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du Chien. The following year he was Sub- Agent
of Indian affairs at Fort Winnebago, where he
witnessed several important Indian treaties. In
1830 he went to Connecticut, where he was
married, and, in 1833, took up his permanent resi-
dence in Chicago, forming a partnership witli
Gen. David Hunter, his brother-in-law, in the
forwarding business. In 1841 he was appointed
Registrar of Public Lands by President Harrison,
but was removed by Tyler. In 1848 he was
appointed Canal Collector, and, in 1849, President
Taylor commissioned him Receiver of Pubhc
Moneys. In 1861 he was commissioned Pay-
master in the army by President Lincoln, which
office he held until his death, which occurred on
a railroad train near Pittsburg, Pa., June 21, 1865.
KIRBT, Edward P., lawyer and legislator,
was born in Putnam County, 111., Oct. 28, 1834—
the son of Rev. William Kirby, one of the found-
ers and early professors of Illinois College at



Jacksonville; graduated at Illinois College in
1854, then taught several years at St. Louis and
Jacksonville; was admitted to the bar in 1864,
and, in 1873, was elected County Judge of Morgan
County as a Republican ; was Representative in
the General Assemblj- from Morgan County
(1891-93) ; also served for several years as Trustee
of the Central Hospital for the Insane and. for a
long period, as Trustee and Treasurer of Illinois
College.

KIRK, (Oen.) Edward N., soldier, was born of
Quaker parentage in Jefferson County, Ohio, Feb.
29, 1828; graduated at the Friends' Academy, at
Mount Pleasant in the same State, and, after
teaching for a time, began the study of law,
completing it at Baltimore, Md., where he was
admitted to the bar in 1853. A year later he
removed to Sterling, 111., where he continued in
his profession until after the battle of the first
Bull Run, when he raised a regiment. The quota
of the State being already full, this was not im-
mediately accepted; but. after some delay, was
mustered in in September, 1861, as the Thirty-
fourth Regiment Illinois Volunteers, with the
subject of this sketcli as Colonel. In the field he
soon proved himself a brave and dashing officer ;
at the battle of Shiloh, though wounded through
the shoulder, he refused to leave the field. After
remaining with the army several days, inflam-
matory fever set in, necessitating his removal to
the hospital at Louisville, where he lay between
life and death for some time. Having partially
recovered, in August, 1862, he set out to rejoin
his regiment, but was stopped en route by an
order assigning him to command at Louisville.
In November following he was commissioned
Brigadier-General for "heroic action, gallantry
and ability" displayed on the field. In the last
days of December, 1862, he had sufficiently re-
covered to take part in the series of engagements
at Stone River, where he was again wounded,
this time fatally. He was taken to his home in
Illinois, and, although he survived several
months, the career of one of the most brilliant
and promising soldiers of the war was cut short
by his death, July 21, 1863.

KIRKLAND, Joseph, journalist and author,
was born at Geneva, N. Y., Jan. 7, 1830— the son
of Prof. William Kirkland of Hamilton College :
was brought by his parents to Michigan in 1835,
where he remained until 1856, when he came to
the city of Chicago. In 1861 he enlisted as a
private in the Twelfth Illinois Infantry (three-
months' men), was elected Second Lieutenant,
but later became Aid-de-Camp on the staff of



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



310



General McClellan, serving there and on the staff
of General Fitz-John Porter until the retirement
of the latter, meanwhile taking part in the Pen-
insular campaign and in the battle of Antietam.
Returning to Chicago he gave attention to some
coalmining property near Danville, but later
studied law and was admitted to the bar in 18S0.
A few years later he produced his first novel,
and, from 1890, devoted his attention solely to
literary pursuits, for several years being liter-
ary editor of "The Chicago Tribune."' His works
— several of which first appeared as serials in the
magazines — include "Zury, the Meanest Man in
Spring County" (1885): "The McVeys" (1887);
"The Captain of Co. K." (1889), besides the "His-
tory of the Chicago Massacre of 1813," and "The
Story of Chicago" — the latter in two volumes. At
the time of his death he had just concluded, in
collaboration with Hon. John Moses, the work of
editing a two-volume "History of Chicago," pub-
lished by Jlessrs. Munsell & Co. (1895). Died, in
Chicago, April 29, 1894.— Elizabeth Stansbiiry
(Kirkland), sister of the preceding — teacher and
author — was born at Geneva, N. Y. . came to Chicago
in 1867 and, five years later, established a select
school for young ladies, out of which grew what
is known as the "Kirkland Social Settlement,"
which was continued until her death, July 30,
1896. She was the author of a number of vol-
umes of decided merit, written with the especial
object of giving entertainment and instruction to
the young — including "Six Little Cooks," "Dora's
Housekeeping," "Speech and Manners," a Child's
"History of France," a "History of England,"
"History of English Literature," etc. At her
death she left a "History of Italy" ready for the
hands of the publishers.

KIRKPATRICK, John, pioneer Methodist
preacher, was born in Georgia, wlience he emi-
grated in 1803; located at Springfield, 111., at an
early day, where he built the first horse-mill in
that vicinity ; in 1839 removed to Adams County,
and finally to Ottumwa, Iowa, where he died in
1845. Mr. Kirkpatrick is believed to have been the
first local Methodist preacher licensed in Illinois'.
Having inherited three slaves (a woman and two
boys) while in Adams County, he brought them
to Illinois and gave them their freedom. The
boys were bound to a man in Quincy to learn a
trade, but mysteriously disappeared — presumably
having been kidnaped with the connivance of
the man in whose charge they had been placed.

KIRK WOOD, a city in Warren County, once
known as "Young America," situated about two
miles southwest of Monmouth on the Chicago,



Burlington & Quincy Railroad. Flour is the
principal manufactured product. The town has
banks, several churches and a weekly newspaper.
Population (1880), 1,079; (1890), 949.

KISHWAUKEE RIVER, rises in McHenry
County, runs west through Boone, and enters
Rock River in Winnebago County, eight miles
below Rockford. It is 75 miles long. An afflu-
ent called the South Kishwaukee River runs
north-northeast and northwest through De Kalb
County, and enters the Kiskwaukee in Winne-
bago County, about eight miles southeast of
Rockford.

KITCHELL, Wickliff, lawyer and Attorney-
General of Illinois, was born in New. Jersey, May 31,
1789; in early boyhood accompanied his father to
Ohio, the family settling near the present site of
the city of Cincinnati. About 1814, having mar-
ried a Miss Elizabeth Ross, he removed to Soutli-
ern Indiana, then an almost unbroken wilderness,
where he was elected Sheriff and, although pos-
sessing limited educational advantages, studied
law and was admitted to the bar, finally becom-
ing a successful practitioner. In 1817 he removed
to Palestine, Crawford County, III, where, in
1820, he was elected Representative in the Second
General Assembly, and was also a member of the
State Senate from 1828 to 1833. In 1838 he re-
moved to Hillsboro, Montgomery County, was
appointed Attorney-General in 1839, serving until
near the close of the following year, when he
resigned to take his seat as Representative in
the Twelfth General Assembly. Between 184G
and 1854 he was a resident of Fort Madison, Iowa,
but the latter year returned to Hillsboro. During
his early political career Mr. Kitchell had been a
Democrat ; but, on the passage of the Kansas-Neb-
raska act, became an earnest Republican. Pub-
lic-spirited and progressive, he was in advance of
his time on many public questions. Died, Feb.
3, 1869.— Alfred (Kitchell), son of the preceding,
lawyer and Judge, born at Palestine, III.. March
39, 1830; was educated at Indiana State Univer-
sity and Hillsboro Academy, admitted to the bar
in 1841, and, the following year, commenced
practice at Olney ; was elected State's Attorney
in 1843, througli repeated re-elections holding the
oflSce ten years ; was a member of the Constitu-
tional Convention of 1847 and, in 1849, was
elected Judge of Richland County ; later assisted
in establishing the first newspaper published in
Olney, and in organizing the Republican party
there in 1856; in 1859 was elected Judge of the
Twenty-fifth Judicial Circuit, serving one term.
He was also influential in procuring a charter for



320



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



the Ohio & Mississippi Railroad, and in the con-
struction of the line, being an original corporator
and subsequently a Director of the Company.
Later he removed to Galesburg, where he died,
Nov. 11, 1876.— Edward (Kitchell), another son,
was born at Palestine, 111., Dec. 21, 1839; was
educated at Hillsboro Academy until 1846, when
he removed with his father's family to Fort
Madison, Iowa, but later returned to Hillsboro to
continue his studies; in 1852 made the trip across
the plains to California to engage in gold mining,
but the following year went to Walla Walla,
Washington Territory, where he opened a law
office; in 1854 returned to Illinois, locating at
Olney, Richland County, forming a partnership
with Horace Hayward, a relative, in the practice
of law. Here, having taken position against the
repeal of the Missouri Compromise, he became,
in 1856, the editor of the first Republican news-
paper published in that part of Illinois known as
"Egypt," with his brother. Judge Alfred Kitchell,
■ being one of the original thirty-nine Republicans
in Richland County. In 1862 he assisted in
organizing the Ninety-eighth Regiment Illinois
"Volunteers at Centralia, which, in the following
year having been mounted, became a part of tlie
famous "Wilder Brigade." At first he was com-
missioned Lieutenant-Colonel, but succeeded to
the command of the regiment after the wounding
of Colonel Funkhouser at Chickamauga in Sep-
tember, 1863; was finally promoted to the colo-
nelcy in July, 1865, and mustered out with the
rank of Brigadier-General by brevet. Resuming
the practice of his profession at Olney, he was,
in 1866, the Republican candidate for Congress in
a district strongly Democratic; also served as
Collector of Internal Revenue for a short time
and, in 1868, was Presidential Elector for the
same District. Died, at Olney, July 11, 1869.—
John Wickliff (Kitchell), youngest son of Wick-
liff Kitchell, was born at Palestine, Crawford
County, 111., May 30, 1835, educated at Hillsboro,
read law at Fort Madison, Iowa, and admitted to
the bar in that State. At the age of 19 years he
served as Assistant Clerk of the House of Repre-
sentatives at Springfield, and was Reading Clerk
of the same body at the session of 1861. Previous
to the latter date he had edited "The Montgomery
County Herald," and later, "The Charleston
Courier." Resigning his position as Reading
Clerk in 1861, he enlisted under the first call of
President Lincoln in the Ninth Illinois Volun-
teers, served as Adjutant of the regiment and
afterwards as Captain of his company. At the
expiration of his term of enlistment he established



"The Union Monitor" at Hillsboro, which he con-
ducted until drafted into the service in 1864,
serving until the close of the war. In 1866 he
removed to Pana (his present residence), resum-
ing practice there ; was a candidate for the State
Senate the same year, and, in 1870, was the
Republican nominee for Congress in that District.

KNICKERBOCKER, Joshua C, lawyer, was
born in Gallatin, Columbia County, N. Y., Sept.
36, 1837 ; brought by his father to Alden, McHenry
County, 111., in 1844, and educated in the com-
mon schools of that place ; removed to Chicago in
1860, studied law and was admitted to practice in
1863 ; served on the Board of Supervisors and in
the City Council and, in 1868, was elected Repre-
sentative in the General Assembly, serving one
term. He was also a member of the State Board
of Education from 1875 to '77, and the latter
year was elected Probate Judge for Cook County,
serving until his death, Jan. 5, 1890.

KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS, a secret semi-mili-
tary and benevolent association founded in the
City of Washington, D. C, Feb. 19, 1864, Justus
H. Rathbone (who died Dec. 9, 1889) being its
recognized founder. The order was established
in Illinois, May 4, 1869, by the organization of
"Welcome Lodge. No. 1," in the city of Chicago.
On July 1, 1869, this Lodge had nineteen mem-
bers. At the close of the year four additional
Lodges had been instituted, having an aggregate
membership of 345. Early in the following year,
on petition of these five Lodges, approved by the
Grand Chancellor, a Grand Lodge of the Order
for the State of Illinois was instituted in Chicago,
with a membership of twenty -nine Past Chancel-
lors as representatives of the five subordinate
Lodges — the total membership of these Lodges at
that date being 383. December 31, 1870, the
total membership in Illinois had increased to 850.
June 30, 1895, the total number of Lodges in the
State was 525, and the membership 38,441. The
assets belonging to the Lodges in Illinois, on
Jan. 1, 1894, amounted to §418,151.77.

KNOWLTON, Dexter A., pioneer and banker,
was born in Fairfield, Herkimer County, N. Y.,
March 3, 1812, taken to Chautauqua County in
infancy and passed his childhood and youth on a
farm. Having determined on a mercantile ca-
reer, he entered an academy at Fredonia, paying
his own way ; in 1838 started on a peddling tour
for the West, and. in the following year, settled
at Freeport, 111. , where he opened a general store ;
in 1843 began investments in real estate, finally
laying off sundry additions to the city of Free-
port, from which he realized large profits. He



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



.321



•was also prominently connected with the Galena
ct Cliicago Union Railroad and, in 1S50, became
a Director of the Company, remaining in office
some twelve years. In 1852 he was the Free-Soil
candidate for Governor of Illinois, but a few years
later became extensivelj- interested in the Con-
gress & Empire Spring Company at Saratoga.
X. Y. ; then, after a four years' residence in
Brooklyn, returned to Freeport in 1870, where he
engaged in banking business, dying in that city,
March 10, 1876.

K>'OX, Joseph, lawyer, was born at Blanford.
Mass., Jan. 11, 1805; studied law with his
brother. Gen. Alanson Knox, in his native town,
■was admitted to the bar in 1828, subsequently
removing to 'Worcester, in the same State, where
he began the practice of his profession. In 1837
he removed west, locating at Stephenson, now
Rock Island, 111. , where he continued in practice
for twentj'-three years. During the greater part
of that time he was associated with Hon. John
"VV. Drury, under the firm name of Knox & Drury,
gaining a wide reputation as a lawyer throughout
Northern IlUnois. Among the important cases in
which he took part during liis residence in Rock
Island was the prosecution of the murderers of
Colonel Davenport in 1845. In 1832 he sers-ed as a
Democratic Presidential Elector, but in the next
campaign identified himself with the Republican
party as a supporter of John C. Fremont for tlie
Presidency. In 18G0 he removed to Chicago and,
two years later, was appointed State's Attornej-
by Governor Yates, remaining in office until suc-
ceeded by his partner, Charles H. Reed. After
coming to Chicago he was identified with a num-
ber of notable cases. His death occurred, August
6, 1881.

K>'OX COLLEGE, a non-sectarian institution
for the higher education of the youtli of both
sexes, located at Galesburg, Knox County. It
was founded in 1837. fully organized in 1841, and
graduated its first class in 1846. The number of
graduates from that date until 1894, aggregated
867. In 1893 it had 6G3 students in attendance,
and a faculty of 20 professors. Its library con-
tains about 6,000 volumes. Its endowment
amounts to §300,000 and its buildings are valued
at 8150,000. Dr. Newton Bateman was at its
head for more than twenty years, and, on his res-
ignation (1893), John H. Finley, Ph.D., became
its President, but resigned in 1899.

KNOX COrXTT, a wealthy interior county
west of the Illinois River, having an area of 720
square miles and a population (1890) of 38,752. It
was named in honor of Gen. Henry Knox. Its



territorial limits were defined by legislative
enactment in 1825, but the actual organization
dates from 1830, when Riggs Pennington, Philip
Hash and Charles Hansford were named the first
Commissioners. Knoxville was tlie first county-
seat selected, and here (in the winter of 1830-31)
was erected the first court house, constructed
of logs, two stories in heiglit, at a co.st of
S192. The soil is rich, and agriculture flour-
ishes. The present county-seat (1899) is Gales-
burg, well known for its educational institutions,
the best known of which are Knox College,
founded in 1837, and Lombard University,
founded in 1851. A flourishing Episcopal Semi-
nary is located at Knoxville. and Hedding Col-
lege at Abingdon.

KNOXVILLE, a city in Knox County, on the
Galesburg- Peoria Division of the Chicago. Bur-
lington & Quincy Railroad, 50 miles west of
Peoria, and five miles east of Galesburg; was
formerly the county-seat, and still contains the
Fair Grounds and Almshouse. The municipal
government is composed of a Jlayor. six Alder-
men, with seven heads of departments. It has
electric lighting and street-car service, good
water-works, two banks, numerous cliurches, two
public schools, and is the seat of St. Mary's
school, for girls, and St. Alban's Academy, for
boys. Population (1880), 1,600; (1890), 1,728.

KOERNER, GustaTUS, lawyer and Lieutenant-
Governor, was born in Germany in 1809, and
received a university education. He was a law-
yer by profession, and emigrated to Illinois in
1833, settling finally at Belleville. He at once
affiliated with the Democratic party, and soon
became prominent in politics. In 1842 he was
elected to the General Assembly, and three years
later was appointed to the bench of the State
Supreme Court. In 1852 he was elected Lieuten-
ant-Governor on the ticket headed by Joel A.
Matteson ; but, at the close of his term, became
identified with the Republican party and was a
staunch Union man during tlie Civil War, serving
for a time as Colonel on General Fremont's and
General Halleck's staffs. In 1862 President Lin-
coln made him Minister to Spain, a post which he
resigned in January, 1865. He was a member of
the Cliicago Conrention of 1860 that nominated
Lincoln for the Presidency ; was a Republican
Presidential Elector in 1868, and a delegate to the
Cincinnati Convention of 1872 that named Horace
Greeley for the Presidency. In 1867 he served as
President of the first Board of Trustees of the
Soldiers' Orphans' Home, and, in 1870, was
elected to the Legislature a second time. The-



322



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



following year he was appointed a member of the
first Board of Railroad and Warehouse Commis-
sioners, and served as its President. He is the
author of "Collection of the Important General
Laws of Illinois, with Comments" (in German,
St. Louis, 1838); "From Spain" (Frankfort ou-
the-Main, 1866); "Das Deutsche Element in den
Vereiningten Staaten" (Cincinnati, 1880; second
edition, New York, 1885) ; and a number of mono-
graphs. Died, at Belleville, April 9, 1896.

KOHLSAAT, Christian C, Judge of United
States Court, was born in Edwards County, 111. ,
Jan. 8, 1844 — his father being a native of Germany
who settled in Edwards County in 1825, while his
mother was born in England. The family
removed to Galena in 1854, where young Kohlsaat
attended the public schools, later taking a course
in Chicago University, after which he began the
study of law. In 1867 he became a reporter on
"The Chicago Evening Journal," was admitted
to the bar in the same year, and, in 1868, accepted
a position in the office of the County Clerk, where
he kept the records of the County Court under
Judge Bradwell's administration. During the
sessions of the Twenty-seventh General Assembly
(1871-73) , he served as First Assistant Enrolling
and Engrossing Clerk of the House, after which
he began practice; in 1881 was the Republican
nominee for County Judge, but was defeated by
Judge Prendergast; served as member of the
Board of West Side Park Commissioners, 1884-90 ;
in 1890 was appointed Probate Judge of Cook
County (as successor to Judge Knickerbocker,
who died in January of that year), and was
elected to the office in November following, and
re-elected in 1894, as he was again in 1898. Early
in 1899 lie was appointed, by President McKinley.
Judge of the United States District Court for the
Northern District of Illinois, as successor to Judge
Grossoup, who had been appointed United States
Circuit Judge in place of Judge Showalter,
deceased.

KOHLSAAT, Herman H., editor and news-
paper publisher, was born in Edwards County,
111., March 22, 1853, and taken the following year
to Galena, where he remained until 12 years of
age, when the family removed to Chicago. Here,
after attending the public schools some three
years, he became a cash-boy in the store of Car-
son, Pirie & Co., a year later rising to the position
of cashier, remaining two years. Then, after
having been connected with various business
concerns, he became the junior member of the
firm of Blake, Shaw & Co., for whom he had been
a traveling salesman some five years. In 1880 he



became associated with the Dake Bakery, in con-
nection with which he laid the foimdation of an
extensive business by establishing a system of
restaurants and lunch counters in the business
portions of the city . In 1 891 , after a somewhat pro-
tracted visit to Europe, Mr. Kohlsaat bought a con-
trolling interest in "The Chicago Inter Ocean,"
but withdrew early in 1894. In April, 1895, he be-
came principal proprietor of "The Chicago Times-
Herald," as the successor of the late James W.
Scott, who died suddenly in New York, soon after
effecting a consolidation of Chicago's two Demo-
cratic papers, "The Times" and "Herald," in one
concern. Although changing the political status
of the paper from Democratic to Independent,
Mr. Kohlsaat's liberal enterprise has won for it
an assured success. He is also owner and pub-
lisher of "The Chicago Evening Post." His
whole business career has been one of almost
phenomenal success attained by vigorous enter-
prise and high-minded, honorable methods. Mr.
Kohlsaat is one of the original incorporators (if
the University of Chicago, of which he continues
to be one of the Trustees.

KROME, William Henry, lawyer, born of Ger-
man parentage, in Louisville, Ky., July 1, 1842;
in 1851 was brought by his father to Madison
County, 111., where he lived and worked for some
years on a farm. He acquired his education in
the common schools and at McKendree College,
graduating from the latter in 1863. After spend-
ing his smnmer months in farm labor and teach-
ing school during the winter, for a year or two,
he read law for a time with Judge M. G. Dale of
Edwardsville, and, in 1866, entered the law
department of Michigan University, gradu-
ating in 1869, though admitted the year previous
to practice by the Supreme Court of Illinois. Mr.
Krome has been successively the partner of
Judge John G. Irwin, Hon. W. F. L. Hadley (late
Congressman from the Eighteenth District) and
C. W. Terry. He has held the office of Mayor of
Edwardsville (1873), State Senator (1874-78), and,
in 1893, was a prominent candidate before the
Democratic judicial convention for the nomina-
tion for Justice of the Supreme Court, to succeed
Justice Scholfield, deceased. He is also President
of the Ma



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