Newton Bateman.

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was born in Philadelphia, Pa., July 27, 1823;
came to Jacksonville, 111., with his parents, in
1830, and was educated there, graduating from
Illinois College, in 1843, as the classmate of Dr.
Newton Bateman, afterwards President of Knox
College at Galesburg, and Rev. Thomas K.
Beecher, now of Elmira, N.Y. After leaving col-
lege he became the partner of his father (David
B. Ayers)as agent of Mr. John Grigg, of Philadel-
phia, who was the ovraer of a large body of Illi-
nois lands. His father dying in 18.50, Mr. Ayers
succeeded to the management of the business,
about 75,000 acres of Mr. Grigg's unsold lands
coming under his charge. In December, 1852,
with the assistance of Messrs. Page & Bacon, bank-
ers, of St. Louis, he opened the first bank in Jack-
sonville, for the sale of exchange, but which
finally grew into a bank of deposit and has been
continued ever since, being recognized as one of
the most solid institutions in Central Illinois. In
1870-71, aided by Philadelphia and New York
capitalists, he built the "Illinois Farmers" Rail-



road" between Jacksonville and Waverly, after-
wards extended to Virden and finally to Centralia
and Mount Vernon. This was the nucleus of the
Jacksonville Southeastern Railway, though Mr.
Ayers has had no connection with it for several
years. Other business enterprises with which he
lias been connected are the Jacksonville Gas Com-
pany (now including an electric light and power
plant), of which he has been President for forty
years; the "Home Woolen Mills" (early wiped
out by fire), sugar and paper-barrel manufacture,
coal-mining, etc. Abovit 1877 he purchased a
body of 23,600 acres of land in Champaign County,
known as "Broadlands," from John T. Alexander,
an extensive cattle-dealer, who had become
heavily involved during the years of financial
revulsion. As a result of this transaction, Mr.
Alexander's debts, which aggregated .$1,000,000,
were discharged within the next two years. Mr.
Ayers has been an earnest Republican since the
organization of that party and, during the war,
rendered valuable service in assisting to raise
funds for the support of the operations of the
Christian Commission in the field. He has also
been active in Sunday School, benevolent and
educational work, having been, for twenty years,
a Trustee of Illinois College, of which he has
been an ardent friend. In 1846 he was married
to Miss Laura Allen, daughter of Rev. John
Allen, D. D., of Huntsville, Ala., and is the father
of four sons and four daughters, all living.

BABCOCK, Amos C, was born at Penn Yan,
N. Y., Jan. 30, 1838, the son of a member of Con-
gress from that State ; at the age of 18, having
lost his father by death, came West, and soon
after engaged in mercantile business in partner-
ship witli a brother at Canton, 111. In 18,54 he
was elected by a majority of one vote, as an Anti-
Nebraska Whig, to the lower branch of the Nine-
teenth General Assembly, and, in the following
session, took part in the election of United States
Senator which resulted in the choice of Lyman
Trumbull. Although a personal and political
friend of Mr. Lincoln, Mr. Babcock, as a matter
of policy, cast his vote for his townsman, William
Kellogg, afterwards Congressman from that dis-
trict, until it was apparent that a concentration
of the Anti-Nebraska vote on Trumbull was
necessary to defeat the election of a Democrat.
In 1863 he was appointed by President Lincoln
the first Assessor of Internal Revenue for the
Fourth District, and, in 1863, was commissioned
by Governor Yates Colonel of the One Hundred
and Third Illinois Volunteers, but soon resigned.
Colonel Babcock served as Delegateatlarge in

the Republican National Convention of 1868,
which nominated General Grant for tlie Presi-
dency, and the same year was made Chairman of
the Republican State Central Committee, also
conducting the campaign two years later. He
identified himself with the Greeley movement in
1873, but, in 1876, was again in line with liis
party and restored to his old position on the State
Central Committee, serving until 1878. Among
business enterprises witli which he was con-
nected was the extension, about 1854, of the Biida
branch of tlie Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
Railroad from Yates City to Canton, and the
erection of the State Capitol at Austin, Tex.,
which was undertaken, in conjunction with
Abner Taylor and J. V. and C. B. Farwell, about
1881 and completed in 1888, for which the firm
received over 3,000,000 acres of State lands in the
"Pan Handle" portion of Texas. In 1889 Colonel
Babcock took up his residence in Chicago, which
continued to be his home until his death from
apoplexy, Feb. 35, 1899.

BABCOCK, Andrew J., soldier, was born at
Dorchester, Norfolk County, Mass., July 19, 1830;
began life as a coppersmith at Lowell; in 1851
went to Concord, N. H. , and, in 1856, removed to
Springfield, 111. , where, in 1859, lie joined a mili-
tary company called the Springfield Greys, com-
manded by Capt. (afterwards Gen. ) John Cook, of
which he was First Lieutenant. This company
became the nucleus of Company I, Seventh Illi-
nois Volunteers, which enlisted on Mr. Lincoln's
first call for troops in April, 1861. Captain Cook
having been elected Colonel, Babcock succeeded
him as Captain, on the re-enlistment of the regi-
ment in July following becoming Lieutenant-
Colonel, and, in March, 1863. being promoted to
the Colonelcy "for gallant and meritorious service
rendered at Fort Donelson." A year later he was
compelled to resign on account of impaired
liealth. His home is at Springfield.

BACON, George E., lawyer and legislator, born
at Madison, Ind. , Feb. 4, 1851 ; was brought to
Illinois by his parents at three years of age, and,
in 1876, located at Paris, Edgar County; in 1879
was admitted to the bar and held various minor
offices, including one term as State's Attorney.
In 1886 he was elected as a Republican to the
State Senate and re-elected four years later, but
finally removed to Aurora, where he died, July
6, 1896. Mr. Bacon was a man of recognized
ability, as shown by the fact that, after the death
of Senator John A. Logan, he was selected by his
colleagues of the Senate to pronounce tlie eulogy
on the deceased statesman.



BAGBT, John C, jurist and Congressman, was
born at Glasgow, Ky., Jan. 34, 1819. After pas-
sing through the common schools of Barren
County, Ky., he studied civil engineering at
Bacon College, gi-aduating in 1840. Later he
read law and was admitted to the bar in 184.").
In 1846 he conmienced practice at Rushville, 111.,
confining himself exclusively to professional work .
until nominated and elected to Congress in 1874,
by the Democrats of the (old) Tenth District. In
1885 he was elected to the Circuit Bench for the
'Sixth Circuit. Died, April 4, 1896.

BAILEY, Joseph Mead, legislator and jurist,
was born at Middlebury, Wyoming County, N. Y.,
Jime 22, 1833, graduated from Rochester (N. Y. )
University in 1854, and was admitted to the
bar in that city in 1855. In August, 1856, he
removed to Freeport, 111., where he soon built up
a profitable practice. In 1866 he was elected a
Representative in the Twenty-fifth General
Assembly, being re-elected in 1868. Here he was
especially prominent in securing restrictive legis-
lation concerning railroads. In 1876 he was
chosen a Presidential Elector for his district on
the Republican ticket. In 1877 he was elected a
Judge of the Thirteenth judicial district, and
re-elected in 1879 and in 1885. In January,
1878, and again in June, 1879, he was assigned to
the bench of the Appellate Court, being presiding
Justice from June, 1879. to June, 1880, and from
June, 1881, to June, 1883. In 1879 he received
the degree of LL.D. from the Universities of
Rochester and Chicago. In 1888 he was elected
to the bench of the Supreme Court. Died in
office, Oct. 16, 1895.

BAILHACHE, John, pioneer journalist, was
bom in the Island of Jersey, May 8, 1787; after
gaining the rudiments of an education in his
mother tongue (the French), he acquired a knowl-
edge of English and some proficiency in Greek
and Latin in an academy near his paternal home,
when he spent five years as a printer's apprentice.
In 1810 he came to the United States, first locat-
ing at Cambridge, Ohio, but, in 1812, purchased a
half interest in "The Fredonian" at Chillicothe
(then the State Capital), soon after becoming sole
owner. In 1815 he purchased "The Scioto Ga-
zette" and consolidated the two papers under the
name of "The Scioto Gazette and Fredonian
Chronicle." Here he remained until 1828, mean-
time engaging temporarily in the banking busi-
ness, also serving one term in the Legislature
(1820), and being elected Associate Justice of the
Court of Common Pleas for Ross Coimty. In
1828 he removed to Columbus, assuming charge

of "The Ohio State Journal," served one term as
Mayor of the city, and for three consecutive
years was State Printer. Selling out "The Jour-
nal" in 1836, he came west, the next year becom-
ing part owner, and finally sole proprietor, of "The
Telegraph" at Alton, 111., which he conducted
alone or in association with various partners until
1854, when he retired, giving his attention to the
book and job branch of the business. He served as
Representative from Madison County in the Thir-
teenth General Assembly (1843-44). As a man
and a journalist Judge Bailhache commanded the
highest respect, and did much to elevate the
standard of journalism in Illinois, "The Tele-
graph," during the period of his connection with
it, being one of the leading papers of the State.
His death occurred at Alton, Sept. 3, 1857, as the
result of injuries received the day previous, by
being thro^vn from a carriage in which he was
riding.— Maj. William Henry (Bailhache), son of
the preceding, was born at Chillicothe, Ohio,
August 14, 1836, removed with his father to Alton,
111., in 1836, was educated at Shurtleff College,
and learned the printing trade in the office of
"The Telegraph," under the direction of his
father, afterwards being associated with the
business department. In 1855, in partnership
with Edward L. Baker, he became one of the
proprietors and business manager of "The State
Journal" at Springfield. During the Civil War
he received from President Lincoln the appoint-
ment of Captain and Assistant Quartermaster,
serving to its close and receiving the brevet rank
of Major. After the war he returned to journal-
ism and was associated at different times with
"The State Journal" and "The Quincy Whig,"
as business manager of each, but retired in 1873 ;
in 1881 was appointed by President Arthur,
Receiver of Public Moneys at Santa Fe., N. M.,
remaining four j'ears. He is now (1899) a resi-
dent of San Diego, Cal., where he has been
engaged in newspaper work, and, under the
administration of President McKinley, has been
a Special Agent of the Treasury Department. —
Preston Heath (Bailhache), another son, was
born in Columbus, Ohio, Feb. 31, 1835, served as
a Surgeon during the Civil War, later became a
Surgeon in the regular army and has held posi-
tions in marine hospitals at Baltimore, Washing-
ton and New York, and has visited Europe in the
interest of sanitary and hospital service. At
present (1899) he occupies a prominent position
at the headquarters of the United States Marine
Hospital Service in Washington. — Arthur Lee
(Bailhache), a third son, born at Alton, IlL, April


13, 1839 ; at the beginning of the Civil War was
employed in the State commissary service at
Camp Yates and Cairo, became Adjutant of the
Thirty-eighth Illinois Volunteers, and died at
Pilot Knob, Mo., Jan. 9. 1862, as the result of
disease and exposure in the service.

BAKER, David Jewett, lav^-yer and United
States Senator, was born at East Haddam, Conn. ,
Sept. 7, 1793. His family removed to New York
in 1800, where he worked on a farm during boy-
hood, but graduated from Hamilton College in
1816, and three years later was admitted to the
bar. In 1819 he came to Illinois and began prac-
tice at Kaskaskia, where he attained prominence
in his profession and was made Probate Judge of
Randolph County. His opposition to the intro-
duction of slavery into the State was so aggres-
sive that his life was frequently threatened. In
1830 Governor Edwards appointed him United
States Senator, to fill the unexpired term of
Senator McLean, but he served only one month
when he was succeeded by John M. Robinson,
who was elected by the Legislature. He was
United States District Attorney from 1833
to 1841 (the State then constituting but
one district), and thereafter resumed private
practice. Died at Alton, August 6, 1869.
—Henry Southard (Baker), son of the pre-
ceding, was born at Kaskaskia, 111., Nov. 10,
1824, received his preparatory education at Shurt-
leff College, Upper Alton, and, in 1843, entered
Brown University, R. I., graduating therefrom
in 1847; was admitted to the bar in 1849, begin-
ning practice at Alton, the home of his father,
Hon. David J. Baker. In 1854 he was elected as an
Anti-Nebraska candidate to the lower branch of
the Nineteenth General Assembly, and, at the
subsequent session of the General Assembly, was
one of the five Anti-Nebraska members whose
uncompromising fidelity to Hon. Lyman Trum-
bull resulted in the election of the latter to the
United States Senate for the first time — the others
being his colleague. Dr. George T. Allen of the
House, and Hon. John M. Pahner, afterwards
United States Senator, Burton C. Cook and Nor-
man B, Judd in the Senate. He served as one of the
Secretaries of the Republican State Convention
held at Bloomington in May, 18.'56, was a Repub-
lican Presidential Elector in 1864, and, in 1865,
became Judge of the Alton City Court, serving
until 1881. In 1876 he presided over the Repub-
lican State Convention, served as delegate to the
Republican National Convention of the same
year and was an unsuccessful candidate for
Congress in opposition to William R. Morrison.

Judge Baker was the orator selected to deliver
the address on occasion of the unveiling of the
statue of Lieut. -Gov. Pierre Menard, on the
capitol grounds at Springfield, in January, 1888.
About 1888 he retired from practice, dying at
Alton, March 5, 1897. — Edward L. (Baker),
second son of David Jewett Baker, was born at
Kaskaskia, 111., Jime 3, 1839; graduated at Shurt-
lefif College in 1847; read law with his father two
years, after which he entered Harvard Law
School and was admitted to the bar at Spring-
field in 1855. Previous to this date Mr. Baker had
become associated with William H. Bailhache, in
the management of "The Alton Daily Telegraph,"
and, in July, 1855, they purchased "The Illinois
State Journal," at Springfield, of which Mr.
Baker assumed the editorship, remaining until
1874. In 1869 he was appointed United States
Assessor for the Eighth District, serving until
the abolition of the office. In 1873 he received
the appointment from President Grant of Consul
to Buenos Ayres, South America, and, assuming
the duties of the office in 1874, remained there
for twenty-three years, proving himself one of
the most capable and efficient officers in the con-
sular service. On the evening of the 20th of
June, 1897, when Mr. Baker was about to enter a
railway train already in motion at the station in
the city of Buenos Ayres. he fell vmder the cars,
receiving injuries which necessitated the ampu-
tation of his right arm, finally resulting in his
death in the hospital at Buenos Ayres, July 8,
following. His remains were brought home at
the Government expense and interred in Oak
Ridge Cemetery, at Springfield, where a monu-
ment has since been erected in his honor, bearing
a tablet contributed by citizens of Buenos Ayres
and foreign representatives in that city express-
ive of their respect for liis memory. — David
Jewett (Baker), Jr., a third son of David Jowett
Baker, Sr., was born at Kaskaskia, Nov. 30,1834;
graduated from Shurtleff College in 1854, and was
admitted to the bar in 1856. In November of
that year he removed to Cairo and began prac-
tice. He -was Mayor of that city in 1864-65, and,
in 1869, was elected to the bench of the Nineteenth
Judicial Circuit. The Legislature of 1873 (by Act
of March 28) having divided the State into
twenty-six circuits, he was elected Judge of the
Twenty-sixth, on June 2, 1873. In August, 1878,
he resigned to accept an appointment on the
Supreme Bench as successor to Judge Breese,
deceased, but at the close of his term on the
Supreme Bench (1879), was re-elected Circuit
Judge, and again in 1885. During this period he



served for several years on the Appellate Bench.
In 1888 he retired from the Circuit Bench by
resignation and was elected a Justice of the
Supreme Com-t for a term of nine years. Again,
in 1897, he was a candidate for re-election, but
was defeated by Carroll C. Hoggs. Soon after
retiring from the Supreme Bench he removed to
Chicago and engaged in general practice, in
partnership with his son, John W. Baker. He
fell dead almost instantly in his office. March 13.
1899. In all. Judge Baker had spent some thirty
years almost continuously on the bench, and had
attained eminent distinction both as a lawyer and
a jurist.

BAKER, Edward Dickinson, soldier and
United States Senator, was born in London,
Eng., Feb. 24. 1811; emigrated to Illinois while
yet in his minority, first locating at Belleville,
afterwards removing to Carrollton and finally to
Sangamon County, the last of which he repre-
sented in the lower house of the Tenth General
Assembly, and as State Senator in the Twelfth
and Thirteenth. He was elected to Congi-ess as
a Whig from the Springfield District, but resigned
in December, 1846. to accept the colonelcy of the
Fourth Regiment, IlUnois Volunteers, in the
Mexican War, and succeeded General Shields in
command of the brigade, when the latter was
wounded at Cerro Gordo. In 1848 he was elected
to Congress from the Galena District; was also
identified with the construction of the Panama
Railroad; went to San Francisco in 18.53, but
later removed to Oregon, where he was elected
to the United States Senate in 1860. In 1861 he
resigned the Senatorship to enter the Union
army, commanding a brigade at the battle of
Ball's Bluff, where he was killed, October 31, 1861.
BAKEK, Jeliu, lawyer and Congressman, was
born in Fayette County, Ky., Nov. 4, 1822. At
an early age he removed to Illinois, making his
home in Belleville, St. Clair County. He re-
ceived his early education in the common schools
and at McKendree College. Although he did
not graduate from the latter institution, he
received therefrom the honorary degree of A. M.
in 18.58, and that of LL. D. in 1882. For a time
he studied medicine, but abandoned it for the
study of law. From 1861 to 18G5 he was JIaster
in Chancery for St. Clair County. From 186.5 to
1869 he represented the Belleville District as a
Republican in Congress. From 1876 to 1881 and
from 1882 to 1885 he was Minister Resident in
Venezuela, during the latter portion of his term
of service acting also as Consul-General. Return-
ing home, he was again elected to Congi-ess (1886)

from the Eighteenth District, but was defeated
for re-election, in 1888, by William S. Forman,
Democrat. Again, in 1896, having identified
liimself with the Free Silver Democracy and
People's Party, he was elected to Congress from
the Twentieth District over Everett J. Murphy,
the Republican nominee, serving until March 3,
1899. He is the author of an annotated edition
of Montesquieu's "Grandeur and Decadence of
the Romans."

BALDWIN, Elmer, agriculturist and legisla-
tor, was born in Litchfield County, Conn., March
8, 1806 ; at 16 years of age began teaching a coun-
try school, continuing this occupation for several
years during the winter months, while working
on his father's farm in the summer. He then
started a store at New Milford, which he man-
aged for three years, when he sold out on account
of his health and began farming. In 1833 he
came west and purchased a considerable tract of
Government land in La Salle County, where the
village of Farm Ridge is now situated, removing
thither with his family the following year. He
served as Justice of the Peace for fourteen con-
secutive terms, as Postmaster twenty years and
as a member of the Board of Supervisors of La
Salle County six years. In 18.56 he was elected
as a Republican to the House of Representatives,
was re-elected to the same office in 1866, and to
the State Senate in 1873, serving two years. He
was also appointed, in 1869, a member of the first
Board of Public Charities, serving as President of
the Board. Mr. Baldwin is author of a "His-
tory of La Salle County," which contains much
local and biographical history. Died, Nov. 18,

BALDWIN, Tlieron, clergyman and educa-
tor, was born in Goshen, Conn., July 21, 1801;
graduated at Yale College in 1827; after two
years' study in the theological school there, was
ordained a home missionary in 1839, becoming
one of the celebrated "Yale College Band," or
"Western College Society," of which he was Cor-
responding Secretary during most of his life. He
was settled as a Congregationalist minister at
Vandalia for two years, and was active in pro-
curing the charter of Illinois College at Jackson-
ville, of which he was a Trustee from its
organization to his death. He served for a
number of years, from 1831, as Agent of the
Home Missionary Society for Illinois, and. in
1838, became the first Principal of Monticello
Female Seminary, near Alton, which he con-
ducted five years. Died at Orange, N. J., April
10, 1870.



BALLARD, Addison, merchant, was born of
Quaker parentage in Warren County, Ohio, No-
vember, 1822. He located at La Porte, Ind.,
about 1841, where he learned and pursued the
carpenter's trade; in 1849 went to California,
remaining two years, when he retui-ned to La
Porte ; in 1853 removed to Chicago and embarked
in the limiber trade, which he prosecuted until
1887, retiring with a competency. Mr. Ballard
served several years as one of the Commissioners
of Cook County, and, from 1876 to 1882, as Alder-
man of the City of Chicago, and again in the
latter office, 1894-96.

BALTES, Peter Joseph, Roman Catholic Bishop
of Alton, was born at Eusheim, Rhenish Ba-
varia, April 7, 1837 ; was educated at the colleges
of the Holy Cross, at Worcester, Mass., and of St.
Ignatius, at Chicago, and at Lavalle University,
Montreal, and was ordained a priest in 1853, and
consecrated Bishop in 1870. His diocesan admin-
istration was successful, but regarded by liis
priests as somewhat arbitrary. He wrote numer-
ous pastoral letters and brochures for the guidance
of clergy and laity. His most important literary
work was entitled "Pastoral Instruction," first
edition, N. Y., 1875; second edition (revised and
enlarged), 1880. Died at Alton, Feb. 15, 1886.

RAILWAY. This road (constituting a part of the
Baltimore & Ohio system) is made up of two
principal divisions, the first extending across the
State from East St. Louis to Belpre, Ohio, and the
second (known as tlie Springfield Division) extend-
ing from Beardstown to Shawneetown. The total
mileage of the former (or main line) is 537
miles, of which 147 j^ are in Illinois, and of the
latter (wholly within Illinois) 328 miles. The
main line (originally kno^vn as the Ohio & Mis-
sissippi Railway) was chartered in Indiana in
1848, in Ohio in 1849, and in Illinois in 1851. It
was conistructed by two companies, the section
from Cincinnati to the Indiana and Illinois State
line being known as the Eastern Division, and
that in Illinois as the Western Division, the
gauge, as originally built, being six feet, but
reduced in 1871 to standard. Tlie banking firm
of Page & Bacon, of St. Louis and San Francisco,
were the principal financial backers of tlie enter-
prise. The line was completed and opened for
traffic. May 1, 1857. The following year tlie road
became financially embarrassed ; the Eastern Di-
vision was placed in the liands of a receiver in
1860, while the Western Division was sold under
foreclosure, in 1863, and reorganized as the Ohio
& Mississippi Railway under act of the Illinois

Legislature passed in February, 1861. The East-
ern Division was sold in January, 1867 ; and, in

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