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founders of the Phi Alpha Society while in that
institution ; graduated from the Medical Depart-
ment of Missouri State University; in 1860 was
elected State Senator for Sangamon County, and,
the following year, was appointed by President
Lincoln Governor of the Territory of Dakota,
later serving as Delegate in Congress from that
Territory. In 1869 he was appointed Pension
Agent for Illinois, also served for four terms as
Mayor of his native city, and is now Vice-Presi-
dent of the First National Bank, Springfield.

JEFFERSON COUNTY, a south-central county,
cut ofif from Edwards and White Counties, in
1819, when it was separately organized, being
named in honor of Thomas Jefferson. Its area is
580 square miles, and its population (1890), 32,590.
The Big Muddy River, with one or two tributa-
ries, flows tlirough the county in a southerly direc-
tion. Along the banks of streams a variety of
hardwood timber is found. The railroad facilities
are advantageous. The surface is level and the
soil rich. Cereals and fruit are easily produced.
A fine bed of limestone (seven to fifteen feet
thick) crosses the middle of the county. It has
been quarried and found well adapted to building
purposes. The county possesses an abundance of
running water, much of which is slightly im-
pregnated with salt. The upper coal measure
underlies the entire county, but the seam is
scarcely more than two feet thick at any point.
Tlie chief industry is agriculture, though lumber
is manufactured to some extent. INIount Vernon,
the county -seat, was incorporated as a city in 1872.
Its population in 1890 was 3,233. It has several
manufactories and is the seat of the Appellate
Court for the Southern Judicial District of the
State.

JEFFERT, Edward Turner, Railway President
and Manager, born in Liverpool, Eng. , April 6,
1843, his father being an engineer in tlie British
navy ; about 1850 came witli his widowed mother
to Wheeling, Va., and, in 1856, to Chicago, where
he secured employment as office-boy in the
machinery department of the Illinois Central
Railroad. Here he finally became an apprentice
and, passing through various grades of the me-



chanical department, in May, 1877, became General
Superintendent of the Road, and, in 1885, General
Manager of the entire line. In 1889 he withdrew
from the Illinois Central and, for several years
past, has been President-and General Manager of
the Denver & Rio Grande Railway, with head-
quarters at Denver, Colo. Mr. Jeffery's career as
a railway man has been one of the most conspicu-
ous and successful in the history of American
railroads

JENKINS, Alexander M., Lieutenant-Governor
(1834-36), came to Illinois in his youth and located
in Jackson County, being for a time a resident of
Brownsville, tlie first county-seat of Jackson
County, where he was engaged in trade. Later
he studied law and became eminent in his pro-
fession in Southern Illinois. In 1830 Mr. Jenkins
was elected Representative in the Seventh General
Assembly, was re-elected in 1833, serving during
his second term as Speaker of the House, and took
part the latter year in the Black Hawk War as
Captain of a company. In 1834 Mr. Jenkins was
elected Lieutenant-Governor at the same time
with Governor Duncan, though on an opposing
ticket, but resigned, in 1836, to become President
of the first Illinois Central Railroad Company,
which was chartered that year. The charter of
the road was surrendered in 1837, when the State
had in contemplation the policy of building a
system of roads at its own cost. For a time he
was Receiver of Public Moneys in the Land Office
at Edwardsville, and, in 1847, was elected to the
State Constitutional Convention of that year.
Other positions held by him included that of Jus-
tice of the Circuit Court for tlie Third Judicial
Circuit, to which he was elected in 1859, and
re-elected in 1861, but died in office, February 13,
1864. Mr. Jenkins %vas an uncle of Gen. John A.
Logan, who read law with him after his return
from the Mexican War.

JENNET, William Le Baron, engineer and
architect, born at Fairhaven, Mass., Sept. 25,
1833; was educated at Phillips Academy, An-
dover, graduating in 1849; at 17 took a trip
around the world, and, after a year spent in the
Scientific Department of Harvard College, took a
course in the Eeole Centrale des Artes et Manu-
factures in Paris, graduating in 1856. He then
served for a year as engineer on the Tehuantepec
Railroad, and, in 1861, was made an Aid on the
staff of General Grant, being transferred the next
year to the staff of General Sherman, with whom
he remained three years, participating in many
of the most important battles of the war in the
West. Later, he was engaged in the preparation



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



305



of maps of General Sherman's campaigns, which
were published in the "Memoirs" of the latter.
In 1808 he located in Chicago, and has since given
his attention almost solely to architecture, the
result being seen in some of Chicago's most
noteworthy buildings.

JERSEY COUNTY, situated in the western
portion of the middle division of the State,
bordering on the Illinois and Jlississippi Rivers.
Originally a part of Greene County, it was sepa-
rately organized in 1839, with an area of 360 square
miles. There were a few settlers in the county
as early as 1816- 17 Jerseyville, the county-seat,
was platted in 1834, a majority of the early resi-
dents being natives of, or at least emigrants from,
New Jersey. The mild climate, added to the
character of the soil, is especially adapted to
fruit-growing and stock-raising. The census of
1890 gave the population of the county as 14,810,
and of Jerseyville, 3,207. Grafton, near the
junction of the Mississippi with the Illinois, had
a population of 927. The last mentioned town is
noted for its stone quarries, which employ a
number of men.

JERSEYVILLE, a city and county-seat of
Jersey County, the point of junction of the Chi-
cago & Alton and the St. Louis, Chicago & St.
Paul Railways, 19 miles north of Alton and
4.5 miles north of St. Louis, Mo. The city is in an
agricultural district, but has manufactories of
flour, plows, carriages and wagons, and watch-
making machinery. It contains a handsome
court house, completed in 1894, nine churches, a
graded public school, besides a separate school
for colored children, a convent, railway car-
shops, electric lights, artesian wells, and three
papers — two weekly and one daily. Population
(1880), 3,894; (1890), 3,207.

JO DAVIESS COUNTY, situated in the north-
west corner of the State ; has an area of 663 square
miles; population (1890), 2.5,101. It was first
explored by Le Seuer, who reported the discovery
of lead in 1700. Another Frenchman (Bouthil-
lier) was the first permanent white settler, locat-
ing on the site of the present city of Galena in
1820. About the same time came several Ameri-
can families : a trading post was established, and
the hamlet was known as Fredericks' Point, so
called after one of the pioneers. In 1823 the
Government reserved from settlement a tract 10
miles square along the Mississippi, with a view of
controlling the mining interest. In 1823 mining
privileges were granted upon a royalty of one-
sixth, and the first smelting furnace was erected
the same year. Immigration increased rapidly



and, inside of three years, the "Point" had a popu-
lation of 150, and a post-office was established
with a fortnightly mail to and from Vaudalia,
then the State capital. In 1837 county organiza-
tion was effected, the county being named in
honor of Gen. Joseph Hamilton Daviess, who was
killed in the Battle of Tippecanoe. The original
tract, however, has been subdivided until it now
constitutes nine counties. The settlers took an
active part in both the Winnebago and Black
Hawk Wars. In 1846-47 the mineral lands were
placed on the market by the Government, and
quickly taken by corporations and individuals.
The scenery is varied, and the soil (particularly
in the east) well suited to the cultivation of
grain. The county is well wooded and well
watered, and thoroughly drained by the Fever
and Apple Rivers. The name fJalena was given
to the county-seat (originally, as has been said,
Fredericks' Point) by Lieutenant Thomas, Gov-
ernment Surveyor, in 1837, in which year it was
platted. Its general appearance is picturesque.
Its early growth was extraordinary, but later
(particularly after the growth of Chicago) it
received a set-back. In 1841 it claimed 3,000
population and was incorporated ; in 1870 it had
about 7,000 population, and, in 1890, 5,635. The
names of Grant, Rawlins and E. B. Wa#iburne
are associated with its history. Other important
towns in the county are Warren (population
1,173), East Dubuque (1,069) and Elizabeth (49.5).

JOHNSON, Caleb C, lawyer and legislator,
was born in Whiteside County, 111.. May 33, 1844,
educated in the common schools and at the
Military Academy at Fulton, 111. ; served during
the Civil War in the Sixty-ninth and One Hun-
dred and Fortieth Regiments Illinois Volunteers ;
in 1877 was admitted to the bar and, two years
later, began practice. He has served upon the
Board of Township Supervisors of Whiteside
County; in 1884 was elected to the House of
Representatives of the Thirty-fourth General
Assembly, was re-elected in 1886, and again in
1890. He also held tlie position of Deputy Col-
lector of Internal Revenue for his District during
the first Cleveland administration, and was a
delegate to the Democratic National Convention
of 1888.

JOHNSON, (Rev.) Herrick, clergyman and
educator, was born near Fonda, N. Y., Sept. 31,
1833; graduated at Hamilton College, 18.57, and
at Auburn Tlieological Seminary, 1860 ; held Pres-
byterian pastorates in Troy. Pittsburg and Phila-
delphia ; in 1874 became Professor of Homiletics
and Pastoral Theology in Auburn Theological



3(IG



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



Seminary, and, in 1880, accepted a pastorate in
Chicago, also becoming Lecturer on Sacred Rhet-
oric in McCormick Theological Seminary. In
1883 he resigned his pastorate, devoting his atten-
tion thereafter to the duties of his professorship.
He was Moderator of the Presbyterian General
Assembly at Springfield, in 1883, and has served
as President, for manj' years, of the Presbyterian
Church Board of Aid for Colleges, and of the
Board of Trustees of Lake Forest University.
Besides many periodical articles, he has published
several volumes on religious subjects.

JOHNSON, Hosmer A., M.D., LL.D., physi
cian, was born near Buffalo, N. Y., Oct. 6, 1822;
at twelve removed to a farm in Lapeer County,
Mich. In spite of limited school privileges, at
eighteen he secured a teachers' certificate, and,
by teaching in the winter and attending an
academy in the summer, prepared for college,
entering the University of Michigan in 1846 and
graduating in 1849. In 1850 he became a student
of medicine at Rush Medical College in Chicago,
graduating in 1852, and the same year becoming
Secretary of the Cook County Medical Society,
and, the year following, associate editor of "The
Illinois Medical and Surgical Journal." For
three years he was a member of the faculty of
Rush, fut, in 1858, resigned to become one of the
founders of a new medical school, which has now
become a part of Northwestern University.
During the Pivil War, Dr. Johnson was Chair-
man of the State Board of Medical Examiners ;
later serving upon the Board of Health of Chi-
cago, and upon the National Board of Health. He
was also attending physician of Cook County
Hospital and consulting physician of the Chicago
Charitable Eye and Ear Infirmary. At the time
of the great fire of 1871, he was one of the Direct-
ors of the Chicago Relief and Aid Society. His
connections with local, State and National Soci-
eties and organizations (medical, scientific, social
and otherwise) werd very numerous. He trav-
eled ' extensively, both in this country and in
Europe, during his visits to the latter devoting
much time to the study of foreign sanitary con-
ditions, and making further attainments in medi-
cine and surgery. In 1883 the degree of LL.D.
was conferred upon him by Northwestern Uni-
versity. During his later years, Dr. Johnson was
engaged almost wholly in consultations. Died,
Feb. 26, 1891.

JOHNSON COUNTY, Ues in the southern por-
tion of the State, and is one of the smallest
counties, having an area of only 340 square miles,
and a population (1890) of 15,013— named for Col.



Richard M. Johnson. Its organization dates back
to 1812. A dividing ridge (forming a sort of
water shed) extends from east to west, the
waters of the Cache and Bay Rivers running
south, and those of the Big Muddy and Saline
toward the north. A minor coal seam of variable
thickness (perhaps a spur from the regular coal-
measures) crops out here and there. Sandstone
and limestone are abundant, and, under cliffs
along the bluffs, saltpeter has been obtained in
small quantities. Weak copperas springs are
numerous. The soil is rich, the principal crops
being wheat, corn and tobacco. Cotton is raised
for home consumption and fruit-culture receives
some attention. Vienna is the county-seat, with
a population, in 1890, of 828,

JOHNSTON, Noah, pioneer and banker, was
born in Hardy County, Va,, Dec, 20, 1799, and,
at the age of 12 years, emigrated with his father
to Woodford County, Ky. In 1824 he removed
to Indiana, and, a few years later, to Jefferson
County, 111. , where he began farming. He sub-
sequently engaged in merchandising, but proving
unfortunate, turned his attention to politics,
serving first as County Commissioner and then as
County Clerk. In 1838 he was elected to the
State Senate for the counties of Hamilton and
Jefferson, serving four years ; was Enrolling and
Engrossing Clerk of the Senate during the session
of 1844-45, and, in 1846, elected Representative in
the Fifteenth General Assembly. The following
year he was made Paymaster in the United States
Army, serving through the Mexican War; in
1852 served with Abraham Lincoln and Judge
Hugh T. Dickey of Chicago, on a Commission
appointed to investigate claims against the State
for the construction of the Illinois & Michiean
Canal, and, in 1854, was appointed Clerk of the
Supreme Court for the Third Division, being
elected to the same position in 1861. Other posi-
tions held by him included those of Deputy United
States Marshal under the administration of Presi-
dent Polk, Commissioner to superintend the con-
struction of the Supreme Court Building at Mount
Vernon, and Postmaster of that city. He was
also elected Representative again in 1866. The
later years of his life were spent as President of
the Mount Vernon National Bank. Died, No-
vember, 1891, in his 92d year.

JOLIET, the county-seat of Will County,
situated in the Des Plaines River Valley, 36 miles
southwest of Chicago, on the Illinois & Michigan
Canal, and the intersecting point of five lines of
railway. The city lies chiefly in the valley,
though partly built on bluffs on either side of



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



307



the river. A good quality of calcareous buildinjc
stone underlies the entire region, and is exten-
sively quarried. Gravel; cement and Kre-clay
are also easily obtained and in considerable
quantities. Within twenty Tuiles are productive
coal mines. The Northern Illinois Penitentiary
stands just outside the city limits ou the north.
Joliet is an important manufacturing center, the
census of 1890 crediting the city witli 201 estab-
lishments (representing forty-three industries)
with $9,078,727 capital; employing 3,037 hands;
paying $1,844, 138 for wages and 88,624,285 for raw
material, and turning out an annual product
valued at .?12,180.3()7. Tlie leading industries
are the manufacture of steel rails, foundry and
machine shop products, engines, agricultural
implements, bicycles, stoves and clocks, besides
quarrying and stone-cutting. The canal supplies
valuable water-power. The city boasts many
handsome public buildings and private residences.
Population (1880), 11,6.57; (1800), 23,264, (includ-
ing suburbs), 34,473. The Fifty-fifth Congress
made an appropriation for the erection of a
Government building in Joliet for post-oflfice
purposes.

JOLIET, AURORA & NORTHERN RAIL-
WAY. (See Elgin. Joliet d- Eastern Raihra;/.)

JOLIET, Louis, a French e.xplorer, born at
Quebec, Canada, Sept. 21, 164.5, educated at the
Jesuits' College, and early engaged in the fur-
trade. In 1609 he was sent to investigate the
copper mines on Lake Superior, but his most
important servioe began in 1673, when Frontenac
commissioned him to explore. Starting from the
missionary station of St. Iguace, with Father
Marquette, he went up the Fox River within the
present State of Wisconsin and down the Wis-
consin to the Mississippi, which he descended as
far as the mouth of tlie Arkansas. He was the
first to discover that the Mississippi flows to tlie
Gulf rather than to the Pacific. He returned to
Green Bay via the Illinois River, and (as believed)
the sites of the present cities of Joliet and Chicago.
Although later appointed royal hydrographer
and given the island of Anticosti, he never
revisited the Mississippi. Some historians assert
that tliis was largely due to the influential jeal-
ousy of La Salle. Died, in Canada, in May, 1700.

JOLIET & BLUE ISLAND RAILWAY, con
stituting a part of and operated by the Calumet
& Blue Island— a belt line, 21 miles in length, of
standard gauge and laid with 60-lb. steel rails.
The company provides terminal facilities at Joliet,
although originally projected to merely run from
that city to a connection with the Calumet &



Blue Island Railway. The capital stock author-
ized and paid in is $100,000. The company's
general offices are in Chicago.

JOLIET & NORTHERN INDIANA RAIL-
ROAD, a road running from Lake, Ind., to Joliet,
111., 45 miles (of which 29 miles are in Illinois),
and leased in perpetuity, from Sept. 7, 1854 (the
date of completion), to the Michigan Central Rail-
road Company, whicli owns nearly all its stock.
Its capital stock is §300,000, and its funded debt,
.180,000. Other forms of indebtedness swell the
total amount of capital invested (1895) to .$1,-
143,201. Total earnings and income in Illinois in
1894, §89,017; total expenditures, §62,370. (See
Michigan Central Railroail. )

JONES, Alfred M., politician and legislator,
was born in New Hampshire, Feb. 5, 1837, brought
to McHenry County, 111., at 10 years of age, and,
at 16, began life in the pineries and engaged in
rafting on the Mississippi. Then, after two
winters in school at Rockford, and a short season
in teaching, he spent a year in the book and
jewelry business at Warren, Jo Daviess County.
The following year (18.58) he made atrip to Pike's
Peak, but meeting disappointment in his expec-
tations in regard to mining, returned almost
immediately. The next few years were spent in
various occupations, including law and real
estate business, until 1872, when he was elected
to the Twenty-eighth General Assembly, ;'.nd
re-elected two years later. Otlier positions
successively lield by him were those of Commis-
sioner of the Joliet Penitentiary, Collector of
Internal Revenue for the Sterling District, and
United States JIarshal for the Northern District
of Illinois. He was, for fourteen years, a member
of the Republican State Central Committee, dur-
ing twelve years of that period being its chair-
man. Since 1885, Mr. Jones has been manager
of the Bethesda Mineral Springs at Waukesha,
Wis., but has found time to make his mark in
Wisconsin politics also.

JONES, John Rice, first English lawyer in Illi-
nois, was born in Wales, Feb. 11, 17.59; educated
at Oxford in medicine and law, and, after prac-
ticing the latter in London for a short time, came
to America in 1784, spending two years in Phila-
delphia, where he made the acquaintance of
Dr. Benjamin Rush and Benjamin Franklin; in
1786, having reached the Falls of the Ohio, he
joined Col. George Rogers Clark's expedition
against the Indians on the Wabash. This having
partially failed through the discontent and
desertion of the troops, he remained at Vincennes
four years, part of the time as Commissary-



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



General of the garrison there. In 1790 he went to
Kaskaskia, but eleven years later returned to Vin-
cennes, being commissioned the same year by
Gov. William Henry Harrison, Attorney-General
of Indiana Territory, and, in 180.5, becoming a
member of the first Legislative Council. He was
Secretary of the convention at Vincennes, in
December, 1802, which memorialized Congress to
suspend, for ten years, the article in the Ordi-
nance of 1787 forbidding slavery in the Northwest
Territory. In 1808 he removed a second time to
Kaskaskia, remaining two years, when he located
within the present limits of the State of Missouri
(then the Territory of Louisiana), residing suc-
cessively at St. Genevieve, St. Louis and
at the latter place acquiring large interests in
mineral lands. He became prominent in Mis-
souri polities, served as a member of the Conven-
tion which framed the first State Constitution,
was a prominent candidate for United States
Senator before the first Legislature, and finally
elected by the same a Justice of tlie Supreme
Court, dying in office at St. Louis, Feb. 1, 1824.
He appears to have enjoyed an extensive practice
among the early residents, as shown by the fact
that, the year of his return to Kaskaskia, he paid
taxes on more than 16,000 acres of land in Monroe
County, to say nothing of his possessions about
Vincennes and his subsequent acquisitions in
Missouri. He also prepared the first revision of
laws for Indiana Territory when Illinois com-
posed a part of it. — Rice (Jones), son of the pre-
ceding by a first marriage, was born in Wales,
Sept. 28, 1781 ; came to America with his par-
ents, and was educated at Transylvania University
and the University of Pennsylvania, taking a
medical degree at the latter, but later studying
law at Litchfield, Conn., and locating at Kaskas-
kia in 1806. Described as a young man of brilliant
talents, he took a prominent part in politics and,
at a special election held in September, 1808, was
elected to the Indiana Territorial Legislature, by
the party known as "'Divisionists'" — i. e., in favor
of the division of the Territory — which proved
successful in the organization of Illinois Territory
the following year. Bitterness engendered in
this contest led to a challenge from Shadrach
Bond (afterwards first Governor of the State)^
which Jones accepted; but the affair was ami-
cably adjusted on the field without an exchange of
shots. One Dr. James Dunlap, who had been
Bond's second, expressed dissatisfaction with the
settlement; a bitter factional fight was main-
tained between the friends of the respective
parties, ending in the assassination of Jones, who



was shot by Dunlap on the street in
Dec. 7, 1808— Jones dying in a few minutes,
while Dunlap fled, ending his days in Texas. —
Gen. John Rice (Jones), Jr., another sorn was
born at Kaskaskia, Jan. 8, 1792, served under
Capt. Henry Dodge in the War of 1812, and, in
1831, went to Texas, where he bore a conspicuous
part in securing the independence of that State
from Mexico, dying there in 1845 — the year of its
annexation to the United States. — George
Wallace (Jones), fourth son of John Rice Jones
(1st), was born at Vincennes, Indiana Territory,
April 12, 1804; graduated at Transylvania Uni-
versity, in 1825; served as Clerk of the United
District Court in Missouri in 1826, and as
Aid to Gen. Dodge in the Black Hawk War ; in
1834 was elected Delegate in Congress from
Michigan Territory (then including the present
States of Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa), later
serving two terms as Delegate from Iowa Terri-
tory, and, on its admission as a State, being elected
one of the first United States Senators and re-
elected in 1852 ; in 1859, was appointed by Presi-
dent Buchanan Minister to Bogota, Colombia^
but recalled in 1861 on account of a letter to
Jefferson Davis expressing sympathy with the
cause of the South, and was imprisoned for two
months in Fort Lafayette. In 1838 he was the sec-
ond of Senator Cilley in the famous Cilley-Graves
duel near Washington, which resulted in the
death of the former. After his retirement from
office. General Jones' residence was at Dubuque,
Iowa, where he died, July 22, 1896, in the 93d
year of liis age.

JONES, Michael, early politician, was a Penn-



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