington in February,
1801, but was disabled at BuflEalo, having his
collar-bone dislocated by the crowd. He was
appointed Colonel of the Sixth United States
Cavalry, May 14, 1861, three days later commis-
sioned Brigadier-General and, in August, made
Major-General. In the Manassas campaign he
commanded the main column of McDowell's
army and was severely wounded at Bull Run ;
served under Fremont in Missouri and succeeded
him in command in November, 1861, remaining
until March, 1862. Being transferred to tlie
Department of the South in May following, he
issued an order declaring the persons held as
slaves in Georgia, Florida and South Carolina
free, which order was revoked by President Lin-
coln ten days later. On account of the steps
taken by him for the organization of colored
troops, Jefferson Davis issued an order declaring
him, in case of capture, subject to execution as
a felon. In May, 1864, he was placed in com-
mand of the Department of the West, and, in

1865, served on various courts-martial, being
President of the commission that tried Mr. Lin-
coln's assassins ; was brevetted Major-General in
March, 186.5, retired from active service July,

1866, and died in Washington, Feb. 2, 1886. Gen-
eral Hunter married a daughter of John Kinzie,
the first permanent citizen of Chicago.

HURD, Harvey B., lawyer, was born in Fair-
field County, Conn., Feb. 24, 1827. At the age of
15 he walked to Bridgeport, where he began life
as office-boy in "The Bridgeport Standard," a
journal of pronounced Whig proclivities. In
1844 he came to Illinois, entering Jubilee College,

but, after a brief attendance, came to Chicago in
1846. There he found temporary employment
as a compositor, later commencing tlie study of
law, and being admitted to the bar in 1848. A
portion of the present city of Evanston is biiilt
upon a 248-acre tract owned and subdivided by Mr.
Hurd and his partner. Always in sympathy
with the old school and most radical type of
Abolitionists, he took a deep interest in the Kan-
sas-Missouri troubles of 1856, and became a mem-
ber of the "National Kansas Committee"
appointed by the Buffalo (N. Y. ) Convention, of
which body he was a member. He was chosen
Secretary of the executive committee, and it is
not too much to say that, largely through his
earnest and poorly requited labors, Kansas was
finally admitted into the Union as a free State.
It was mainly through his efforts that seed for
planting was gratuitously distributed among the
free-soil settlers. In 1869 he was appointed a
member of the Commission to revise the statutes
of Illinois, a large part of the work devolving
upon him in consequence of the withdrawal of
his colleagues. The revision was completed in
1874, in conjunction with a Joint Committee of
Revision of both Houses appointed by the Legis-
lature of 1873. While no statutory revision has
been ordered by subsequent Legislatures, Mr.
Hurd has carried on the same character of work
on independent lines, issuing new editions of the
statutes from time to time, which are regarded as
standard works by the bar. In 1875 he was
nominated by the Republican party for a seat on
the Supreme bench, but was defeated by the late
Judge T. Lyle Dickey. For several years he
filled a chair in the faculty of the Union College
of Law. His home is in Evanston.

HURLBUT, Stephen A., soldier. Congressman
and Foreign Minister, was born at Charleston,
S. C, Nov. 29, 1815, received a thorough liberal
education, and was admitted to the bar in 1837.
Soon afterwards he removed to Illinois, making
his home at Belvidere. He was a member of the
Constitutional Convention of 1847, in 1848 was an
unsuccessful candidate for Presidential Elector
on the Whig ticket, but, on the organization of
the Republican party in 1856, promptly identified
himself with that party and was elected to the
lower branch of the General Assembly as a
Republican in 1858 and again in 1860. During
the War of the Rebellion he served with distinc-
tion from May, 1861, to July, 1865. He entered
the service as Brigadier-General, commanding
the Fourth Division of Grant's army at Pittsburg
Landing ; was made a Major-General in Septem-

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ber, 1862, and later assigned to the command of
the Sixteenth Army Corps, at Memphis, and suli-
sequently to the command of the Department of
the Gulf (1864-65). After the close of the war he
served another term in the General Assembly
(1867), was chosen Presidential Elector for the
State-at-large in 1868, and. in 1869. was appointed
by President Grant Minister Resident to the
United States of Colombia, serving until 1872.
The latter year he was elected Representative to
Congress, and re-elected two years later. In
1876 he was a candidate for re-election as an
independent Republican, but was defeated by
William Lathrop, the regular nominee. In 1881
he was appointed Minister Resident to Peru, and
died at Lima, March 27, 1882.

HUTCHIXS, Thomas, was born in Monmouth,
N. J., in 1730, died in Pittsburg, Pa., April 28,
1789. He was the first Government Surveyor, fre-
quently called the "Geographer"; was also an

officer of the Sixtieth Royal (British) regiment,
and assistant engineer under Bouquet. At the
outbreak of the Revolution, while stationed
Fort Chartres, he resigned his commission be-
cause of his sympathy with the patriots. Tliree
years later he was charged with being in treason
able correspondence with Franklin, and im
prisoned in the Tower of London. He is said tf
have devised the present system of Governmen
surveys in tliis country, and his services in carry
ing it into effect were certainly of great value.
He was the author of several valuable works, the
best known being a ' 'Topographical Description
of Virginia."

HUTSONVILLE, a village of Crawford County,
on the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St.
Louis Railway, and the Wabash River, 34 miles
south of Paris. The di.strict is agricultural. The
town has a bank and a weekly paper. Population
(1890), 582.


(general history.)

Illinois is the twenty-first State of the Federal
Union in the order of its admission, the twentieth
in present area and the third in point of popula-
tion. A concise history of the region, of which it
constituted the central portion at an early period,
will be found in the following pages :

The greater part of the territory now comprised
within the State of Illinois was known and at-
tracted eager attention from the nations of the
old world — especially in France, Germany and
England — before the close of the third quarter of
the seventeenth century. More than one hun-
dred years before the struggle for American Inde-
pendence began, or the geographical division
known as the "Territory of the Northwest" had
an existence; before the names of Kentucky,
Tennessee, Vermont or Ohio had been heard of,
and while the early settlers of New England and
Virginia were still struggling for a foothold
among the Indian tribes on the Atlantic coast,
the "Illinois Country" occupied a place on the
maps of North America as distinct and definite
as New York or Pennsylvania. And from that
time forward, until it assumed its position in the
Union with the rank of a State, no other section
has been the theater of more momentous and
stirring events or has contributed more material,
affording interest and instruction to the archseol-
ogist, the ethnologist and the historian, than

that portion of the American Continent now
known as the "State of Illinois."

The "Illinois Country."— What was known
to the early French explorers and their followers
and descendants, for the ninety years which
intervened between the discoveries of Joliet and
La Salle, down to the surrender of this region to
the English, as the "Illinois Country," is de-
scribed with great clearness and definiteness by
Capt. Philip Pittman. an English engineer who
made the first survey of the Mississippi River
soon after the transfer of the French possessions
east of the Mississippi to the British, and who
published the result of his observations in London
in 1770. In this report, which is evidently a
work of the highest authenticity, and is the more
valuable because written at a transition period
when it was of the first importance to preserve
and hand down the facts of early French history
to the new occupants of the .soil, the boundaries
of the "Illinois Country" are defined as follows;
"The Country of the Illinois is bounded by the
Mississippi on the west, by the river Illinois on
the north, by the Ouabache and Miamis on the
east and the Ohio on the south."

From this it would appear that the country lying
between the Illinois and the Mississippi Rivers to
the west and northwest of the former, was not
considered a part of the "Illinois Country," and.



this agrees generally with the records of the
early French explorers, except that they regarded
the region which comprehends the site of the
present city of Chicago — the importance of which
appears to have been appreciated from the first
as a connecting link between the Lakes and the
upper tributaries of the rivers falling into the
Gulf of Mexico — as belonging thereto

Origin of the Name. — The "Country" appears
to have derived its name from Inini, a word of
Algonquin origin, signifying "the men," eu-
phemized by the French into lUini with the
suffix ois, signifying "tribe." The root of the
term, applied both to the country and the Indians
occupying it, has been still further defined as "a
perfect man" (Haines on "Indian Names"), and
the derivative has been used by the Frencli
chroniclers in various forms though always with
the same signification — a signification of whicli
the earliest claimants of the appellation, as well
as their successors of a different race, have not
failed to be duly proud.

Boundaries and Area.— It is this region
which gave the name to the State of which it
constituted so large and important a part. Its
boundaries, so far as the Wabash and the Ohio
Rivers (as well as the Mississippi from the mouth
of the Ohio to the mouth of the Illinois) are con-
cerned, are identical with those given to the
"IlUnois Country" by Pittman. The State is
bounded on the north by Wisconsin ; on the east
by Lake Michigan, the State of Indiana and the
Wabash River; soutlieast by the Ohio, flowing
between it and the State of Kentucky ; and west
and southwest by the Mississippi, which sepa-
rates it from the States of Iowa and Missouri. A
peculiarity of the Act of Congress defining the
boundaries of the State, is the fact that, while
the jurisdiction of Illinois extends to the middle
of Lake Michigan and also of the channels of tlie
Wabash and the Mississippi, it stops at the north
bank of the Ohio River ; this seems to have been
a sort of concession on the part of the framers of
the Act to our proud neighbors of the "Dark and
Bloody Ground." Geographically, the State lies
between the parallels of 36° 59' and 43° 30' north
latitude, and the meridian of 10° 30' and 14° of
longitude west from the city of Washington.
From its extreme southern limit at the mouth of
the Ohio to the Wisconsin boundary on the north,
its estimated length is 38.5 miles, with an extreme
breadth, from the Indiana State line to the Mis-
sissippi River at a point between Quincy and
Warsaw, of 318 miles. Owing to the tortuous
course of its river and lake boundaries, which

comprise about three-fourths of the whole, its
physical outline is extremely irregular. Between
the limits described, it has an estimated area of
56,650 square miles, of which 650 square miles is
water — the latter being chiefly in Lake Michigan.
This area is more than one and one-half times
that of all New England (Maine being excepted),
and is greater than that of any other State east
of the Mississippi, except Michigan, Georgia and
Florida — Wisconsin lacking only a few hundred
square miles of the same.

When these figures are taken into account
some idea may be formed of the magnificence of
the domain comprised within the limits of the
State of Illinois — a domain larger in extent than
that of England, more than one-fourth of that of
all France and nearly half that of the British
Islands, including Scotland and Ireland. The
possibilities of such a country, possessing a soil
unequaled in fertility, in proportion to its area,
by any other State of tlie Union and with re-
sources in agriculture, manufactures and com-
merce unsurpassed in any country on the face of
the globe, transcend all liuman conception.

Streams and Navigation. — Lying between
the Mississippi and its chief eastern tributary, the
Ohio, with the Wabash on the east, and inter-
sected from northeast to southwest by the Illinois
and its numerous affluents, and with no moun-
tainous region within its limits, Illinois is at once
one of the best watered, as well as one of the most
level States in the Union. Besides tlie Sanga-
mon, Kankakee, Fox and Des Plaines Rivers,
chief tributaries of the Illinois, and the Kaskaskia
draining the region between the Illinois and the
Wabash, Rock River, in the northwestern portion
of the State, is most important on account of its
valuable water-power. All of these streams were
regarded as navigable for some sort of craft, dur-
ing at least a portion of the year, in the early
liistory of the country, and with the magnificent
Mississippi along the whole western border, gave
to Illinois a larger extent of navigable waters
than that of any other single State. Although
practical navigation, apart from the lake and by
natural water courses, is now limited to the Mis-
sissippi, Illinois and Ohio — making an aggregate
of about 1,000 miles — the importance of the
smaller streams, when the people were dependent
almost wholly upon some means of water com-
munication for the transportation of heavy com-
modities as well as for travel, could not be
over-estimated, and it is not without its effect
upon the productiveness of the soil, now that
water transportation has given place to railroads.



The wliole uuinber of streams shown upon tlie
best maps exceeds 2S0.

Topography. — In physical conformation the
surface of the State presents the aspect of an
inclined plane with a moderate descent in the
general direction of the streams toward the soutli
and southwest. Cairo, at the extreme southern
end of the State and the point of lowest depres-
sion, has an elevation above sea-level of about
300 feet, while the altitude of Lake Michigan at
Chicago is 583 feet. The greatest elevation is
reached near Scale's Mound in the northwestern
part of the State — 1,257 feet — while a spur from
the Ozark Mountains of Missouri, projected across
the southern part of the State, rises in Jackson
and Union Counties to a height of over 900 feet.
The eastern end of this spur, in the northeast
corner of Pope County, reaches an elevation of
1,046 feet. South of this ridge, the surface of
the country between the Ohio and Mississippi
Rivers was originally covered with dense forests.
These included some of the most valuable species
of timber for lumber manufacture, such as the
different varieties of oak, walnut, poplar, ash,
sugar-maple and cypress, besides elm, linden,
hickory, honey-locust, pecan, hack-berry, cotton-
wood, sycamore, sassafras, black-gum and beech.
The native fruits included tlie persimmon, wild
plum, grape and paw-paw, with various kinds of
berries, such as blackberries, raspberries, straw-
berries (in the prairie districts) and some others.
Most of the native growths of woods common to
the south were found along the streams farther
north, except the cypress beech, pecan and a few

Prairies.— A peculiar feature of the country,
in the middle and northern portion of the State,
which excited the amazement of early explorers,
was the vast extent of the prairies or natural

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 50 of 207)