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1855— the entire road (705.5 miles) being com-
pleted, Sept. 27, 1856.— (Financial Statement.)
The share capital of the road was originally
fixed at §17,000,000, but previous to 1869 it had
been increased to $25,500,000, and during 1873-74
to §29,000,000. The present capitalization (1898)
is $163,352,593, of which .$52,500,000 is in stock,
$52,680,925 in bonds, and $51,367,000 in miscel-
laneous obligations. The total cost of the road.



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



in Illinois, as shown by a report made in 1889, was
135,110,609. By the terms of its charter the
corporation is exempt from taxation, but in lieu
thereof is required to pay into the State treasury,
semi-annually, seven per cent upon the gross
earnings of the line in Illinois. The sum thus
paid into the State treasury from Oct. 31, 18.55,
when the first payment of $29,751.59 was made,
up to and including Oct. 31, 1898, aggregated
$17,315,193.24. The last payment (October, 1898),
amounted to $334,527.01. The largest payment
in the history of the road was that of October,
1893, amounting, for the preceding six months, to
$450,176 34. The net income of the main Une in
Illinois, for the year ending June 30, 1898, was
$12,299,021, and the total expenditures within the
State $12,831,161.— (Leased Lines.) The first
addition to the Illinois Central System was made
in 1867 in the acquisition, by lease, of the Dubuque
& Sioux City Railroad, extending from Dubuque
to Sioux Falls, Iowa. Since then it has extended
its Iowa connections, by the construction of new
lines and the acquisition or extension of others.
The most important addition to the line outside
of the State of Illinois was an arrangement
effected, in 1872, with the New Orleans, Jackson &
Great Northern, and the Mississippi Central Rail-
roads — with which it previously had traffic con-
nections — giving it control of a line from Jackson,
Tenn., to New Orleans, La. At first, connection
was had between the Illinois Central at Cairo and
the Southern Divisions of the system, by means
of transfer steamers, but subsequently the gap
was filled in and tlie through line opened to traffic
in December, 1873. In 1874 the New Orleans.
Jackson & Great Northern and the Mississippi
Central roads were consolidated under the title
of the New Orleans, St. Louis & Chicago Railroad,
but the new corporation defaulted on its interest
in 1876. The Illinois Central, which was the
owner of a majority of the bonds of the constitu-
ent lines which went to malce up the New Orleans,
St Louis & Chicago Railroad, then acquired
ownership of the whole line by foreclosure pro-
ceedings in 1877, and it was reorganized, on Jan.
1, 1878, under the name of the Chicago, St. Louis
& New Orleans Railroad, and placed in charge of
one of the Vice-Presidents of the Illinois Central
Company. — (Illinois Branches.) The more im-
portant branches of the Illinois Central within the
State include : (1) The Springfield Division from
Chicago to Springfield (111.47 miles), chartered
in 1867, and opened in 1871 as the Gilman, Clinton
& Springfield Railroad ; passed into the hands of
a receiver in 1873, sold under foreclosure in 1876,



and leased, in 1878, for fifty years, to the Illinois
Central Railroad : (2) The Rantoul Division from
Leroy to the Indiana State line (66.21 miles in
Illinois), cliartered in 1876 as the Havana, Ran-
toul & Eastern Railroad, built as a narrow-gauge
line and operated in 1881 ; afterwards changed to
standard-gauge, and controlled by the Wabash,
St. Louis & Pacific until May, 1884, when it passed
into the hands of a receiver ; in December of the
same year taken in charge by the bondholders ; in
1885 again placed in the hands of a receiver, and,
in October, 1886, sold to the Illiuois Central; (3)
The Chicago, Havana & Western Railroad, from
Havana to Champaign, with a branch from White-
heath to Decatur (total, 131.62 miles), constructed
as the western extension of the Indianapolis,
Bloomington & Western, and opened in 1873 ; sold
under foreclosure in 1879 and organized as the
Champaign, Havana & Western: in 1880 pur-
chased by the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific ; in
1884 taken possession of bj" the mortgage trustees
and, in September, 1886, sold under foreclosure to
the Illinois Central Railroad: (4) The Freeport
Division, from Chicago by way of Freeport to
Madison, Wis. (140 miles in Illinois), constructed
under a charter granted to the Chicago, Madison
& Northern Railroad (which see), opened for
traffic in 1888, and transferred to the Illinois
Central Railroad Company in January, 1889: (5)
The Kankakee & Southwestern (131.26 miles),
constructed from Kankakee to Bloomington
under tlie charters of the Kankakee & Western
and the Kankakee & Southwestern Railroads;
acquired by the Illinois Central in 1878, begim in
1880, and extended to Bloomington in 1883; and
(6) The St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute (which
see under its old name). Other Illinois branch
lines of less importance embrace the Blue Island ;
the Chicago & Texas ; the Mound City ; the South
Chicago; the St. Louis, Belleville & Southern,
and the St. Charles Air-Line, which furnishes
an entrance to the City of Chicago over an ele-
vated track. The total length of these Illinois
branches in 1898 was 919.72 miles, with the main
lines making the total mileage of tlie company
within the State 1 , 624. 22 miles. For several years
up to 1895 the Illinois Central had a connection
with St. Louis over tlie line of the Terre Haute &
Indianapolis from Effingham, but this is now
secured by way of the Springfield Division and
the main line to Pana, whence its trains pass over
the old Indianapolis & St. Louis — now the Cleve-
land, Cinciunati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway.
Between June 30, 1897 and April 30, 1898, branch
lines in the Southern States (chiefly in Kentucky



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OP ILLINOIS.



291



and Tennessee), to the extent of 670 miles, were
added to the Illinois Central System. The Cairo
Bridge, constructed across the Ohio River near
its mouth, at a cost of .'$3,000,000, for the purpose of
connecting the Northern and Southern Divisions
of the Illinois Central System, and one of the
most stupendous structures of its kind in the
world, belongs wholly to the Illinois Central
Railroad Company. (See Cairo Bridgi.)

ILLINOIS College, an institution of learn-
ing at Jacksonville, 111., which was the first to
graduate a collegiate class in the history of the
State. It had its origin in a movement inaugu-
rated about 1827 or 1828 to secure the location, at
some point in Illinois, of a seminar}' or college
which would give the youth of the State the
opportunity of ac(iuiring a higher education.
Some of the most influential factors in this move-
ment were already citizens of Jacksonville, or
contemplated becoming such. In January, 1828,
the outline of a plan for such an institution was
drawn up by Rev. John M. Ellis, a home missionary
of the Presbyterian Church, and Hon. Samuel D.
Lockwood. then a Justice of the Supreme Court
of the State, as a basis for soliciting subscriptions
for the organization of a stock-company to carry
the enterprise into execution. The plan, as then
proposed, contemplated provision for a depart-
ment of female education, at least until a separate
institution could be furnished — which, if not a
forerunner of the co-educational system now .so
much in vogue, at least foreshadowed the estab-
lishment of the Jacksonville Female Seminary,
which soon followed the founding of the college.
A few months after these preliminary steps were
taken. Mr. Ellis was brought into communication
with a group of young men at Yale College (see
"Illinois Band") who had entered into a com-
pact to devote their lives to the cause of educa-
tional and missionary work in the West, and out
of the union of these two forces, soon afterwards
effected, grew Illinois College. The organization
of the "Illinois" or "Yale Band," was formally
consummated in February, 1829, and before the
close of the year a fund of .$10,000 for the purpose
of laying the foundation of the proposed institu-
tion in Illinois had been pledged by friends of
education in the East, a beginning had been made
in the erection of buildings on the present site of
Illinois College at Jacksonville, and. in Decem-
ber of the same year, the work of instruction of
a preparatory class had been begun by Rev. Julian
M. Sturtevant, who had taken the place of "avant-
courier" of the movement. A year later (1831)
Rev. Edward Beecher, the oldest son of the inde-



fatigable Lyman Beecher, and brother of Henry
Ward — already then well known as a leader in
the ranks of those opposed to slavery — had be-
come identifled with the new enterprise and
assumed the position of its first President. Such
was the prejudice against "Yankees" in Illinois
at that time, and the jealousy of theological influ-
ence in education, that it was not until 183.5 that
the friends of tlie institution were able to secure
a charter from the Legislature. An ineffectual
attempt had been made in 1830, and when it was
finally granted, it was in the form of an "omni-
bus bill" including three other institutions, but
with restrictions as to the amount of real estate
that might be held, and prohibiting the organiza-
tion of theological departments, both of which
were subsequently repealed. (See Early Col-
leges.) The same year the college graduated its
first class, consisting of two members — Richard
Yates, afterwards War Coveruor and United
States Senator, and Rev. Jonathan Spillman, the
composer of ' 'Sweet Afton. ' ' Limited as was this
first output of alumni, it was politically and
morally strong. In 1843 a medical department
was established, but it was abandoned five years
later for want of ailequate support. Dr. Beecher
retired from the Presidency in 1844, when he was
succeeded by Dr. Sturtevant, who continued in
that capacity until 1876 (thirty -two years), when
he became Professor Emeritus, remaining until
ISS.j — his connection with the institution cover-
ing a period of fifty-six years. Others who have
occupied the position of President include Rufus
C. Crampton (acting), 1876-82; Rev. Edward A.
Tanner, 1882-92; and Dr. John E. Bradley, the
incumbent from 1892 to 1899. Among the earli-
est and influential friends of the institution,
besides Judge Lockwood already mentioned, may
be enumerated such names as Gov. Joseph Dun-
can, Thomas Mather, Winthrop .S. Oilman,
Frederick Collins and William H. Brown (of
Chicago), all of whom were members of the early
Board of Trustees. It was found necessary to
maintain a preparatory department for many
years to fit pupils for the college classes proper,
and, in 1866, Whipple Academy was establislied
and provided with a separate building for this
purpose. The standard of admission to the col-
lege course has been gradually atlvanced, keeping
abreast, in this respect, of other American col-
leges. At present the institution has a faculty of
1.5 members and an endowment of some .S150,00n.
with a library (1898) numbering over 1.5,000 vol-
umes and property valued at S360.000. Degrcs
are conferred in both classical and scientific



293



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



courses in the college proper. The list of alumni
embraces some 750 names, including many who
have been prominent in State and National
affairs.

• ILLINOIS COUNTY, the name given to the
first civil organization of the territory northwest
of the Ohio River, after its conquest by Col. George
Rogers Clark in 1778. This was done by act of
the Virginia House of Delegates, passed in
October of the same year, which, among other
things, provided as follows: "Tlie citizens of the
commonwealth of Virginia, who are already set-
tled, or shall hereafter settle, on the western side of
the Ohio, shall be included in a distinct county
which shall be called Illinois County ; and the
Governor of this commonwealth, with the advice
of the Council, may appoint a County-Lieutenant
or Commandant-in-chief of the county during
pleasure, who shall take the oath of fidelity to
this commonwealth and the oath of office accord-
ing to the form of their own religion. And all
civil offices to which the inliabitants have been
accustomed, necessary for tlie preservation of the
peace and the administration of justice, shall be
chosen by a majority of the citizens of their re-
spectivei districts, to be convened for that purpose
by the County-Lieutenant or Commandant, or his
deputy, and shall be commissioned by said
County-Lieutenant." As the Commonwealth of
Virginia, by virtue of Colonel Clark's conquestj
then claimed jurisdiction over the entire region
west of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi,
Illinois County nominally embraced the territory
comprised within the limits of the present States
of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wiscon-
sin, though the settlements were limited to the
vicinity of Kaskaskia, Vincennes (in the present
State of Indiana) and Detroit. Col. John Todd,
of Kentucky, was appointed by (Jov. Patrick
Henry, the first Lieutenant-Commandant under
this act, holding office two years. Out of lOinois
County were subsequently organized the follow-
ing counties by "order" of Gov. Arthur St. Clair,
after his assumption of the duties of Governor,
following the passage, by Congress, of the Ordi-
nance of 1787, creating the Northwest Territory,
viz. :



iCahokia
Prairie du Kocher
Kaskaskia
Post St. Viucennea



April 27, 1790



Randolph

Washington, originally comprising the State of
Ohio, was reduced, on the organization of Hamil-
ton County, to the eastern portion, Hamilton



County embracing the west, with Cincinnati
(originally called "Losantiville," near old Fort
Wasliington) as the county-seat. St. Clair, the
third county organized out of this territory, at
first had virtually three county-seats, but divi-
sions and jealousies among the people and officials
in reference to the place of deposit for the records,
resulted in the issue, five years later, of an order
creating the new county of Randolph, the second
in the "Illinois Country" — these (St. Clair and
Randolph) constituting the two counties into
which it was divided at the date of organization
of Illinois Territory. Out of these events grew
the title of "Mother of Counties" given to Illinois
County as the original of all the counties in the
five States nortliwest of the Ohio, while St. Clair
Count}' inherited the title as to the State of
Illinois. (See Illinois: also St. Clair, Arthur,
and Todd, (Col) John.)

ILLINOIS FARMERS' RAILROAD. (See
Jackso7iville & St. Louis Bailway.)

ILLINOIS FEMALE COLLEGE, a flourishing
institution for the education of women, located
at Jacksonville and incorporated in 1847. Wliile
essentially unsectarian in teaching, it is con-
trolled by the Methodist Episcopal denomination.
Its first charter was granted to the "Illinois Con-
ference Female Academy" in 1847, but four years
later the charter was amended and the name
changed to the present cognomen. The cost of
building and meager support in early years
brought on bankruptcy. The friends of the insti-
tution rallied to its support, however, and the
purchasers at the foreclosure sale (all of whom
were friends of Methodist education) donated the
property to what was technically a new institu-
tion. A second charter was obtained from the
State in 1863, and the restrictions imposed upon
the grant were such as to prevent alienation of
title, by either conveyance or mortgage. While
.the college has only a small endowment fund
(S3,000) it owns §60,000 worth of real property,
besides $9,000 invested in apparatus and library.
Preparatory and collegiate departments are main-
tained, both classical and scientific courses being
established in the latter. Instruction is also
given in fine arts, elocution and music. The
faculty (1898) numbers 15, and there are about 170
students.

ILLINOIS FEMALE REFORM SCHOOL. (See
Home for Female Offenders.)

ILLINOIS INDIANS, a confederation belong-
ing to the Algonquin family and embracing five
tribes, viz. : the Cahokias, Kaskaskias, Mitcha-
gamies, Peorias and Tamaroas. They early occu-



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



203



pied Illinois, with adjacent portions of Iowa,"
Wisconsin and Missouri. Tlie name is derived
from IlUni, "man," the Indian plural "ek" being
changed by the French to "ois." They were
intensely warlike, being almost constantly in
conflict with the Winnebagoes, the Iroquois,
Sioux and other tribes. They were migratory
and depended for subsistence largely on the sum-
mer and winter hunts. They dwelt in rudely
constructed cabins, each accommodating about
eight families. They were always faithful allies
of the French, whom they heartily welcomed in
1673. French missionaries labored earnestly
among them — notably Fathers Marquette, AUouez
and Gravier — who reduced their language to
grammatical rules. Their most distinguished
Chief was Chicagou, who was sent to France,
where he vvas welcomed with the honors accorded
to a foreign prince. In their wars with the
Foxes, from 1712 to 1719, they suffered severely,
their numbers being reduced to 3,000 souls. Tlie
assassination of Pontiac by a Kaskaskian in 1765,
was avenged by the lake tribes in a Avar of ex-
termination. After taking part with the Miamis
in a war against the United States, they partici-
pated in the treaties of Greenville and Vincennes,
and were gradually removed farther and farther
toward the West, the small remnant of about 175
being at present (1896) on the Quapaw reservation
in Indian Territory. (See also Cahokiaa: Foxes:
Iroquois: Kaskaskias: Mitchagamies: Peorins:
Tamaroas: and Wiiuxebagoeif.)

ILLINOIS IXSTITITION FOR THE EDU-
CATION OF THE BLIND, located at Jackson-
ville. The institution had its inception in a school
for the blind, opened in that town in 1847, by
Samuel Bacon, who was himself blind. The
State Institution was created by act of the Legis-
lature, passed Jan. 13, 1849, which was introduced
by Richard Yates, then a Representative, and
was first opened in a rented house, early in 1850,
under the temporary supervision of Mr. Bacon.
Soon afterward twenty-two acres of ground were
purchased in the eastern part of the city and the
erection of permanent buildings commenced. By
January, 1854. they were ready for use, but fif-
teen years later were destroyed by fire. Work on
a new building was begun without unnecessary
delay and the same was completed by 1874.
Numerous additions of wings and shops have
since been made, and the institution, in its build-
ings and appointments, is now one of the most
complete in the country. Instruction (as far as
practicable) is given in rudimentary English
branches, and in such mechanical trades and



avocations as may best qualify the inmates to be-
come self-supporting upon tlieir return to active
life.

ILLINOIS MASONIC ORPHANS' HOME, an
institution established in the city of Chicago
under the auspices of the Masonic Fraternity of
Illinois, for the purpose of furnishing a home for
the destitute children of deceased members of the
Order. The total receipts of the institution, dur-
ing the year 1895, were $39,204.98, and the
expenditures, §27,358.70. The number of bene-
ficiaries in the Home, Dec. 31, 1895, was 61. The
Institution owns real estate valued at §75,000.

ILLINOIS MIDLAND RAILROAD. (See Terre
Haute & Peoria Railroad.)

ILLINOIS RIVER, tlie most important stream
within the State ; has a length of about 500 miles,
of which about 345 are navigable. It is formed
by the junction of the Kankakee and Des Plaines
Rivers at a point in Grundy County, some 45
miles southwest of Chicago. Its course is west,
then southwest, and finally south, until it
empties into the Mississippi about 30 miles north
of the mouth of the Missouri. The Illinois &
Michigan Canal connects its waters with Lake
Michigan. Marquette and Joliet ascended the
stream in 1673 and were probably its first white
visitants. Later (1679-83) it was explored by
La Salle, Tonty, Hennepin and others.

ILLINOIS RIVER RAILROAD. (See Chicago,
Peoria & St. Louis Railroad of Illinois.)

ILLINOIS SANITARY COMMISSION, a vol
untary organization formed pursuant to a sug-
gestion of Governor Yates, shortly after the
battle of Fort Donelson (1863). Its object was
the relief of soldiers in actual service, whether on
the marcli, in camp, or in hospitals. State Agents
were appointed for the distribution of relief, for
which purpose large sums were collected and dis-
tributed. The work of tlie Commission was later
formally recognized by the Legislature in the
enactment of a law authorizing the Governor to
appoint "Military State Agents," who should
receive compensation from the State treasurj-.
Many of these "agents" were selected from the
ranks of the workers in the Sanitarj' Commission,
and a great impetus was tliereby imparted to its
voluntary work. Auxiliary as,sociations were
formed all over the .State, and funds were readily
obtained. :i c-(]ii.-.iderable proportion of which was
derived from 'SHuitary Fairs."

ILLINOIS S( HOOL OF AGRICULTURE AND
MANUAL TRAINING FOR BOYS, an institution
for the training of dependent boys, organized
under the act of March 28, 1895, which was in



294



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



effect a re-enactment of tlie statute approved in
1883 and amended in 1885. Its legally defined
object is to provide a home and proper training
for such boys as may be committed to its charge.
Commitments are made by the County Courts of
Cook and contiguous counties. The school is
located at Gleuwood, in the county of Cook, and
was first opened for the reception of inmates in
1888. Its revenues are derived, in part, from
voluntary contributions, and in part from pay-
ments by the counties sending boys to the institu-
tion, which payments are fixed by law at ten
dollars per mouth for each boy, during the time
he is actually an inmate. In 1898 nearly one-half
of the entire income came from the former
source, but the surplus remaining in the treasury
at the end of any fiscal year is never large. The
school is under the inspectional control of the
State Commissioners of Public Charities, as
though it were an institution founded and main-
tained by the State. The educational curriculum
closely follows that of the ordinary grammar
schools, pupils being trained in eight grades, sub-
stantially along the lines established in the public
schools. In addition, a military drill is taught,
with a view to developing physical strength,
command of limbs, and a graceful, manly car-
riage. Since the Home was organized there have
been received (down to 1899), 2,333 boys. The
industrial training given tlie inmates is both
agricultural and mechanical, — the institution
owning a good, fairly-sized farm, and operating
well equipped industrial shops for the education
of pupils. A fair proportion of the boys devote
them.selves to learning trades, and not a
few develop into excellent workmen. One of the
purposes of the school is to secure homes for liiose
thought likely to prove creditable members of
respectable households. During the eleven years
of its existence nearly 2,200 boys have been placed
in homes, and usually with the most satisfactory
results. The legal safeguards thrown around
the ward are of a comprehensive and binding
sort, so far as regards tlie parties who take the
children for either adoption or apprenticeship—
the welfare of the ward always being the object
primarily aimed at. Adoption is preferred to
institutional life by the administration, and tlie
result usually justifies their judgment. Many of
the pupils are returned to their families or
friends, after a mild course of correctional treat-
ment. The system of government adopted is
analogous to that of the "cottage plan" employed
in many reformatory institutions throughout the
country. An "administration building" stands



in the center of a group of structures, each of
which has its own individual name: — Clancy
Hall, Wallace, Plymouth, Beecher, Pope, Windsor,
Lincoln, Sunnyside and Sheridan. While never
a suppliant for benefactions, the Home has always
attracted the attention of philantliropists who
are interested in the care of society's waifs. The
average annual number of inmates is about 275.

ILLINOIS WESLEYAN UMYERSITY, the
leading educational institution of the Methodist
Church in Illinois, south of Chicago; incorpo-
rated in 1853 and located at Bloomington. It is



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