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Reynolds for Governor over William Kinney, by
a majority of 3,899, in a total vote of 49,051,
while Zadoc Casey, the candidate on the Kinney
ticket, vras elected Lieutenant-Governor. (See
Reynolds, John.)

The most important event of Reynolds' admin-
istration was the "Black-Hawk War." Eight
thousand militia were called out during this war
to reinforce 1,500 regular troops, the final result
being the driving of 400 Indians west of the Mis-
sissippi. Rock Island, which had been the favor-
ite rallying point of the Indians for generations,
was the central point at the beginning of this
war. It is impossible to give the details of this
complicated struggle, wliich was protracted
through two campaigns (1831 and 1832). though
there was no fighting worth speaking of except
in the last, and no serious loss to the whites in
that, except the surprise and defeat of Stillman's
command. Beardstown was the base of opera-
tions in each of these campaigns, and that city
has probably never witnessed such scenes of
bustle and excitement since. The Indian village
at Rock Island was destroyed, and the fugitives,
after being pursued through Northern Illinois
and Southwestern Wisconsin without being
allowed to surrender, were driven beyond the
Mississippi in a famishing condition and with
spirits completely broken. Galena, at that time
the emporium of the "Lead Mine Region," and
the largest town in the State north of Springfield,
was the center of great excitement, as the war
was waged in tlie region surrounding it. (See
Black Hawk War.) Although cool judges have
not regarded this campaign as reflecting honor
upon either the prowess or the magnanimity of
the whites, it was remarkable for the number of
those connected with it whose names afterwards
became famous in the history of the State and
the Nation. Among tliem were two who after-
wards became Presidents of the United States —
Col. Zachary Taylor of the regular army, and
Abraham Lincoln, a Captain in the State militia
— besides Jefferson Davis, then a Lieutenant in
the regular army and afterwards head of the
Soutliern Confederacy; three subsequent Gov-
ernors — Duncan, Carlin and Ford — besides Gov-
ernor Reynolds, vi'ho at that time occupied the

gubernatorial chair; James Semple, afterwards
United States Senator ; John T. Stuart, Lincoln's
law preceptor and partner, and later a Member
of Congress, to say nothing of many others, who, in
•after years, occupied prominent positions as mem-
bers of Congress, the Legislature or otherwise.
Among the latter were Gen. John J. Hardin;
the late Joseph Gillespie, of Edwardsville; Col.
John Dement ; William Thomas of Jackson-
ville; Lieut. -Col. Jacob Fry; Henry Dodge and

Under the census of 1830, Illinois became
entitled to three Representatives in Congress
instead of one, by whom it had been represented
from the date of its admission as a State. Lieu-
tenant-Governor Casey, having been elected to
the Twenty-third Congress for the Second Dis-
trict under the new ajiportionment, on March 1,
1833, tendered his resignation of the Lieutenant-
Governorship, and was succeeded by William L.
D. Ewing, Temporary President of the Senate.
{See A2}2)ortionment, Congressional; Casey, Zadoc,
and Re2yresentatives in Congress.) Within two
weeks of the close of his term (Nov. 17, 1834),
Governor Reynolds followed the example of his
associate in office by resigning the Governorship
to accept the seat in Congress for the First (or
Southern) District, which had been rendered
vacant by the death of Hon. Charles Slade, the
incumbent in office, in July previous. This
opened the way for a new promotion of acting
Lieutenant-Governor Ewing, who thus had the
distinction of occupying the gubernatorial oflJce
for the brief space of two weeks. (See Reynolds.
John, and Slade. Cha7'les.)

Ewing probably held a greater variety of
offices under the State, than any other man who
ever lived in it. Repeatedly elected to each
branch of the General Assembl}', he more than
once filled the chair of Speaker of the House and
President of the Senate ; served as Acting Lieu-
tenant Governor and Governor by virtue of the
resignation of his superiors; was United States
Senator from 1835 to 1837; still later became
Clerk of the House where he had presided as
Speaker, finally, in 1843, being elected Auilitor of
Public Accounts, and dying in that office three
years later. In less than twenty years, he held
eight or ten different offices, including the high-
est in the State. (See Ewing. William Lee David-

Duncan's Administr.ation. — Joseph Duncan,
who had served the State as its only Represent-
ative in three Congresses, was elected Governor,
August, 1834, over four competitors — William



Kinney, Robert K. McLaughlin, James Evans
and W. B. Archer. (See Duncan, Joseph. )

His administration was made memorable h_v
the large number of distinguished men who
either entered public life at this period or gained
additional prominence bj' their connection with
public affairs. Among these were Abraham Lin-
coln and Stephen A. Douglas ; Col. E. D. Baker,
wlio afterward and at different times represented
Illinois and Oregon in the councils of the Xation,
and who fell at Ball's Bluff in 18G2; Orville H.
Browning, a prospective United States Senator
and future cabinet officer: Lieut. -Gov. John
Dougherty: Gen. James Shields, Col. John J.
Hardin. Archibald Williams, Cyrus and Ninian
\V. Edwards: Dr. John Logan, father of Gen.
John A. Logan: Stephen T. Logan, and many

During this administration was begun that
gigantic scheme of "internal improvements,"
which proved so disastrous to the financial inter-
ests of the State. The estimated cost of the
various works undertaken, was over §11,000,000,
and though little of substantial value was real-
ized, yet, iu t8.")3, the debt (principal and inter-
est) thereby incurred (including tliat of the
canal), aggregated nearly .?1 7, 000. 000. The col-
lapse of the scheme was, no doubt, hastened by
the unexpected suspension of specie payments
by tlie banks all over the country, which followed
soon after its adoption. (See Internal Improve-
ment Policy; also State Debt.)

Capital Removed to >SPRiNaFiELD. — At the
session of the General Assembly of 1836-37, an act
was passed removing the State capital to Spring-
field, and an appropriation of §.50, 000 was made to
erect a building ; to this amount the city of Spring-
field added a like sum, besides donating a site. In
securing the passage of these acts, tlie famous
"Long Nine," consisting of A. G. Herndon and
Job Fletcher, in the Senate: and Abraham Lin-
coln, Ninian W. Edwards, John Dawson. Andrew
McCormick, Dan Stone. William F. Elkin and
Robert L. Wilson, in the House — all Representa-
tives from Sangamon County — played a leading

The Murder of Lovejoy. — An event occurred
near the close of Governor Duncan's term, which
left a stain upon the locality, but for which his
administration had no direct responsibility; to-
wit, the murder of Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy, by a
pro-slavery mob at Alton. Lovejoy was a native
of Maine, who. coming to St. Louis in 1827. had
been employed upon various papers, the last
being "The St. Louis Observer." The outspoken

hostility of this paper to slavery aroused a bitter
local opposition which led to its removal to
Alton, where the first number of "The Alton
Observer" was issued, Sept. 8, 1836, though not
xmtil one press and a considerable portion of the
material had been destroyed by a mob. On the
night of August 21, 1837, there was a second
destruction of the material, wlien a third press
having been procured, it was taken from the
warehouse and thrown into the Slississippi. A
fourth press was ordered, and, pending its
arrival, Lovejoy appeared before a public meet-
ing of his opponents and, in an impassioned
address, maintained his right to freedom of
speech, declaring in conclusion: "If the civil
authorities refuse to protect nie, I must look to
God ; and if I die, I have determined to make my
grave in Alton." These words proved prophetic.
The new press was stored in the warehouse of
Godfrey, Gillman & Co. , on the night of Nov. 6.
1837. A guard of sixty volunteers remained
about the bviilding the next day, but when night
came all but nineteen retired to their homes.
During the night a mob attacked the building,
when a shot from the inside killed Lyman Bishop.
An attempt was then made by the rioters to fire
the warehouse by sending a man to the roof. To
dislodge the incendiary, Lovejoy, with two
others, emerged from the building, when two or
three men in concealment fired upon him, the
shots taking effect in a vital part of his body,
causing his death almost instantly. He was
buried the following day without an inquest.
Several of the attacking party and the defenders
of the building were tried for riot and acquitted
— the former probably on account of popular
sympathy with the crime, and the latter because
they were guiltless of any crime except tliat of
defending private property and attempting to
preserve the law. The act of firing the fatal
sliots has been charged upon two men — a Dr.
Jennings and his comrade. Dr. Beall. The
former, it is said, was afterwards cut to pieces in
a bar-room fight in Vicksburg, Sliss., while the
latter, having been captured by Comanche
Indians in Texas, was burned alive. On the
other hand, Lovejoy has been honored as a
martyr and the sentiments for which he died
have triumphed. (See Lovejoy, Elijah Parish:
also ^4/^0(1 Riots.)

Carlin Succeeds to the Governorship. —
Duncan was succeeded by Gov. Thomas Carlin.
who was chosen at the election of 1838 over
Cyrus Edwards (a younger brother of Gov.
Ninian Edwards), who was the Whig candidate.



The successful candidate for Lieutenant-Governor
was Stinson H. Anderson of Jefferson County.
(See C'arlin, (Gov.) Thomas; Anderson, Stinson H.)

Among the members of the Legislature chosen
at this time we find the names of Orville H.
Browning, Robert Blackwell, George Churchill,
William G. Gatewood, Ebenezer Peck (of Cook
County), William A. Richardson, Newton Cloud,
Jftsse K. Dubois, O. B. Ficklin, Vital Jarrot,
John Logan, William F. Tlioniton and Archibald
Williams — all men of prominence in the subse-
quent history of the State. This was the last
Legislature that assembled at Vandalia, Spring-
field becoming the capital, July 4, 1839. The
corner-stone of the first State capitol at Spring-
field was laid with imposing ceremonies, July 4,
1837, Col. E. D. Baker delivering an eloquent
address. Its estimated cost was |130,000, but
$240,000 was expended upon it before its com-

An incident of this campaign was the election
to Congress, after a bitter struggle, of John T.
Stuart over Stephen A. Douglas from the Third
District, by a majority of fourteen votes. Stuart
was re-elected in 1840, but in 1842 he was suc-
ceeded, under a new apportionment, by Col. John
J. Hardin, while Douglas, elected from the
Quincy District, then entered the National Coun-
cils for the first time.

Field-McClernand Contest. — An exciting
event connected with Carlin's administration was
the attemjit to remove Alexander P. Field from
the office of Secretary of State, which he had
held since 1828. Under the Constitution of 1818,
this office was filled by nomination by the Gov-
ernor "with the advice and consent of the
Senate." Carlin nominated John A. McCler-
nand to supersede Field, but the Senate refused to
confirm the nomination. After adjournment of
the Legislature, McClernand attempted to obtain
possession of the office by writ of quo warranto.
The Judge of a Circuit Court decided the case in
his favor, but this decision was overruled by the
Supreme Court. A special session having been
called, in November, 1840, Stephen A. Douglas,
then of Morgan County, was nominated and con-
firmed Secretary of State, but held tlie position
only a few months, when lie resigned to accept a
place on the Supreme bench, being succeeded as
Secretary bj' Lyman Trumbull.

Supreme Court Revolutionized. — Certain
decisions of some of the lower courts about this
time, bearing upon the suffrage of aliens, excited
the apprehension of the Democrats, who had
heretofore been in political control of the State,

and a movement was started in the Legislature
to reorganize the Supreme Court, a majority of
whom were Whigs. The Democrats were not
unanimous in favor of the measure, but, after a
bitter struggle, it was adopted, receiving a bare
majority of one in the House. Under this act
five additional Judges were elected, viz. : Thomas
Ford, Sidney Breese, Walter B. Scates, Samuel
H. Treat and Stephen A. Douglas — all Demo-
crats. Mr. Ford, one of the new Judges, and
afterwards Governor, has characterized this step
as "a confessedly violent and somewhat revolu-
tionary measure, which could never have suc-
ceeded except in times of great party excite-

The great Whig mass-meeting at Springfield,
in June, 1840, was an incident of the political
campaign of that year. No such popular assem-
blage had ever been seen in the State before. It
is estimated that 20,000 people— nearly five per
cent of the entire population of the State — were
present, including a large delegation from Chi-
cago who marched overland, under command of
the late Maj.-Gen. David Hunter, bearing with
them many devices so popular in that memorable

Ford Elected Governor. — Judge Thomas
Ford became the Democratic candidate for Gov-
ernor in 1842, taking the place on the ticket of
Col. Adam W. Snyder, who had died after nomi-
nation. Ford was elected b}' more than 8,000
majority over ex-Governor Duncan, the Whig
candidate. John Moore, of McLean County (who
had been a member of the Legislature for several
terms and was afterwards State Treasurer),
was elected Lieutenant-Governor. (See Ford,
Thomas: Snyder, Adam W.. and Moore, John.)

Emb.\rrassing Questions. — The failure of the
State and the Shawneetown banks, near the close
of Carlin's administration, had produced a condi-
tion of business depression that was felt all over
the State. At the beginning of Ford's adminis-
tration, the State debt was estimated at §15. 657,-
950 — within about one million of the highest
point it ever reached — while the total population
was a little over half a million. In addition to
these drawbacks, the Mormon question became a
source of embarrassment. This people, after
having been driven from Missouri, settled at
Nauvoo, in Hancock County ; they increased
rapidly in numbers, and, by the arrogant course
of their leaders and their odious doctrines —
especially with reference to "celestial marriage,"
and their assumptions of authority — aroused the
bitter hostility of neighboring communities not



of their faith. The popular indignation became
greatly intensified by the course of unscrupulous
politicians and the granting to the Mormons, by
the Legislature, of certain charters and special
privileges. Various charges were made against
the obnoxious sect, including rioting, kidnap-
ing, robbery, counterfeiting, etc., and the Gov-
ernor called out the militia of the neighboring
counties to preserve the peace. Josepli Smith —
the founder of the sect — with his brother Hyruni
and three others, were induced to surrender to
the authorities at Carthage, on the 23d of June,
1844, under promise of protection of their per-
sons. Then tlie charge was changed to treason
and they were thrown into jail, a guard of eight
men being placed about the building. A con-
siderable portion of tlie militia had disbanded and
returned home, while others were openly hostile
to the prisoners. On June 27 a band of 150
disguised men attacked the jail, finding little
opposition among those set to guard it. In
the assault which followed both of the Smiths
were killed, while John Taylor, another of
the prisoners, was wounded. The trial of the
murderers was a farce and they were acquitted.
A state of virtual war continued for a year,
in which Governor Ford"s authority was openly
defied or treated with contempt by those whom
he had called upon to preserve the peace. In
the fall of 1845 the Mormons agreed to leave
the State, and the following spring the pilgrim-
age to Salt Lake began. Gen. John J. Hardin,
who afterward fell at Buena Vista, was twice
called on by Governor Ford to head parties of
militia to re-store order, while Gen. Mason Bray-
man conducted the negotiations which resulted
in the promise of removal. The great body of
the refugees spent the following winter at Coun-
cil Bluffs, Iowa, arriving at Salt Lake in June
following. Another considerable body entered
the service of the Government to obtain .safe eon-
duct and sustenance the plains. While
the conduct of the Mormons during their stay
at Nauvoo was, no doubt, very irritating and
often lawless, it is equally true that the dis-
ordered condition of affairs was taken advantage
of by unscrupulous demagogues for dishonest
purposes, and this episode has left a stigma
upon the name of more than one over-zealous anti-
Mormon hero. (See Mormons: Smith, .Joseph.)

Though Governor Ford's integrity and ability
in certain directions have not been questioned,
his administration was not a successful one,
largely on account of tlie conditions which pre-
vailed at the time and the embarrassments which

he met from liis own party. (See Ford, Tliomas.)
Mexican War.— A still more tragic chapter
opened during the last year of Ford's administra-
tion, in the beginning of the war with Mexico.
Three regiments of twelve months' volunteers,
called for by the General Government from the
State of Illinois, were furnished with alacrity,
and many more men offered their services than
could be accepted. The names of their respective
commanders — Cols. John J. Hardin, William H.
Bissell and Ferris Forman — have been accorded
a high place in the annals of the State and the
Nation. Hardin was of an honorable Kentucky
family ; he had achieved distinction at tlie bar
and served in the State Legislature and in Con-
gress, and his death on the battlefield of Buena
Vista was universally deplored. (See Hardin,
John J.) Bissell afterward served with di.stinc-
tion in Congress and was the first Republican
Governor of Illinois, elected in 1856. Edward D.
Baker, then a W^liig member of Congress, re-
ceived authority to raise an additional regiment,
and laid the foundation of a reputation as broad
as the Nation. Two other regiments were raised
in the State "for the war " during the next year,
led respectively by Col. Edward W. B. Newby and
James Collins, beside four independent companies
of mounted volunteers. The whole number of
volunteers furnished by Illinois in tliis conflif^t
was 6,123, of whom 86 were killed, and 182
wounded, 12 dying of their wounds. Their loss
in killed was greater than that of any other
State, and the number of wounded onlj' exceeded
by those from South Carolina and Pennsylvania.
Among other lUinoisans who participated in this
struggle, were Thomas L. Harris, William A.
Richardson, J. L. D. Morrison, Murray F. Tuley
and Charles C. P. Holden, while still others,
either in the ranks or in subordinate positions,
received the "baptism of fire" which prepared
them to win distinction as commanders of corps,
divisions, brigades and regiments tluring the War
of the Rebellion, including such names as John
A. Logan, Richard J. Oglesby, Benjamin M.
Prentiss. James D. Morgan. W. H. L. Wallace
(who fell at Pittsburg Landing), Stephen (i.
Hicks, Michael K. Lawler, Leonard F. Ross.
Isham X. Haynie, Theophilus Lyle Dickey.
Dudley Wickersham, Isaac C. Pugh. Thomas H.
Flynn, J. P. Post, Nathaniel Niles, W. R. Morri-
.soii, and others. (See Mr.rican Tl'ar. )

French's Administration-Massac Rebellion.
—Except for the Mexican War, which was still
in progress, and acts of mob violence in certain
portions of the State — especially t>y a band of self-


styled "regulators" in Pope and Massac Counties
— the administration of Augustus C. French,
which began with the close of the year 1846, was
a quiet one. French was elected at the previous
August election by a vote of 58,700 to 36,775 for
Thomas M. Kilpatrick, the Whig candidate, and
5,112 for Richard Eels, Lhe Free-Soil (or Aboli-
tion) candidate. The Whigs held their first State
Convention this year for the nomination of a
State ticket, meeting at Peoria. At the same
election Abraham Lincoln was elected to Con-
gress, defeating Peter Cartwright, the famous
pioneer Methodist preacher, who was the Demo-
cratic candidate. At the session of tlie Legisla-
ture which followed, Stephen A. Douglas was
elected to the United States Senate as successor
to James Semple.

New Convention Movement. — Governor
French was a native of New Hampshire, born
August 2, 1808; he had practiced his profession
as a lawyer in Crawford County, had been a
member of the Tenth and Eleventh General
Assemblies and Receiver of the Land Office at
Palestine. The State had now begun to recover
from the depression caused by the reverses of
1837 and subsequent years, and for some time its
growth in population had been satisfactory. The
old Constitution, however, had been felt to be a
hampering influence, especially in dealing with
the State debt, and, as early as 1842, the question
of a State Convention to frame a new Constitu-
tion had been submitted to popular vote, but was
defeated by the narrow margin of 1,039 votes.
The Legislature of 1844-45 adopted a resolution
for resubmission, and at the election of 1846 it
was approved by the people by a majority of
35,326 in a total vote of 81,352. The State then
contained ninety-nine counties, with an aggregate
population of 662,150. Tlie asse.ssed valuation of
property one year later was §92,206,493, while
the State debt was §16,661,795 — or more than
eighteen per cent of the entire assessed value of
the property of the State.

Constitutional Convention of 1847. —The
election of members of a State Convention to
form a second Constitution for the State of Illi-
nois, was held April 19, 1847. Of one himdred
and sixty-two members chosen, ninety-two were
Democrats, leaving seventy members to all
of the opposition. The Convention
at Springfield, June 7, 1847; it was
organized by the election of Newton Cloud, Per-
manent President, and concluded its labors after
a session of nearly three months, adjourning
August 31. The Constitution was submitted to

a vote of the people, March 6, 1848, and was rati-
fied by 59,887 votes in its favor to 15,859 against.
A special article prohibiting free persons of color
from settling in the State was adopted by 49,060
votes for, to 20,883 against it; and another, pro-
viding for a two-mill tax, by 41,017 for, to 30,586
against. The Constitution went into effect April
1, 1848. (See Constitutions; also Constitutional
Convention of 1847.)

The provision imposing a special two mill tax,
to be applied to the payment of the State in-
debtedness, was the means of restoring the State
credit, while that prohibiting the immigration
of free persons of color, though in accordance
with the spirit of the times, brought upon the
State much opprobrium and was repudiated
with emphasis during the War of the Rebellion.
The demand for retrenchment, caused by the
financial depression following the wild legislation
of 1837, led to the adoption of many radical pro-
visions in the new Constitution, some of which
were afterward found to be serious errors open-
ing tlie way for grave abuses. Among these
was tlie practical limitation of tlie biennial ses-
sions of the General Assembly to forty-two days,
while the per diem of members was fixed at two
dollars. The salaries of State officers were also
fixed at what would now be recognized as an
absurdly low figure, that of Governor being
61,500; Supreme Court Judges, SI, 200 each; Cir-
cuit Judges, SI, 000; State Auditor, SI, 000; Secre-
tary of State, and State Treasurer, S800 each.
Among less objectionable provisions were those
restricting the right of suffrage to white male
citizens above tlie age of 21 years, wliich excluded
(except as to residents of tlie State at the time of
the adoption of the Constitution) a of
unnaturalized foreigners who had exercised the
privilege as "inhabitants" under the Constitu-

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