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Railroad, 10 miles west-southwest of Lewistown,
and some 44 miles north of Jacksonville. The
county abounds in coal, and coal-mining, as well
as agriculture, is a leading indu.stry in the sur-
rounding country. Other industries are flour
manufacture and the manufacture of woolen
goods. A bank, three churches and a weekly
newspaper are also located here. Population
(1880), 675: (1890), 667.

IROX MANUFACTURES. The manufacture
of iron, both pig and castings, direct from the
furnace, has steadily increased in this State. In
1880, Illinois ranked seventh in the list of .States
producing manufactured iron, while, in 1890, it
had risen to fourth place, Pennsylvania (which

produces nearly fifty per cent of the total product
of the country) retaining the lead, with Ohio and
Alabama following. In 1890 Illinois had fifteen
complete furnace stacks (as against ten in 1880),
turning out 674,506 tons, or seven per cent of the
entire output. Since then four additional fur-
naces have been completed, but no figures are at
hand to show the increase in production. During
the decade between 1880 and 1890, the percentage
of increase in output was 616. .53. The fuel used
is chiefly the native bituminous coal, which is
abundant and cheap. Of this, 674,506 tons were
used; of anthracite coal, only 38,618 tons. Of
the total output of pig-iron in the State, during
1890, 616,6.59 tons were of Bessemer. Charcoal
pig is not made in Illinois.

RAILROAD. (See Wabush. Chester A Wcsirni

IROQUOIS COUNTY, a large county on the
eastern border of the State; area, 1,120 square
miles; population (1890), 35,167. In 1.8,30 two
pioneer settlements mere made almost simultane-
ously, — one at Bunkum (now Concord) and the
other at Milford. Among those taking up homes
at the former were Gurdon S. Hubbard, Benja-
min Fry, and Messrs. Cartwright, Thomas, New-
comb, and Miller. At Milford located Robert
Hill, Samuel Rush, Messrs. Miles, Pickell and
Parker, besides the Cox, Moore and Stanley
families. Iroquois County was set oflf from Ver-
milion and organized in 1833. — named from the
Iroquois Indians, or Iroquois River, which flows
through it. The Kickapoos and Pottawatomies
did not remove west of tlie Mississippi until
1836-37, but were always friendly. The seat of
government was first located at Montgomery,
whence it was removed to Middleport, and finally
to Watseka. The county is well timbered and
the soil underlaid V)y both coal and building
stone. Clay suitable for brick making and the
manufacture of crockery is found. The
Iroquois River and the Sugar, Spring and Beaver
Creeks thoroughly drain the county. An abun-
dance of pure, cold water maj' be found anywhere
by boring to the depth of from thirty to eighty
feet, a fact which encourages grazing and the
manufacture of dairy products. The soil is rich,
and well adapted to fruit growing. The prin-
cipal towns are Oilman (population 1,112), Wat-
seka (2,017). and Milford (9.57).

IROQUOIS RIVER, (sometimes called Picka-
minki, rises in Western Indiana and runs
westward to Watseka, 111. : thence it flows north-
ward through Iroipiois and part of Kankakee



Counties, entering the Kankakee River some five
miles southeast of Kankakee. It is nearly 120
miles long.

IRVIJitJ, a village in Montgomery County, on
the line of the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railroad,
54 miles east-northeast of Alton, and seventeen
miles east by north of Litchfield. It has five
churches, flouring and saw mills, and a weekly
newspaper. Population (1880), 559; (1890), 630.

ISHAM, Edward S., lawyer, was born at
Bennington, Vt., Jan. 15, 1836; educated at
Lawrence Academy and Williams College, Mass.,
taking his degree at the latter in 1857; was
admitted to the bar at Rutland, Vt., in 1858,
coming to Chicago the same year. Mr. Isham
was a Representative in the Twenty-fourth
General Assembly (1864-66) and, in 1881, his
name was prominently considered for a position
on the Supreme bench of the United States. He
is the senior member of the firm of Isham, Lin-
coln & Beale, wliich has had the management of
some of the most important cases coming before
the Chicago courts.

JACKSOIV, Huntington Wolcott, lawyer, born
in Newark, N. J., Jan. 38, 1841, being descended
on the maternal side from Oliver Wolcott, one of
the signers of the Declaration of Independence;
received his education at Phillips Academy,
Andover, Mass., and at Princeton College, leav-
ing the latter at the close of his junior year to
enter the army, and taking part in the battles of
Fredericksburg, Cliancellorsville and Gettysburg,
a part of the time being on the staff of Maj.-Gen.
John Newton, and, later, with Sherman from
Chattanooga to Atlanta, finally receiving the
rank of Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel for gallant and
meritorious service. Returning to civil life in
1805, he entered Harvard Law School for one
term, then spent a year in Europe, on his return
resuming his legal studies at Newark, N. J. ;
came to Chicago in 1867. and the following year
was admitted to the bar ; has served as Supervisor
of South Chicago, as President of the Chicago
Bar Association, and (by appointment of the
Comptroller of the Currency) as receiver and
attorney of the Third National Bank of Chicago.
Under tlie will of the late John Crerar he became
one of the executors of his estate and one of the
Trustees of the Crerar Library.

JACKSON COUXTT, organized in 1816, and
named in honor of Andrew Jackson ; area, 580
square miles; population (1890), 27,809. It lies
in the southwest portion of the State, the Mis-
sissippi River forming its principal western

boundary. The bottom lands along tlie river are
wonderfully fertile, but liable to overflovi'. It is
crossed by a range of hills regarded as a branch
of the Ozark range. Toward the east the soil is
warm, and well adapted to fruit-growing. One
of the richest beds of bituminous coal in the State
crops out at various points, varjiiig in depth from
a few inches to four or five hundred feet below the
surface. Valuable timber and good building
stone are found and there are numerous saline
springs. Wheat, tobacco and fruit are principal
crops. Early pioneers, with the date of their
arrival, were as follows: 1814, W. Boon; 1815,
Joseph Duncan (afterwards Governor) ; 1817,
Oliver Cross, Mrs. William Kimmel, S. Lewis, E.
Harrold, George Butcher and W. Eakin; 1818,
the Bysleys, Mark Bradley, James Hughes and
John Barron. Brownsville was the first county-
seat and an important town, but owing to a dis-
astrous fire in 1843, the government was removed
to Murphysboro, where Dr. Logan (father of Gen.
John A. Logan) donated a tract of land for
county-buildings. John A. Logan was born here.
Tlie principal towns (with tlieir respective popu-
lation, as shown by the United States Census of
1890), were: Murphysboro, 3,880; Carbondale,
2,382; and Grand Tower, 634.

JACKSONVILLE, the county-seat of Morgan
County, and an important railroad center ; popu-
lation (1890) about 13,000. The town was laid
out in 1835, and named in honor of Gen. Andrew
Jackson. The first court house was erected in
1826, and among early lawyers were Josiah Lam-
born, John J. Hardin, Stephen A. Douglas, and
later Richard Yates, afterwards the "War Gov-
ernor" of Illinois. It is the seat of several im-
portant State institutions, notably the Central
Hospital for the Insane, and Institutions for the
Education of the Deaf and Dumb and the Blind —
besides private educational institutions, including
Illinois College, Illinois Conference Female Col-
lege (Methodist), Jacksonville Female Academy,
a Business College and others. The city has
several banks, a large woolen mill, carriage fac-
tories, brick yards, planing mills, and two nevi-s-
paper establisliments, each publishing daily and
weekly editions. It justly ranks as one of the
most attractive and interesting cities of the State,
noted for the hospitality and intelligence of its
citizens. Although immigrants from Kentucky
and other Southern States predominated in its
early settlement, the location there of Illinois
College and the Jacksonville Female Academy,
about 1830, brought to it many settlers of New
England birth, so tliat it early came to be


Main Building and Girls' Cottage.



regarded as more distinctively New England in
the character of its population than any otlicr
town in Southern Illinois.

institution for the education of young ladies, at
Jacksonville, the oldest of its class in the State.
The initial steps for its organization were taken
in 1830, the year after the establishment of Illinois
College. It may be said to liave been an otTshoot
of the latter, these two constituting the originals
of that remarkable group of educational and
State Institutions which now exist in that city.
Instruction began to be given in the Academy in
May, 1833, under the principalship of Miss Sarah
C. Crocker, and, in ISS.'i, it was formally incorpo-
rated by act of the Legislature, being the first
educational institution to receive a charter from
that body; though Illinois, McKeudree and
ShurtlefF Colleges were ini'orporated at a later
period of the same session. Among its founders
appear the names of Gov. Joseph Duncan, Judge
Samuel D. Lockwood. Rev. Julian M. Sturtevant
(for fifty years the President or a Professor of Illi-
nois College), John P. Wilkinson, Rev. John M.
Ellis, David B. Aj^ers and Dr. Ero Chandler, all
of whom, except the last, were prominently
identified with the early history of Illinois Col-
lege. The list of the alumnw embraces over five
hundred names. The Illinois Conservatory of
Music (founded in 1871) and a School of Fine Arts
are attached to the Academy, all being under the
management of Prof. E. F. Bullard, A.M.

RAILWAY. (See Jacksdin-ilh' d- St. Louis Rail-
way. )

ville & St. Louis Rnilway.)

Originally chartered as the Illinois Farmers' Rail-
road, and constructed from Jacksonville to
Waverly in 1870 ; later changed to the Jacksonville,
Northwestern & Southeastern and track extended
to Virden (31 miles): in 1879 passed into the
hands of a new company under the title of the
Jacksonville Southeastern, and was extended as
follows: to Litchfield (1H80), 23 miles; to Smith-
boro (1882), 29 miles; to Centralia (1883), 29 miles
— total, 112 miles. In 1887 a section between
Centralia and Driver's (Ifi'i miles) was con-
structed by the Jacksonville Southeastern, and
operated under lease by the successor to that
line, but, in 1803, was separated from it under
the name of the Louisville & St. Louis Railway.
By the use of five miles of trackage on the Louis-

ville & Nashville Riiilroad, connection was
obtained between Driver's and Mount Vernon.
The same year (1887) the Jacksonville Southeast-
ern obtained control of the Litchfield, CarroUton
& Western Railroad, from I.,itchfield to Columbi-
ana on the Illinois River, and the Chicago, Peoria
& St. Louis, embracing lines from Peoria to St.
Louis, via Springfield and Jackscmville. The
Jacksonville So\itheastern was reorganized in 1890
under the name of the Jacksonville, Louisville
& St. Louis Railway, and, in 1893, was placed in
the hands of a receiver. The Chicago, Peoria &
St. Louis Divisions were subsequently separated
from the Jacksonville line and placed in charge
of a separate receiver. Foreclosure proceedings
began in 1894 and. during 1896, the road was sold
under foreclosure and reorganized under its pres-
ent title. (See Chicago, Penria d- St. Louis Rail-
road of Illinois.) The capital stock of the
Jacksonville & St. Louis Railway (June 30, 1897)
was §1,. '500, 000; funded debt, §2,300,000— total,

JAMES, Colin D., clergyman, was bom in Ran-
dolph County, now in West Virginia, Jan. 15,
1808; died at Bonita, Kan., Jan. 30, 1888. He was
the son of Rev. Dr. William B. James, a pioneer
preacher in the Ohio Valley, who removed to
Ohio in 1812, settling first in Jefl'erson County in
that State, and later (1814) at Mansfield. Subse-
quently the family took up its residence at Helt's
Prairie in Vigo (now Vermilion) County, Ind.
Before 1830 Colin D. James came to Illinois, and,
in 1834, became a minister of the Methodist Epis-
copal Church, remaining in active ministerial
work until 1871, after which he accepted a super-
annuated relation. During his connection with
the churcli in Illinois he .served as station preacher
or Presiding Elder at the following points : Rock
Island (1834); Platteville (1836); Apple River
(1837); Paris (1838, '42 and '43); Eugene (1839);
Georgetown (1840); Shelbyville (1841); Grafton
( 1844 and '4.')) ; Sparta District (184.')-47) ; Lebanon
District (1848-49) ; Alton District (1850); Bloom-
ington District (1851-52) ; and later at Jackson-
ville. Winchester, Greenfield, Island Grove,
Oldtown, Heyworth, Normal, Atlanta, McLean
and Shirley. During 1861-62 he acted as agent
for the Illinois Female College at Jacksonville,
and. in 1871, for the erection of a Metho-
dist church at Normal. He was twice married.
His first wife (Eliza A. Plasters of Living-
ston) died in 1849. The following year he mar-
ried Amanda K. Casad, daughter of Dr. Anthony
W. Casad. He removed from Normal to Evans-
ton in 1876, and from the latter place to



Kansas in 1879. Of his surviving children,
Edmund J. is (1898) Professor in the University
of Chicago; John N. is in charge of the mag-
netic laboratory in the National Observatory
at Washington, D. C. ; Benjamin B. is Professor
in the State Normal Scliool at St. Cloud, Minn.,
and George F. is instructor in the Cambridge
Preparatory School of Chicago.

JAMES, Edmund Janes, was born. May 31,
1855, at Jacksonville, Morgan County, 111., the
fourth son of Rev. Colin Dew James of the Illi-
nois Conference, grandson on his mother's side
of Rev. Dr. Anthony Wayne Casad and great-
grandson of Samuel Stites (all of whose sketches
appear elsewhere in this volume) ; was educated
in the IModel Department of the Illinois State
Normal School at Bloomington (Normal), from
which he graduated in June, 1873, and entered
the Northwestern University, at Evanstou, 111.,
in November of the same year. On Slay 1, 1874,
he was appointed Recorder on the United States
Lake Survey, where he continued during one
season engaged in work on the lower part of Lake
Ontario and the upper St. Lawrence. He entered
Harvard College, Nov. 2, 1874, but went to
Europe in August, 1875, entering the University
of Halle, Oct. 16, 1875, where he graduated,
August 4, 1877, with the degrees of A.M. and
Ph.D. On his return to the United States he vt-as
elected Principal of the Public High School in
Evanston, 111., Jan. 1, 1878, but resigned in June,
1879, to accept a position in the Illinois State
Normal School at Bloomington as Professor of
Latin and Greek, and Principal of the High
School Department in connection with the Model
School. Resigning this position at Christmas
time, 1883, he went to Europe for study ; accepted
a position in the University of Pennsylvania as
Professor of Public Administration, in Septem-
ber, 1883, where he remained for over thirteen
years. While here he was, for a time. Secretary
of the Graduate Faculty and organized the in-
struction in this Department. He was also
Director of the Wharton School of Finance and
Economy, tlie first attempt to organize a college
course in the field of commerce and industry.
During tliis time he officiated as editor of "The
Political Economy and Public Law Series" issued
by the University of Pennsylvania. Resigning
his position in the Universitj' of Pennsylvania on
Feb. 1, 1896, he accepted that of Professor of Pub-
lic Administration and Director of the University
Extension Division in the University of Cliicago,
where he lias since continued. Profes.sor James
has been identified with the progress of economic

studies in the United States since the early
eighties. He was one of the organizers and one
of the first Vice-Presidents of the American
Economic Association. On Dec. 14, 1889, he
founded the American Academy of Political and
Social Science with headquarters at Philadelphia,
became its first President, and has continued such
to the present time. He was also, for some years,
editor of its publications. The Academy has
now become the largest Association in the world
devoted to the cultivation of economic and social
subjects. He was one of the originators of, and
one of the most frequent contributors to, "Lalor"s
Cyclopedia of Political Science"; was also the
pioneer in the movement to introduce into the
United States the scheme of public instruction
known as University Extension; was the first
President of the American Society for the Exten-
sion of University Teaching, under whose auspices
the first effective extension work was done in this
country, and has been Director of the Extension
Division in the University of Chicago since Febru-
ary, 1896. He has been especially identified with
the development of higher commercial education
in the United States. From his position as
Director of the Wharton School of Finance and
Economy he has atfected the course of instruc-
tion in this Department in a most marked way.
He was invited by the American Bankers'
Association, in the year 1893, to make a careful
study of the subject of Commercial Education in
Europe, and his report to this association on the
Education of Business Men in Europe, republished
by the University of Chicago in the year 1898,
has become a standard authority on this subject.
Giving largely to his efforts, departments similar
to the Wharton School of Finance and Economy
have been established under the title of College
of Commerce, College of Commerce and Politics,
and Collegiate Course in Commerce, in the Uni-
versities of California and Chicago, and Columbia
University. He has been identified with the
progress of college education in general, espe-
cially in its relation to secondary and elementary
education, and was one of the early advocates of
the establishment of departments of education in
our colleges and universities, the policy of which
is now adopted by nearly all the leading institu-
tions. He was, for a time. State Examiner of
High Schools in Illinois, and was founder of "The
Illinois School Journal," long one of tlie most
influential educational periodicals in the State,
now changed in name to "School and Home."
He has been especially active in the establish-
ment of public kindergartens in different cities.



and has been repeatedly offered the headship of
important institutions, among them being the
University of Iowa, tlie University of Illinois,
and tlie University of Cincinnati. He has served
as Vice-President of ^he National Municiijal
League; of the American Association for the
Advancement of Science, and the American
Economic Association, and of the Board of Trus-
tees of the Illinois State Historical Library ; is a
member of the American Philosophical Society,
of the Pennsylvania Historical Society, of tlie
National Council of Education, and of the British
Association for the Advancement of Science. He
was a member of the Committee of Thirteen of
the National Teachers' Association on college
entrance requirements; is a member of various
patriotic and historical societies, including the
Sons of the American Revolution, the Society of
the Colonial Wars, the Holland and the Huguenot
Society. He is the author of more than one hun-
dred papers and monographs on various economic,
educational, legal and administrative subjects.
Professor James was married, August 22, 1879, to
Anna Margareth Lange, of Halle, Prussia,
daughter of the Rev. Wilhelm Roderitdi Lange,
and granddaughter of the famous Professor Ger-
lach of the LTniversity of Halle.

JAMESON, John Alexander, lawyer and jur-
ist, was born at Irasburgh, Vt., Jan. 25, 1824;
graduated from the University of Vermont in
1846. After several years spent in teaching, he
began the study of law, and graduated from the
Dane Law School (of Harvard College) in 1853.
Coming west the same year he located at Free-
port, 111., but removed to Chicago in 1856. In
1865 he was elected to the bench of the Superior
Court of Chicago, remaining in office until 1883.
During a portion of this period he acted as lec-
turer in the Union College of Law at Chicago,
and as editor of "The American Law Register."
His literary labors were unceasing, his most
notable work being entitled "Constitutional Con-
ventions; their History, Power and Modes of
Proceeding." He was also a fine classical
scholar, .speaking and reading German, French,
Spanish and Italian, and was deeply interested
in charitable and reformatory work. Died, sud-
denly, in Chicago, June 16, 1890.

JARROT, Nicholas, early French settler of St.
Clair County, was born in France, received a
liberal education and, on account of the disturbed
condition there in the latter part of the last cen-
tury, left his native country about 1790. After
spending some time at Baltimore and New
Orleans, he arrived at Cahokia, 111., in 1794, and

became a permanent settler tln-re. He early be-
came a Major of militia and engaged in trade
with the Indians, frequently visiting Prairie du
Chien, St. Anthony's Falls (now Minneapolis) and
the Illinois River in his trading e.xpeditions, and,
on one or two occasions, incurring great risk of
life from hostile savages. He acquired a large
property, especially in lands, built mills and
erected one of the earliest and finest brick houses
in that part of the country. He also served as
Justice of the Peace and Judge of the County
Court of St. Clair County. Died, in 1823.— Vital
(Jarrot), son of the preceding, inherited a large
landed fortune from his father, and was an
enterprising and public spirited citizen of St.
Clair County during the last generation. He
served as Representative from St. Clair County
in the Eleventh, Twentieth, Twenty-first and
Twenty-second General Assemblies, in the first
being an associate of Abraham' Lincoln and
always his firm friend and admirer. At the
organization of the Twenty-second General
Assembly (1857), he received the support of the
Republican members for Speaker of the House in
opposition to Col. W. R. Morrison, who was
elected. He sacrificed a large share of his prop-
erty in a public-spirited effort to build up a
rolling mill at East St. Louis, being reduced
thereby from affluence to poverty. President
Lincoln appointed him an Indian Agent, which
took him to the Black Hills region, where he
died, some years after, from toil and exposvire, at
the age of 73 years.

JASPER COUNTY, in the eastern part of
Southern Illinois, having an area of 506 square
miles, and a population (in 1890) of 18,188. It was
organized in 1831 and named for Sergeant Jasper
of Revolutionary fame. The county was placed un-
der township organization in 1860. The first Board
of County Commissioners consisted of B. Rey-
nolds, W. Richards and George Mattingley. The
Embarras River crosses the county. The general
surface is level, although gently undulating in
some portions. JIanufacturing is carried on in a
small way; but the people are principally inter-
ested in agriculture, the chief products consisting
of wheat, potatoes, sorghum, fruit and tobacco.
Wool-growing is an important industry. Newton
is the county-seat, with a population (in 1890) of

JATNE, (Dr.) (Jershom, early physician, was
born in Orange County, N. Y., October, 1791 ; served
as Surgeon in the War of 1812, and came to Illinois
in 1819, settling in Springfield in 1821 ; was one
of the Commissioners appointed to construct the



first State Penitentiary (1837), and one of the first
Commissioners of the Illinois & Michigan Canal.
His oldest daughter (Julia Jlaria) became the
wife of Senator Trumbull. Dr. Jayne died at
Springfield, in 1867.— Dr. William (Jayne), son of
the preceding, was born in Springfield, III., Oct. 8,
1826; educated by private tutors and at Illinois
College, being a member of the class of 1847, later
receiving the degree of A.M. He was one of the

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 63 of 207)