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Historical encyclopedia of Illinois online

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sylvanian by birth, who came to Illinois in Terri-
torial days, and, as early as 1809, was Register of
the Land Office at Kaskaskia; afterwards
removed to Shawneetown and represented
Gallatin County as a Delegate to the Constitu-
tional Convention of 1818 and as Senator in the
first four General Assemblies, and also as Repre-
sentative in the Eighth. He was a candidate for
United States Senator in 1819, but was defeated
by Governor Edwards, and was a Presidential
Elector in 1820. He is represented to have been a
man of considerable ability but of bitter passions,
a supporter of the scheme for a pro-slavery con-
stitution and a bitter opponent of Governor

JOXES, J. Russell, capitalist, was born at
Conneaut, Ashtabula County, Ohio, Feb. 17, 1823;
after spending two years as clerk in a store in his
native town, came to Chicago in 1838 ; spent the
next two years at Rockton, when he accepted a



clerkship in a leading mercantile establishment
at Galena, finally being advanced to a partner-
ship, which was dissolved in 1856. In 1860 he
was elected, as a Republican, Representative in
the Twenty-second General Assembl}-, and, in
March following, was appointed by President
Lincoln United States Marshal for tlie Northern
District of Illinois. In 1809, by appointment of
President Grant, he became Minister to Belgium,
remaining in office until 1875, when he resigned
and returned to Chicago. Subsequeutl)- he
declined the position of Secretary of the Interior,
but was appointed Collector of the Port of Chi-
cago, from which he retired in 1888. Mr. Jones
served as member of the National Republican
Committee for Illinois in 1868. In 1863 he organ-
ized the West Division Street Railway, laying
the foundation of an ample fortune.

JONES, IVilliam, pioneer merchant, was born
at Charlemont, Mass.. Oct. 22, 1789, but spent his
boj'hood and early manhood in New York State,
ultimately locating at Buffalo, wliere he engaged
in business as a grocer, and also held various
public positions. In 1831 he made a tour of
observation westward by way of Detroit, final]}-
reaching Fort Dearborn, which he again visited
in 1832 and in '38, making small investments each
time in real estate, which afterwards appreciated
immensely in value. In 1834, in partnership
witli Byram King of Buffalo. Jlr. Jones engaged
in the stove and hardware business, founding in
Chicago the firm of Jones & King, and the next
year brought his family. While he never held
any important pul)lic office, he was one of the
most prominent of those earl}' residents of Chicago
through whose enterprise and public spirit the
city was made to prosper. He held the office of
Justice of the Peace, served in the City Council,
was one of the founders of the city fire depart-
ment, served for twelve years (1840-52) on tlie
Board of School Inspectors (for a considerable
time as its President), and contributed liberally
to the cause of education, including gifts of
$50,000 to the old Chicago University, of which
he was a Trustee and, for some time. President of
its Executive Committee. Died, Jan. 18, 1868, —
Fernando (Jones), son of the preceding, was born
at Forestville, Chautauqua County, N. Y., May
26, 1820, having, for some time in his boyhood,
Millard Fillmore (afterwards President) as his
teacher at Buffalo, and, still later. Reuben E. Fen-
ton (afterwards Governor and a United States
Senator) as classmate. After coming to Chicago,
in 1835, he was employed for some time as a clerk
in Government offices and by the Trustees of the

Illinois & Michigan Canal ; spent a season at
Canandaigua Academy. N. Y. ; editeii a periodical
at Jackson, Mich., for- a year or two, but finally
coming to Cliicago, opened an abstract and title
office, in which he was engaged at the time of the
fire of 1871, and which, by consolidation with two
other firms, became the foundation of the Title
Guarantee and Trust Company, which still plays
an important part in the real-estate business of
Chicago. Mr. Jones has held various public posi-
tions, including that of Trustee of the Hospital
for the Insane at Jacksonville, and has for years
been a Trustee of the University of Chicago. -Kiler
Kent (Jones), another son, was one of the found-
ers of "The Gem of the Prairies" newspaper, out
of which grew "The Chicago Tribune"; was for
many years a citizen of Quincy, 111., and promi-
nent member of the Republican State Central
Committee, and, for a time, one of the publishers
of "The Prairie Farmer." Died, in Quincy,
August 20, 1886.

JO Jf ESBORO, the county-seat of Union County,
situated about a mile west of the line of the
Illinois Central Railroad. It is some 30 miles
north of Cairo, with which it is connected by a
short, direct line. It stands in the center of a
fertile territory, largely devoted to fruit-growing,
and is an important shipping point for fruit and
early vegetables. The local business supports a
bank. There are also two or three churches, and
one weekly newspaper, as well as a graded school.
Population (1890), about 2.000.

JOSLYN, Merritt L., lawyer, was born in
Livingston County, N. Y., in 1827, came to Illi-
nois in 1839, his father settling in McHenry
County, where the son, on arriving at manhood,
engaged in the practice of the law. The latter
became prominent in political circles and, in
1856, was a Buchanan Presidential Elector. On
the breaking out of the war lie allied himself
with the Republican party ; served as a Captain
in the Thirty-sixth Illinois Yolunteer Infantry,
and, in 1804, was elected to the Twenty-fourth
General Assembly from McHenry County, later
serving as Senator during the sessions of the
Thirtieth and Thirty-first Assemblies (1876-80).
After the death of President Garfield, he was
appointed by President Artlmr Assistant Secre-
tary of the Interior, serving to the close of the
administration. Returning to liis home at Wood-
stock, 111., he resumed the practice of his profes-
sion, and, since 1889, has discharged the duties of
Master in Chancery for McHenry County.

JOUETT, Charles, Chicago's first lawyer, was
born in Virginia in 1772, studied law at Charlottes-



Tille in that State; in 1802 was appointed by
President Jefferson Indian Agent at Detroit and,
in 1805, acted as Commissioner in conducting a
treaty with the Wyandottes. Ottawas and other
Indians of Nortliwestern Ohio and Michigan at
Mauinee City, Ohio. In the fall of the latter year
he was appointed Indian Agent at Fort Dearborn,
serving there until the year before the Fort Dear-
born Massacre. Removing to Mercer County,
Ky., in 1811, he was elected to a Judgeship there,
but, in 1815, was reappointed by President Madi-
son Indian Agent at Fort Dearborn, remaining
until 1818, when he again returned to Kentucky.
In 1819 he was appointed to a United States
Judgeship in the newly organized Territory of
Arkansas, but remained only a few months, when
he resumed his residence in Kentucky, dying
there. May 28, 1834.

JOURJfALISM. (See Xm-simpers, Early.)
JUDD, Korman Buel, lawyer, legislator. For-
eign Minister, was born at Rome, N. Y., Jan. 10,
1815, where he read law and was admitted to the
bar. In 1836 he removed to Chicago and com-
menced practice in the (then) frontier settle-
ment. He early rose to a position of prominence
and influence in public affairs, holding various
municipal offices and being a member of the
State Senate from 1844 to 1860 continuously. In
1860 he was a Delegate-at- large to the Republican
National Convention, and, in 1861, President Lin-
coln appointed him Minister Plenipotentiary to
Prussia, where he represented this country for
four years. He was a warm personal friend of
Lincoln, and accompanied him on his memorable
journey from Springfield to Washington in 1861.
In 1870 he was elected to the Forty-first Congress.
Died, at Chicago, Nov. 10, 1878.

JUDD, S. Corning, lawyer and politician, born
in Onondaga County, N. Y., July 21, 1827; was
educated at Aurora Academy, taught for a time in
Canada and was admitted to the bar in New York
in 1848; edited "The Syracuse Daily Star" in 1840,
and, in 1850. accepted a position in the Interior
Department in Washington. Later, he resumed
his place upon "The Star," but, in 1854, removed
to Lewistown, Fulton County, 111., and began
practice with his brother-in-law, the late W. C.
Goudy. In 1873 he removed to Chicago, entering
into partnership with William Fitzlmgh White-
bouse, son of Bishop Whitehouse, and became
prominent in connection with some ecclesiastical
trials which followed. In 1860 he was a Demo-
cratic candidate for Presidential Elector and,
during the war, was a determined opponent of
the war policy of the Government, as such mak-

ing an unsuccessful campaign for Lieutenant-
Governor in 1864. In 1885 he was appointed
Postmaster of the city of Chicago, serving until
1889. Died, in Chicago, Sept. 22, 189.5.

JUDICIAL SYSTEM, THE. The Constitution
of 1818 vested the judicial power of the State in
one Supreme Court, and such inferior courts as
the Legislature might establish. The former
consisted of one Chief Justice and three Associ-
ates, appointed by joint ballot of the Legislature ;
but, until 1825, when a new act went into effect,
they were required to perform circuit duties in
the several counties, while exercising appellate
jurisdiction in their united capacity. In 1824 the
Legislature divided the State into five circuits,
appointing one Circuit Judge for each, but, two
years later, these were legislated out of office, and
circuit court duty again devolved upon the
Supreme Judges, the State being divided into
four circuits. In 1829 a new act authorized the
appointment of one Circuit Judge, who was
assigned to duty in the territory northwest of the
Illinois River, the Supreme Justices continuing
to perform circuit duty in the four other circuits.
This arrangement continued until 1835, when the
State was divided into six judicial circuits, and,
five additional Circuit Judges having been
elected, the Supreme Judges were again relieved
from circuit co\irt service. After this no mate-
rial changes occurred except in the increase of the
number of circuits until 1841, the whole number
then being nine. At this time political reasons
led to an entire reorganization of the courts. An
act passed Feb. 10, 1841, repealed all laws author-
izing the election of Circuit Judges, and provided
for the appointment of five additional Associate
Judges of the Supreme Court, making nine in
all ; and, for a third time, circuit duties devolved
upon the Supreme Court Judges, the State being
divided at the same time into nine circuits.

By the adoption of the Constitution of 1848 the
judiciary system underwent an entire change, all
judicial officers being made elective by the
people. The Constitution provided for a Supreme
Court, consisting of three Judges, Circuit Courts,
County Courts, and courts to be held by Justices
of the Peace. In addition to these, the Legisla-
ture had the power to create inferior civil and
criminal courts in cities, but only upon a uniform
plan. For the election of Supreme Judges, the
State was divided into three Grand Judicial Divi-
sions. The Legislature might, however, if it saw
fit, provide for the election of all three Judges on
a general ticket, to be voted throughout the
State-at-large ; but this power was never exer-



cised. Appeals lay from the Circuit Courts to the
Supreme Court for the particular division in
which the county might be located, although, by
unanimous consent of all parties in interest, an
appeal might be transferred to another district.
Nine Circuit Courts were established, but the
number might be increased at the discretion of
the General Assembly. Availing itself of its
constitutional power and providing for the needs
of a rapidly growing community, the Legislature
gradually increased the number of circuits to
tliirty. The term of office for Supreme Court
Judges was nine, and. for Circuit Judges, six
years. Vacancies were to be filled by popular
election, unless the unexpired term of the
deceased or retiring incumbent was less than one
year, in which case the Governor was authorized
to appoint. Circuit Courts were vested with
appellate jurisdiction from inferior tribunals, and
each was required to hold at least two terms
annually in eacli county, as might be fixed by

The Constitution of 1870, without changing the
mode of election or term of office, made several
changes adapted to altered comlitions. As
regards the Supreme Court, tlie tliree Grand
Divisions were retained, but the number of
Judges was increased to seven, chosen from a like
number of districts, but sitting together to con-
stitute a full court, of wliich four members con-
stitute a quorum. A Chief Justice is chosen by
the Court, and is usually one of the Judges
Hearing the expiration of his term. The minor
officers include a Reporter of Decisions, and one
Clerk in each Division. By an act passed in 1897,
the three Supreme Court Divisions were consoli-
dated in one. the Court being reijuired to hold its
sittings in Springfield, and hereafter only one
Clerk will be ele

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 65 of 207)