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and having graduated in 1871, established himself
in practice at Belleville, where he has since
resided. He was a successful contestant for a
seat in the Republican National Convention of
1880 from the Seventeenth District.

KUTKENDALL, Andrew J., lawyer and legis-
lator, was born of pioneer parents in Gallatin
(now Hardin) County, 111., March 3, 1815; was
self-educated chiefly, but in his early manhood
adopted the law as a profession, locating at
Vienna in Johnson County, where he continued
to reside to the end of his life. In 1842 he was
elected a Representative in the Thirteenth Gen-
eral Assembly, and re-elected two years later ; in
1850 became State Senator, serving continuously
in the same body for twelve j-ears: in 1861 en-
listed, and was commissioned Major, in the
Thirty-first Illinois Volunteers (Gen. John A.
Logan's regiment), but was compelled to resign,
in May following, on acount of impaired health.
Two years later (186-1) he was elected Represent-
ative in the Thirty-ninth Congress, serving one
term; and, after several years in private life, was
again returned to the State Senate in 1878, serving
in the Thirty-first and Thirty-second General
Assemblies. In all. Major Kuykendall saw
twenty years' service in the State Legislature, of
which sixteen were spent in the Senate and four
in the House, besides two years in Congress. A
zealous Democrat previous to the war, he was an
ardent supporter of the war policy of the Govern-
ment, and, in 1864, presided over the "Union"
(Republican) State Convention of that year. He
was also a member of the Senate Finance Com-
mittee in the session of 1859, which had the duty
of investigating the Matteson "canal scrip fraud. ''
Died, at Vienna, 111., May 11, 1891.

LABOK TROUBLES. 1. The Railroad
Strike of 1877. — By this name is generally char-
acterized the labor disturbances of 1877, which,
beginning at Pittsburg in July, spread over the
entire countrj-, interrupting transportation, and,
for a time, threatening to paralyze trade. Illi-
nois sufl'ered severely. The primary cause of the
troubles was the general prostration of business
resulting from the depression of values, which
affected manufacturers and merchants alike. A
reduction of expenses became necessary, and the
wages of employes were lowered. Dissatisfaction
and restlessness on the part of the latter ensued,
which found expression in the ordering of a strike
among railroad operatives on a larger scale than



had ever been witnessed in this country. In Illi-
nois, Peoria, Decatur, Braidwood, East St. Louis,
fJalesburg, La Salle and Chicago were the prin-
cipal points affected. In all these cities angry,
excited uien formed themselves into mobs, which
tore up tracks, took possession of machine shops,
in some cases destroyed roundhouses, applied the
torch to warehouses, and, for a time, held com-
merce by the throat, not only defying the law,
but even contending in arms against the military
sent to disperse them. The entire force of the
State militia was called into service, Major-
General Arthur C. Ducat being in command.
The State troops were divided into three brigades,
commanded respectively by Brigadier-Generals
Torrence, Bates and Pavey. General Ducat
assumed personal command at Braidwood, where
were sent the Third Regiment and the Tenth
Battalion, who suppressed the riots at that point
with ease. Col. Joseph W. Stambaugh and
Lieut.-Col. J. B. Parsons were tlie respective
regimental commanders. Generals Bates and
Pavey were in command at East St. Louis,
where the excitement was at fever heat, the
mobs terrorizing peaceable citizens and destroy-
ing much property. Governor Cullom went to
this point in person. Chicago, however, was the
chief railroad center of the State, and only
prompt and severely repressive measures held in
check one of the most dangerous mobs which
ever threatened property and life in that city.
The local police force was inadequate to control
the rioters, and Mayor Heath felt himself forced
to call for aid from the State. Brig. -Gen. Joseph
T. Torrence then commanded the First Brigade,
I. N. G., with headquarters at Chicago. Under
instructions from Governor Cullom, he promptly
and effectively co-operated with the municipal
authorities in quelling the uprising. He received
valuable support from volunteer companies, some
of which were largely composed of Union veter-
ans. The latter were commanded by such ex-
perienced commanders as Generals Reynolds,
Martin Beem, and O. L. Mann, and Colonel Owen
Stuart. General Lieb also led a company of
veterans enlisted by himself, and General Shafl-
ner and Major James H. D. Daly organized a
cavalry force of 1.'50 old soldiers, who rendered
efficient service. The disturbance was promptly
subdued, transportation resumed, and trade once
more began to move in its accustomed channels.
•2. The Strike op 1894.— This was an uprising
which originated in Chicago and was incited by u
comparatively young labor organization called
the American Railway Union. In its inception it



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HJSTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



>ya(S,jSymp^^;yp,,j^,,9stensible motive, at the
outset, being the righting of wrongs alleged to
have been suffered by employes of the Pullman
Palace Car Company. , The latter quit work on
May 11, and, on -June 32, the American Eailway
Union ordered a general boycott against all rail-
road comixmies hauling Pullman cars after June
26. The (ieneral Managers of the lines entering
Chicago took prompt action (June 25) looking
toward mutvial jjroteotion, protesting against the
proposed boycott, and affirming their resolution
to adhere to existing contracts, any action on the
part of the strikers to, the contrary notwithstand-
ing. Trouble began on the 26th. The hauling of
freight was necessarily soon discontinued; sub-
urban traffic was interrupted ; switching had to
be done by inexperienced hands under police or
piilitary protection (officials and clerks some-
times throwing the levers), and in the presence of
large crowds of law-defying hoodlums gathered
along the tracks, avowedly through sympathy
with the strikers, but actually in the hope of
plunder. Trains were sidetracked, derailed, and,
in not a few instances, valuable freight was
burned. Passengers were forced to undergo the
inconvenience of being cooped up for hours in
crowded cars, in transit, without food or water,
sometimes almost within sight of their destina-
tion, and sometimes threatened with death should
they attempt to leave their prison houses. The
mobs, intoxicated by seeming success, finally ven-
tured to interfere with the passage of trains
carrying the United States mails, and, at this
juncture, the Federal authorities interfered.
President Cleveland at once ordered the protec-
tion of all mail trains by armed guards, to be
appointed by the United States Marshal. An
additional force of Deputy Slieriffs was also sworn
in by the Sheriff of Cook County, and the city
police force was augmented. The United States
District Court also issued a restraining order,
directed against the officers and members of the
American Railway Union, as well as against all
other persons interfering with the business of
railroads carrying the mails. Service was readily
accepted by the officers of the Union, but the
copies distributed among the insurgent mob were
torn and trampled upon. Thereupon the Presi-
dent ordered Federal trrjops to Chicago, both to
protect Government property (notably the Sub-
treasury) and to guard mail trains. The Gov-
ernor (John P. Altgeld) protested, but without
avail. A few days later, the Mayor of Chicago
requested, the State ,Exeoutive to place a force of
fcitate mjlitia ?.t his coiitrol for the protection of



property and the prevention of bloodshed. Gen-
eral Wheeler, with the entire second division of
tlie I. N. G. , at once received orders to report to
the municipal authorities. The presence of the
militia greatly incensed the turbulent crowds,
yet it proved most salutary. The troops displayed
exemplary firmness under most trying circum-
stances, dispersing jeering and threatening
crowds by physical force or bayonet charges, the
rioters being fired upon only twice. Gradually
order was restored. The disreputable element
subsided, and wiser and more conservative coun-
sels prevailed among the ranks of the strikers.
Impediments to traffic were removed and trains
were soon running as though no interruption had
occurred. The troops were withdrawn (first the
Federal and afterwards those of the State), and
the courts were left to deal with the subject in
accordance with the statutes. The entire execu-
tive board of the American Railway Union were
indicted for conspiracy, but the indictments were
never pressed. The officers, however, were all
found guilty of contempt of court in having dis-
obeyed the restraining order of the Federal
court, and sentenced to terms in the county jail.
Eugene V. Debs, the President of the Union, was
convicted on two charges and given a sentence
of six months on each, but the two sentences were
afterward made concurrent. The other members
of the Board received a similar sentence for three
months each. All but the Vice-President, George
W. Howard, served their terms at Woodstock,
McHenry County. Howard was sent to the Will
County jail at Joliet.

LACEY, Lyman, lawyer and jurist, was born in
Tompkins County, N. Y., May 6, 1832. In 1837
his parents settled in Fulton County, 111. He
graduated from Illinois College in 1855 and was
admitted to the bar in .1856, commencing practice
at Havana, Mason County, the same year. In
1862 he was elected, as a Democrat, to represent
the counties of Mason and Menard in the lower
house of the Legislature ; was elected to the Cir-
cuit Court bench in 1873, and re-elected in 1879,
'85 and '91 ; also served for several years upon
the bench of the Appellate Court.

LACON, a city and county-seat of Marshall
County, situated on the Illinois River, and on the
Dwight and Lacon branch of the Chicago &
Alton Railroad, 130 miles southwest of Chicago.
A pontoon bridge connects it with Sparland on
the opposite bank of the Illinois. The surround-
ing country raises large quantities of grain, for
which Lacon is a shipping point. The river is
navigable by steamboats to this point. The city



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



3-^5



has grain elevators, woolen mills, a manufactory
of shawls, marble works, two caniiing factories, a
carriage factory and a National bank It also has
water works, and is lighted by electricity. There
are seven churches, a graded school and two
weekly newspapers. Population (1880), 1,814;
(1890), 1,649; (1898) estimated, 2,400.

LA FAVETTE (Marquis de), VISIT OF. An
event of profound interest in the history of Illi-
nois, during the year 1825, was the visit to the
State by the Marquis de La Fayette, who had
been the ally of the American people during
their struggle for independence. The distin-
guished Frenchman having arrived in the coun-
try during the latter part of 1824, the General
Asseihbly in session at Vandalia, in December of
that year, adopted an address inviting him to
visit Illinois. This was communicated to La
Fayette by Gov. Edward Coles, who had met the
General in Europe seven years before. Governor
Coles' letter and the address of the General
Assembly were answered with an acceptance by
La Fa)'ette from Washington, under date of Jan.
16, 1825. The approach of the latter was made by
way of New Orleans, the steamer Natchez (by
which General La Fayette ascended the Mis-
sissippi) arriving at the old French village of
Carondelet, below St. Louis, on the 28th of April.
Col. William S. Hamilton, a son of Alexander
Hamilton, and at that time a Representative in
the General Assembly from Sangamon Coimty,
as well as an Aid-de-Camp on the staff of Gov
ernor Coles, was dispatched from the home of the
latter at Edwardsville. to meet the distinguished
visitor, which he did at St. Louis. On Saturday,
April 30, the boat bearing: General La Fayette,
with a large delegation of prominent citizens of
Missouri, left St. Louis, arriving at Kaskaskia,
where a reception awaited him at the elegant
residence of Gen. Jnlin Edgar, Governor Coles
delivering an address of welcome. Tlie presence
of a number of old soldiers, who had fought under
La Fayette at Brandywine and Yorktown, consti-
tuted an interesting feature of the occasion. This
was followed by a banquet at the tavern kept by
Colonel Sweet, and a closing reception at the house
of William Morrison, Sr., a member of the cele-
brated family of tliat name, and one of the lead-
ing merchants of Kaskaskia. Among those
participating in the reception ceremonies, who
were then, or afterwards became, prominent
factors in State history, appear the names of Gen.
John Edgar, ex-Governor Bond, Judge Nathaniel
Pope, Elias Kent Kane, ex-Lieutenant-Govemor
Menard. Col. Thomas Mather and Sidney Breese,



a future United States Senator and Justice Of the
Supreme Court. Tlie boat left Kaskaskia at
midnight for Nasliville, Teuu., Governor Coles
accompanying the party and returning with it to
Shawneetown, where an imposing reception was
given and an address of welcome delivered by
Judge James Hall, on May 14, 1825. A few
liours later General La Fayette left on his way up
the Ohio.

LAFAYETTE, BLOOMINOTON & MISSIS-
SIPPI RAILROAD. (See Lake Erie & Western
Itailroad.)

LAFLIJT, Matthew, manufacturer, was born
at Southwick, Hampden County, Mass., Deo. 16,
180.5; in his youth was clerk for a time in the
store of Laflin & Loomis. powder manufacturers,
at Lee, Mass., later becoming a partner in tlie
Canton Powder Mills. About 1833 he engaged in
the manufacture of axes at Saugerties, N. Y.,
which proving a failure, he again engaged in
powder manufacture, and, in ISliT, came to Chi-
cago, where he finally established a factory — his
firm, in 1840, becoming Laflin & Smith, and,
later, Laflin, Smith & Co. Becoming largely
interested in real estate, he devoted his atteu
tion chiefly to that business after 1849, with
great success, not only in Chicago but else^
where, having done much for the develop-
ment of Waukesha, Wis., where he erected one
of the principal hotels— the "Fountain Spring
House'" — also being one of tlip original stock-
holders of the Elgin AVatcii I 'unqjuny. Mr.
Laflin was a zealous supporter of the ( iovernment
during the war for the preservation of the Union,
and, before his death, made a donation of $7.5,-
000 for a building for the Chicago Academy of
Sciences, which was erected in the western psLrt
of Lincoln Park. Died, in Chicago, May 30, 1897.'

LA GRANGE, a village in Cook Couhty, and
one of the handsomest suburbs of Clu'cago, frord
which it is distant 15 miles, south-southwest, ori
the Chicago, Burlington .^- ^ulncy Railroad. The
streets are broad and shaded and there are many
handsome residences. The village is lighted by
electricity, and has public water-works, seven
churches, a high school and a weekly paper:
Population (1880), 531; (1890). 2,814.

LA HARPE, a city in Hancock County, on tht-
Toledo, Peoria & Western Raihvay, 70 miles west
by south from Peoria and 20 miles soutli-.so nth-
east of Burlington, Iowa. Brick, tile and cig;irs
constitute the manufactured output. La Ilarpe
has two banks, five churches, a graded and a high
school, and two newspapers. 'Pot)uiatrion (1880),
958; (1890), 1,113.



326



IIISTOPJCAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



LAKE COUNTY, in the extreme northeast
corner of the State, having an area of 490 square
miles, and a population (1890), of 24,335. It was
cut off from McHenry County and separately
organized in 1839. Pioneer settlers began to
arrive in 1839, locating chiefly along the Des
Plaines River. The Indians vacated the region
the following year. The first County Commission-
ers (E. E. Hunter, William Brown and E. C.
Berrey) located the county-seat at Libertyville,
but, in 1841, it was removed to Little Fort, now
Waukegan. The county derives its name from
the fact that some forty small lakes are found
within its limits. The surface is undulating and
about equally divided between sand, prairie and
second-growth timber. At Waukegan there are
several maufacturing establishments, and the
Glen Flora medicinal spring attracts many in-
valids. Highland Park and Lake Forest are resi-
dence towns of great beauty situated on the lake
bluff, populated largely by the families of Chicago
business men.

LAKE ERIE He MISSISSIPPI RAILROAD.
(See Lake Erie & Western Railroad. }

LAKE ERIE & WESTERN RAILROAD. Of
the 710.61 miles which constitute the entire
length of this line, only 118.6 are within Illinois.
This portion extends from the junction of the
Peoria & Pekin Union Railwaj", on the east side
of the Illinois River opposite Peoria, to the Indi- ■
ana State line. It is a single-track road of
.standard gauge. About one-sixth of the line in
Illinois is level, the grade nowhere exceeding 40
feet to the mile. The track is of 56 and 60-pound
steel rails, and lightly ballasted. The total
capital of the road (1898)— including .?23,680,00()
capital stock, SIO.875,000 bonded debt and a float-
ing debt of SI, 479,809— was §36,034,809, or S50,-
708 per mile. The total earnings and income in
Illinois for 1898 were §559,743, and the total
expenditures for the same period, 8457,713.—
(History.) The main line of the Illinois Division
of the Lake Erie & Western Railroad was acquired
by consolidation, in 1880, of the Lafayette, Bloom-
ington & Mississippi Railroad (Similes in length),
which had been opened in 1871, with certain Ohio
and Indiana lines. In May, 1885, the line thus
formed was consolidated, without change of name,
with the Lake Erie & Mississippi Railroad, organ-
ized to build an extension of the Lake Erie &
Western from Bloomington to Peoria (48 miles).
The road was sold under foreclosure in 1886, and
the present company organized, Feb. 9, 1887.

LAKE FOREST, a city in Lake County, on
Lake Michigan, and a station on the Chicago &



Northwestern Railway, 28 miles north by west
of Chicago. It is the seat of Lake Forest Univer-
sity, is a purely residence town and one of the
most beautiful suburbs of Chicago, largely in-
liabited by families of culture and wealth. Popu-
lation (1880), 877; (1890), 1.203.

LAKE FOREST UNIVERSITY, an institution
of learning comprising six distinct schools, viz. :
Lake Forest Academy, Ferry Hall Seminary,
Lake Forest College, Rush Medical College, Chi-
cago College of Dental Surgery, and the Chicago
College of Law. The three first named are
located at Lake Forest, while the three profes-
sional schools are in the city of Chicago. The
college charter was granted in 1857, but the
institution was not opened until nineteen years
later, and the professional schools, which were
originally independent, were not associated until
1887. In 1894 there were 316 undergraduates at
Lake Forest, in charge of forty instructors. Dur-
ing the same year there were in attendance at the
professional schools, 1,557 students, making a
total enrollment in the University of 1,873.
While the institution is affiliated with the Pres-
byterian denomination, the Board of Trustees is
self-perpetuating. The Academy and Seminary
are preparatory schools for the two sexes, re-
spectively. Lake Forest College is co-educational
and organized upon the elective plan, having
seventeen departments, a certain number of
studies being required for graduation, and work
upon a major subject being required for three
years. The schools at Lake Forest occupy fifteen
buildings, standing within a campus of sixty-five
acres.

LAKE MICHIGAN, one of the cliain of five
great northern lakes, and the largest lake lying
wholly within the United States. It lies between
the parallels of 41° 35' and 46' North latitude, its
length being about 335 miles. Its width varies
from 50 to 88 miles, its greatest breadth being
opposite Milwaukee. Its surface is nearly 600
feet above the sea-level and its maximum depth
is estimated at 840 feet. It has an area of about
20,000 square miles. It forms the eastern bound-
ary of Wisconsin, the western boundary of the
lower ]>eniusula of Michigan and a part of the
northern boundary of Illinois and Indiana. Its
waters find their outlet into Lake Huron through
the straits of Mackinaw, at its northeast extrem-
ity, and are connected with Lake Superior by the
Sault Ste. Marie River. It contains few islands,
and these mainly in its northern part, the largest
being some fifteen miles long. The principal
rivers which empty into this lake are the Fox,



IIISTORK'AL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



;i27



Menominee, Manistee, Muskegon, Kalamazoo,
(irand and St. Josepli. Cliicago, Milwaukee,
Racine and Manitowoc are the chief cities on its
banks.

LAKE SHORE & MICHKUX SOUTHERN
RAILWAY. The main line extends from Buffalo,
N. Y., to Chicago, 111., a distance of 539 miles,
with various branches of leased and proprietary
lines located in the States of Michigan, New
York and Ohio, making the mileage of lines
ojjerated 1,415.G3 miles, of which 862, 1.5 are owned
by the company — only U miles being in Illinois.
The total earnings and income in Illinois, in 1898,
were $453,946, and the expenditures for the same
period, §360,971.— (History.) The company was
formed in 1869, from the consolidation of the
Michigan Southern & Northern Indiana, the
Cleveland, Painesville & Ashtabula, and the
Buffalo & Erie Railroad Companies. The propri-
etar3' roads have been acquired since the consoli-
dation.

LAMB, James L., pioneer merchant, was born
in Connellsville, Pa., Nov, 7, 1800; at 13 years of
age went to Cincinnati to serve as clerk in the
store of a distant relative, came to Kaskaskia, 111.,
in 1820, and soon after engaged in mercantile
business with Thomas Mather, who had come to
Illinois two years earlier. Later, the firm estab-
lished a .store at Chester and shipped the first
barrels of pork from Illinois to the New Orleans
market. In 1831 Mr. Lamb located in Springfield,
afterwards carrying on merchandising and pork-
packing extensively ; also established an iron
foundry, which continued in operation imtil a few
years ago. Died, Dec. 3, 1873.

LAMB, Martha J. R. >'., magazine editor and
historian, was born (Martha Joan Reade Nash) at
Plainfield, Mass., Augast 13, 1829, received a
thorough education and, after lier marriage in
1852 to Charles A. Lamb, resided for eight years
in Chicago, 111., where she was one of the prin-
cipal founders of the Home for the Friendless and
Half Orphan Asylum, and Secretary of the
Sanitary Fair of 1863. In 1860 she removed to
New York and gave her after life to literary work,
from 1883 until her death being editor of "The
Magazine of American History," besides furnish-
ing numerous papers on historical and other sub-
jects ; also putilishing some sixteen volumes, one
of her most important works being a "History of
New York City," in two volumes. She was a
member of nearly thirty historical aild other
learned societies. Died, Jan. 2, 1893.

LAMBORX, Josiah, early lawyer and Attor-
ney General; born in Washington County, Ky.,



and educated at Transylvania University ; was
Attorney-General of the State by appointment of
Governor Carlin, 1840-43, at that tinje being a
resident of Jacksonville. He is described by his
contemporaries as an able and brilliant man, but
of convivial habits and unscrupidous to such a
degree that his name was mixed up with a num-
ber of official scandals. Separated from his
family, he died of delirium tremens, at White-
hall, Greene County.

LAMOILLE, a town of Bureau County, on the
Mendota and Fulton branch of the Chicago, Bur-
lington & Quincy Railway, 9 miles northwest of
Mendota. It is in a farming and stock-growing
region. The town has a bank and a newspaper.
Population (1880), 488; (1890), 516.

LAMON, Ward HiU, lawyer, was born at
Mill Creek, Frederick County, W. Va., Jan. 6,
1828; received a common school education and
was engaged in teaching for a time ; also began
the study of medicine, but relinquished it for the
law. About 1847-48 he locate.l at Danville, III.,
subsequently read law with the late Judge Oliver
L. Davis, attending lectures at the Louisville
Law School, where he had Gen. John A. Logan
for a class-mate. On admission to the bar, he
became the Danville partner of Abraham Lincoln
— the partnership being in existence as early as
18.52. In 1859 he removed to Bloomington, and,
in the Presidential campaign of 1800, was a zeal-



Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 68 of 207)