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Ninian Edwards appointed Governor,

255, admitted as a State. 258
Illinois & Michigan Canal, 261.
Illinois Central Railroad, 267-68.
'Illinois Countrj-," boundaries defined by

Captain Plttman, 241: Patrick Hem:y,

first American Governor, 252.
Illinois County organized by Virginia

House of Delegates, 252.
Illinois Territory organized; first Territo-

■ial officers, 255.
(iiaiia Territory organized. 2
orial Legislature elected. :

firs I

Internal improvement echeme, 263.

Joliet, Louis, accompanied by Marquette,
visits Illinois in 1673, 245.

Kane, Elias Kent. 258.

Kansas-Nebraska contest, 268,

Kaskaskia Indians remove from Upper
Illinois to mouth of Kaskaskia, 248.

Kenton, Simon, guide for Clark's expedi-
tion against Kaskaskia, 2j1.

Labor disturbances. 270, 280, 283.

La Fayette, visit of, to Kaskaskia, 261,

La Salle, expedition to Illinois in 1679-80,
245; builds Port Miami, near mouth of
St. Joseph: disaster of Fort Creve-Coeur;

(jeneral Assembly, 2'»3; elected to
gress, 266; unsuccessful candidal*
the United States Senate
Bloomington Convention of 1856;
'• House-divided-agalnst-itself" speech,
269; elected President, 270: departure for
Washington, '271: elected for a second
term, 273; assassination and fuueral,274.

Lincoln-Douglas debates. 270.

Lockwood, Samuel D.. Attorney-General:
Secretary of State: opponent of pro-

nvention scheme. '.

oldier,'272: Congressn


publican nominee for Vice-President;

third election as Senator, 278
Louisiana united with Illinois. 254.
Lovejoy, Elijah P., murdered at Alton, 263,
.Macalister and Stebbins bonds. 270.
Marquette. Fatiier Jacquas

Will II

, U. S, :

■ Kaskaskia

Menard, Pierre, K5: President of Terri-
. torial Council, 257: elected Lieuteuant-

Governor, 258; anecdote of, 259.
Mexicau War, 265.

Morgan, Col. George, Indii

kaskia in 1776, '251.
Mormon War, 264-65.
New Design Settlement, 2

first Territorial Legislature; separated
Into Territories of Ohio and Indiana. 254.

Oglesby, Richard J., soldier in Civil War,
271; elected Governor, 274: second elec-
tion; chosen U. 8. Senator, 276; third
election to governorship, 278.

Ordinance of 1787,253,

" Paincourt " (early name for St Louis)
settled by French from Illinois, 251.

Palmer, John M., member of Peace Con-
ference of 1861, 271; elected Governor;
prominent events of his administration.
'.;76; unsuccessful Democratic candidate
for Governor; elected U. S. Senator. 271

I for


Peace Conference of 1861,271,
Peace conventions of 186:1,2
Perrot, Nicholas, explorer, ;
Plttman, Capt. Philip, deflii


Pope, Nathaniel, Secretary of Illinois Ter-
ritory, -255: Delegate in Congress: s
Ice In fixing northern boundary, 258.

Prairies, origin of, 243.

Randolph County organized, 254.

Renault, Philip F., first importer of A

1 lUii


to take seat i

Illinois House of Representatives. 268.
Richardson, William A., candidate for

Governor, 270: U.S. Senator, 272.
Rocheblave, Chevalier de, last British

1, 263 ; elected U, S. Seii-
e-election, 269.
Southern Hospital for Insane burned, 280.
Spanigli-.\merican War, 281.
Springfield, third State capital, 263: erec-

L Governor of North-

St. Clair County organized, 254,
state debt reaches Its maximum. 268.
State Fair permanently located, 281.

elected Governor, 281-2.
Thomas. Jesse B.. 255; President of Con-
stitiiticinal fnnvpntion of 1818, 258:
elefiH.l riiiteil .Stales Senator, 259,

of Illi-

■i-retary of State. 264:

.tes Senator, 269-70;

"or "Governor. 277.

■andalia. the second State capital, •i59.

k'ar of 1812,256; expeditions to Peoria

i'ar of the Rebellion: some prominent
Illinois actors: number of troops fur-
nished by Illinois: Important battles par-

Warren, Hooper, editor Edwardsville

Spectator. 260.
Wayne. Gen Anthony.254.
Whig mass-meeting at Springfield, 264.
Wllmot Proviso, action of Hliuoli Legisla-

; elected United States


ILES, Elijah, pioneer merchant, was born in
Kentucky, Marcli 28, 1796; received the rudiments
of an education in two winters' schooling, and
began his business career by purchasing 100 head
of yearling cattle upon which, after herding
them three years in the valleys of Eastern Ken-
tucky, he realized a profit of nearly 83,000. In
1818 he went to St. Louis, then a French village
of 2,500 inhabitants, and, after spending three
years as clerk in a frontier store at "Old Frank-
lin," on the Missouri River, nearly opposite the
present town of Boonville, in 1821 made a horse-
back tour through Central Illinois, finally locating
at Springfield, which had just been selected by
a board of Commissioners as the temporary
county -seat of Sangamon County. Here he soon
brought a stock of goods by keel-boat from St.
Louis and opened the first store in the new town.
Two years later (1823), in conjunction with
Pascal P. Enos, Daniel P. Cook and Thomas Cox,
he entered a section of land comprised within the
present area of the city of Springfield, which
later became the permanent county-seat and
finally the State capital. Mr. lies became tlie
first postmaster of Springfield, and, in 1826, was
elected State Senator, served as Major in the
Winnebago War (1827), enlisted as a private in
the Black Hawk War (1831-32), but was soon
advanced to the rank of Captain. In 1830 he
sold his store to John Williams, who had been
his clerk, and, in 1838-39, built the "American
House, ' ' which afterwards became the temporary
stopping-place of many of Illinois' most famous
statesmen. He invested largely in valuable
farming lands, and, at his death, left a large
estate. Died, Sept. 4, 1883.

SANE, an institution founded under an act of the
General Assembly, passed at the session of 189.5,
making an appropriation of §65,000 for the pur-
chase of a site and the erection of buildings with
capacity for the accommodation of 200 patients.
The institution was located by the Trustees at
Bartonville, a suburb of the city of Peoria, and
the erection of buildings begun in 1896. Later
these were found to be located on ground which
had been undermined in excavating for coal, and
their removal to a different location was under-
taken in 1898. The institution is intended to
relieve the other hospitals for the Insane by the
reception of patients deemed incm-able.

way connecting Lake Michigan with the Illinois
River, and forming a connecting link in the
water-route between the St. Lawrence and the

Gulf of Mexico. Its summit level is about 580
feet above tide water. Its point of beginning is
at the South Branch of the Chicago River, about
five miles from the lake. Thence it flows some
eight miles to tlie valley of the Des Plaines, fol-
lowing the valley to the mouth of the Kankakee
(forty-two miles), thence to its southwestern
terminus at La Salle, the head of navigation on
the Illinois. Between these points the canal has
four feeders — the Calumet, Des Plaines, Du Page
and Kankakee. It passes through Lockport,
Joliet, Morris, and Ottawa, receiving accessions
from the waters of the Fox River at the latter
point. The canal proper is 96 miles long, and it
lias five feeders whose aggregate length is
twenty-five miles, forty feet wide and four feet
deep, with four aqueducts and seven dams. Tlie
difference in level between Lake Michigan and
the Illinois River at La Salle is one hundred and
forty-five feet. To permit the ascent of vessels,
there are seventeen locks, ranging from three
and one half to twelve and one-half feet in lift,
their dimensions being 110x18 feet, and admitting
the passage of boats carrying 150 tons. At Lock-
port, Joliet, Du Page, Ottawa and La Salle are
large basins, three of which supply power to fac-
tories. To increase the water supply, rendered
necessary by the high summit level, pumping
works were erected at Bridgeport, having two
thirty-eight foot independent wheels, each capa-
ble of delivering (through buckets of ten feet
length or width) 15,000 cubic feet of water per
minute. These pumping works were erected in
1848, at a cost of §15,000, and were in almost con-
tinuous use until 1870. It was soon found that
these machines might be utilized for the benefit
of Chicago, by forcing the sewage of the Chicago
River to the siunmit level of the canal, and allow-
ing its place to be filled by pure water from the
lake. This pumping, however, cost a large sum,
and to obviate this expense §2,955,340 was ex-
pended by Chicago in deepening the canal be-
tween 1865 and 1871, so that the sewage of the
south division of the city might be carried through
the canal to the Des Plaines. This sum was
returned to the City by the State after the great
fire of 1871. (As to further measures for carry-
ing off Chicago sewage, see Chicago Drainage

In connection with the canal three locks and
dams have been built on the Illinois River, — one
at Henry, about twenty-eight miles below La
Salle ; one at the mouth of Copperas Creek, about
sixty miles below Henry; and another at La
Grange. The object of these works (the first



two beiug practically au extension of the canal)
is to furnish slack-water navigation through-
out the year. The cost of that at Henry (S400, 000)
was defrayed by direct appropriation from the
State treasury. Copperas Creek dam cost §410,831,
of which amount the United States Government
paid $62,360. The General Government also con-
structed a dam at La Grange and appropriated
funds for the building of another at Kampsville
Landing, with a view to making the river thor-
ouglily navigable the year round. The beneficial
results expected from these works have not been
realized and their demolition is advocated.

History. — The early missionaries and fur-
traders first directed attention to the nearness of
the waters of Lake Michigan and the Illinois.
The project of the construction of a canal was
made the subject of a report by Albert Gallatin,
Secretary of the Treasury in 1808. and, in 1811, a
bill on the subject was introduced in Congress in
connection with the Erie and other canal enter-
prises. In 1823 Congress granted the right of
way across the public lands "for the route of a
canal connecting the Illinois River with the
south bend of Lake Michigan," which was fol-
lowed five years later by a grant of 300,000 acres
of land to aid in its construction, which was to
be undertaken by the State of Illinois. The
earliest surveys contemplated a channel 100 miles
long, and the original estimates of cost varied
between §639,000 and §716,000. Later surveys
and estimates (1833) placed the cost of a canal
forty feet wide and four feet deep at §4,040,000.
In 1836 another Board of Commissioners was
created and surveys were made looking to the
construction of a waterway sixty feet wide at the
surface, thirty-six feet at bottom, and six feet in
depth. Work was begun in June of that year ;
was suspended in 1841 ; and renewed in 1840,
when a canal loan of §1,000,000 was negotiated.
The channel was opened for navigation in April,
1848, by which time the total outlay had reached
§6,170,226. By 1871, Illinois had liquidated its
entire indebtedness on account of the canal and
the latter reverted to the State. The total cost
up to 1879 — including amount refunded to Chi-
cago — was §9,513,831, while the sum returned to
the State from earnings, sale of canal lands, etc.,
amounted to §8,819,731. In 1883 an oflfer was
made to cede the canal to the United States upon
condition that it should be enlarged and ex-
tended to the Mississippi, was repeated in 1887,
but has been declined.

ally known as "Hennepin Canal"), a projected

navigable water-way in course of construction
(1899) by the General (iovernment, designed to
connect the Upper Illinois with the Mississippi
River. Its object is to furnish a continuous
navigable water-channel from Lake Michigan, at
or near Chicago, by way of the Illinois & Michi-
gan Canal (or the Sanitary Drainage Canal) and
the Illinois River, to the Mississippi at the mouth
of Rock River, and finally to the Gulf of Mexico.

The Route. — The canal, at its eastern end,
leaves the Illinois River one and three-fourths
miles above the city of Hennepin, where the
river makes the great bend to the south. Ascend-
ing the Bureau Creek valley, the route passes
over the dividing ridge between the Illinois River
and the Mississippi to Rock River at the mouth
of Green River; thence by slack-water down
Rock River, and around the lower rapids in that
stream at Milan, to the Mississippi. The esti-
mated length of the main channel between its
eastern and western termini is seventy-five miles
— the distance having been reduced by changes
in the route after the first survey. To this is to
be added a "feeder" extending from the vicinity
of Sheffield, on the summit-level (twenty-eight
miles west of the starting point on the Illinois),
north to Rock Falls on Rock River opposite the
city of Sterling in Whiteside County, for the
purpose of obtaining an adequate supply of water
for the main canal on its highest level. The
length of this feeder is twenty-nine miles and, as
its dimensions are the same as those of the main
channel, it will be navigable for vessels of the
.same class as the latter. A dam to be constructed
at Sterling, to turn water into the feeder, will
furnish slack-water navigation on Rock River to
Dixon, practically lengthening the entire route
to that extent.

History. — The subject of such a work began to
be actively agitated as early as 1871, and, under
authoritj' of various acts of Congress, preliminary
surveys began to be made by Government engi-
neers that year. In 1890 detailed plans and esti-
mates, based upon these preliminary surveys,
were submitted to Congress in accordance with
the river and harbor act of August, 1888. This
report became the basis of an appropriation in
the river and harbor act of Sept. 19, 1890, for
carrying the work into practical execution.
Actual work was begun on the western end of the
canal in July, 1892, and at the eastern end in the
spring of 1894. Since then it has been prosecute

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 60 of 207)