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ous supporter of Mr. Lincoln. In February, 1861,
he was chosen by Mr. Lincoln to accompany him
to Washington, making the perilous night jour-
ney through Baltimore in Jlr. Lincoln's company.
Being a man of undoubted courage, as well as
almost giant stature, he soon received the ap-
pointment of Marshal of tlie District of Columbia,
and, in the first weeks of the new administration,
made a confidential visit to Colonel Anderson,
then in command at Fort Sumter, to secure
accurate information as to the situation there.
In May, 1861, he obtained authority to raise a
regiment, of which he was commissioned Colonel,
remaining in the field to December, when he
returned to the discharge of hij duties as Marshal
at Washington, but was absent from Washington
on the night of the assas.sination — April 14, 1865.
Resigning his office after this event, he entered
into partner.ship for the practice of law with the
late Jeremiah S. Black of Penn.sylvania. Some
years later he published the first volume of a pro-
posed Life of Lincoln, using material which he
obtained from Mr. Lincoln's Springfield partner.
William H. Herndon. but the second volume was
never issued. His death occurred at Martins-



burg, W. Va., not far from his birthplace, May
7, 1893. Colonel Lamon married a daughter of
Judge Stephen T. Logan, of Springfield.

LANARK, a city in Carroll County, 19 miles by
rail southwest of Freeport, and seven miles east
of Mount Carroll. The surrounding country is
largely devoted to grain-growing, and Lanark has
three elevators and is an important shipping
point. Manufacturing of various descriptions is
carried on. The city lias tvs'o banks (one National
and one State), eight churches, a graded and high
school, and a weekly newspaper. Population
(1880), 1,198; (1890), 1,295.

LANDES, Silas Z., ex-Congressman, was born
in Augusta County, Va., May 15, 1843. In early
youth he removed to Illinois, and was admitted
to the bar of this State in August, 1863, and has
been in active practice at Mount Carmel since
1864. In 1872 he was elected State's Attorney
for Wabash County, was re-elected in 1876, and
again in 1880. He represented the Sixteenth Illi-
nois District in Congress from 1885 to 1889, being
elected on the Democratic ticket.

LANDRIGAN, John, farmer and legislator, was
born in County Tipperary, Ireland, in 1833, and
brought to America at one year of age, his
parents stopping for a time in New Jersey. His
early life was spent at Lafayette, Ind. After
completing his education in the seminary there,
he engaged in railroad and canal contracting.
Coming to Illinois in 1858, he purchased a farm
near Albion, Edwards County, where he has
since resided. He has been twice elected as a
Democrat to the House of Representatives (1868
and "74) and twice to the State Senate (1870
and '96), and has been, for over twenty years,
a member of the State Agricultural Society —
for four years of that time being President
of the Board, and some sixteen years Vice-Presi-

LANE, Albert (Jrannis, educator, was born in
Cook County, 111., March 15, 1841, and educated
in the public schools, graduating with the first
class from the Chicago High School in 1858. He
immediately entered upon the business of teach-
ing as Principal, but, in 1869, was elected Super-
intendent of Schools for Cook County. After
three years' service as cashier of a bank, he was
elected County Superintendent, a second time, in
1877, and regularly every four j'ears thereafter
until 1890. In 1891 he was chosen Superintend-
ent of Schools for the city of Chicago, to fill the
vacancy caused by the resignation of Superin-
tendent Howland — a position which he continued
to fill until the appointment of E, B, Andrews,

Superintendent, when he became First Assistant

LANE, Edward, ex-Congressman, was born in
Cleveland, Ohio, March 27, 1843, and became a
resident of Illinois at the age of 16. After receiv-
ing an academic education he studied law and
was admitted to the Illinois bar in February,
1865. Since then he has been a successful prac-
titioner at Hillsboro. From 1869 to 1873 he served
as County Judge. In 1886 he was the successful
Democratic candidate for Congress from the
Seventeenth Illinois District and re-elected for
three successive terms, but was defeated by
Frederick Remann (Republican) in 1894, and
again by W. F. L. Hadley, at a special election, in
1895, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of
Mr. Remann.

LANPHIER, Charles H., journaUst, was born
at Alexandria, Va., April 14, 1830; from 4 years
of age lived in "Washington City ; in 1836 entered
the office as an apprentice of "The State Regis-
ter" at Vandalia, 111., (then owned by his brother-
in-law, William AValters). Later, the paper was
removed to Springfield, and Walters, having^
enlisted for the Mexican war in 1846, died at St.
Louis, en route to the field. Lanphier, having
thus succeeded to the management, and, finally,
to the proprietorship of the paper, was elected
public printer at the next session of the Legisla-
ture, and, in 1847, took into partnership George
Walker, who acted as editor until 1858. Mr. Lan-
phier continued the publication of the paper until
1863, and then sold out. During the war he
was one of the State Board of Army Auditors
appointed by Governor Yates; was elected
Circuit Clerk in 1864 and re-elected in 1868,
and, in 1873, was Democratic candidate for
County Treasurer but defeated with the rest of
his party.

LARCOM, Lucy, author and teacher, born at
Beverly, Mass., in 1826; attended a grammar
school and worked in a cotton mill at Lowell,
becoming one of the most popular contributors to
"The Lowell Offering," a magazine conducted by
the factory girls, thereby winning the acquaint-
ance and friendship of the poet Whittier. In
1846 she came to Illinois and, for three years, was
a student at Montieello Female Seminary, near
Alton, meanwhile teaching at intervals in the
vicinity. Returning to Massachusetts she taught
for six years; in 1865" established "Our Young
Folks, " of which she was editor until 1874. Her
books, both poetical and prose, have taken a
high rank for their elevated literary and moral
tone. Died, in Boston, April 17, 1893.


LARXED, EilT^ard Channing, lawyer, was born
in Providence, R. I., July 14, 1820; graduated at
Brown University in 1840 ; wa.s Professor of Mathe-
matics one year in Kemper College, Wis., then
studied law and, in 1847, came to Chicago. He
was an earnest opponent of slavery and gained
considerable deserved celebrity by a speech
which he delivered in 1851, in opposition to the
fugitive slave law. He was a warm friend of
Abraham Lincoln and, in 1800, made speeches in
his support; was an active member of the Union
Defense Committee of Chicago during the war,
and, in 1861, was appointed by Mr. Lincoln
United States District Attorney of the Northern
District of Illinois, but compelled to resign by
failing health. Being absent in Europe at the
time of the flre of 1871, he returned immediately
and devoted his attention to the work of the
Relief and Aid Societ)'. Making a second visit to
Europe in 187'3-73, he wrote many letters for the
press, also doing much other literary work in
spite of declining health. Died at Lake Forest,
111., September, 1884.

LA SALLE, a city in La Salle County, 99 miles
southwest of Chicago, situated on the Illinois
■ River and the Illinois & Michigan Canal, and a
center for three trunk lines of railroad, which
intersect there. Bituminous coal abounds and is
extensively mined. Zinc smelting is a leading
industry, as also the manufacture of glass and
hydraulic cement. Large quantities of ice are
annually cut from the river and shipped south.
It is connected with Peru (one mile west) by an
electric railway. Population (1880), 7,847; (1890),
9,855; (189-2), 11,920.

LA SALLE, Reni Robert Cavelier, Sieur de,
a famous explorer, born at Rouen, France, in
1643; entered the Jesuit order, but conceiving
that he had mistaken his vocation, came to
America in 1666. He obtained a grant of land
about the Lachine Rapids of the St. Lawrence,
above Montreal. It was probably his intention
to settle there as a grand seigneur; but, becoming
interested in stories told him by some Seneca
Indians, he started two years later in ijuest of a
great waterway, which he believed led to the
South Sea (Pacific Ocean) and afforded a short
route to China. He passed through Lake Ontario,
and is believed to have discovered the Ohio. The
claim that he reached the Illinois River at this
time has been questioned. Having re-visited
France in 1677 he was given a patent of nobility
and extensive land-grants in Canada. In 1679 he
visited the Northwest and explored the great
lakes, finally reaching the head of Lake Michi-

gan and erecting a fort near the mouth of the St.
Joseph River. From there he made a portage to
the Illinois, which he descended early in 1680 to
Lake Peoria, where he began the erection of a
fort to which, in consequence of the misfortunes
attending the expedition, was given the name of
Creve-Co?ur. Returning from here to Canada for
supplies, in the following fall he again appeared
in Illinois, but found his fort at Lake Peoria a
ruin and his followers, whom he had left there,
gone. Compelled again to return to Canada, in
the latter part of 1681 he .set out on his third
expedition to Illinois, and making the portage by
way of the Chicago and Des Plaines Rivers,
reached "Starved Rock," near the present city of
Ottawa, where his lieutenant, Tonty, had already
begun the erection of a fort. In 1682, accom-
panied by Tonty, he descended the Illinois and
Mississippi Rivers, reaching the Gulf of Mexico on
April 9. He gave the region the name of Louisi-
ana. In 1683 he again returned to France and
was commissioned to found a colony at the mouth
of the Mississippi, which he unsuccessfully
attempted to do in 1684, the expedition finally
landing about Matagorda Bay in Texas. After
other fruitless attempts (death and desertions
having seriously reduced the number of his colo-
nists), while attempting to reach Canada, he was
murdered by his companions near Trinity River
in the present State of Texas, March 19, 1687.
Another theory regarding La Salle's ill-starred
Texas expedition is, that he intended to establish
a colony west of the Mississippi, with a view to
contesting with the Spaniards for the possession
of that region, but that the French government
failed to give him the support whicli had been
promised, leaving him to his fate.

LA SALLE COU>'Ty, one of the wealthiest
counties in the northeastern section, being second
in size and in population in the State It was
organized in 1831, and has an area of 1,152 square
miles; population (1S90), 80,798. The history of
this region dates back to 1675, when Slarciuette
established a mission at an Indian village on the
Illinois River aljout where Utica now stands,
eight miles west of Ottawa. La Salle (for whom
the county is named) erected a fort here in 1682,
which was. for many years, the headquarters for
French missionaries ami traders. Later, the
Illinois Indians were well-nigh exterminated
by starvation, at the same point, which has be-
come famous in Western history as "Starved
Rock." The surface of the county is undulat-
ing and slopes toward the Illinois River. The
soil is rich, and timber abounds on the bluffs and



along the streams. Water is easily procured.
Four beds of coal underlie the entire county, and
good building stone is quarried at a depth of 150
to 200 feet. Excellent hydraulic cement is made
from the calciferous deposit, Utica being espe-
cially noted for this industry. The Ameri-
can settlers came about tlie time of Captain Long's
survey of a canal route (1816). The Illinois &
Michigan Canal was located by a joint corps of
State and National engineers in 1830. (See Illi-
nois & Michigan Canal.) During the Black
Hawk War, La Salle County was a prominent
base of military operations.

LATHROP, William, lawyer and Congress-
man, was born in Genesee County, N. Y., April
17, 183,5. His early education was acquired in
the common schools. Later he read law and was
admitted to the bar, commencing practice in
1851, making his home in Central New York until
his removal to Illinois. In 1856 he represented
the Rockford District in the lower house of the
General Assembly, and, in 1876, was elected, as a
Republican, to represent the (then) Fourth Illi-
nois District in Congress.

LA VANTUM, the name given, in the latter
part of the seventeenth century, to the principal
village of the Illinois Indians, situated on the
Illinois River, near the present town of Utica, in
La Salle County. (See Stan-ed Bock.)

LAWLER, Frank, was born at Rochester,
N. Y., June 25, 1842. His first active occupation
was as a news-agent on railroads, which business
he followed for three years. He learned tlie
trade of a shipcalker, and was elected to the
Presidency of the Ship-Carpenters' and Ship-
Calkers' Association. While yet a young man he
settled in Chicago and, in 1869, was appointed to
a clerical position in the postoffice in that city ;
later, served as a letter-carrier, and as a member
of the City Council (1876-84). In 1884 he was
elected to Congress from the Second District,
which he represented in tliat body for three ouc-
cessive terms. While serving his last year in
Congress (1890) he was an unsuccessful candidate
on the Democratic ticket for Slieriff of Cook
County; in 1893 was an unsuccessful applicant
for the Chicago postmastership, was defeated as
an Independent-Democrat for Congress in 1894,
but, in 1895, was elected Alderman for the Nine-
teenth Ward of the city of Chicago. Died, Jan.
17, 1896.

LAWLER, (Gen.) Michael K., soldier, was
born in County Kildare, Ireland, Nov. 16, 1814,
brought to the United States in 1816, and, in 1819,
to Gallatin County, 111., where his father began

farming. The younger Lawler early evinced a
military taste by organizing a military company
in 1842, of which he served as Captain three or
four years. In 1846 he organized a company for the
Mexican War, which was attached to the Third
Regiment Illinois Volunteers (Colonel Forman's),
and, at the end of its term of enlistment, raised
a company of cavalry, with which he served
to the end of the war — in all, seeing two and
a lialf years" service. He then resumed the
peaceful life of a farmer ; but, on the breaking
out of the rebellion, again gave proof of his patri-
otism b}' recruiting the Eighteenth Illinois Volun-
teer Infantry — tlie first regiment organized in
tlie Eigliteenth Congressional District — of which
he was commissioned Colonel, entering into the
three years" service in May, 1861. His regiment
took part in most of the early engagements in
Western Kentucky and Tennessee, including the
capture of Fort Donelson, where it lost heavily,
Colonel Lawler liimself being severely wounded.
Later, he was in command, for some time, at
Jackson, Tenn.. and, in November, 1862, was com-
missioned Brigadier-General "for gallant and
meritorious service.'" He was also an active
participant in the operations against Vicksburg, •
and was thanked on the field by General Grant
for his service at the battle of Big Black, pro-
nounced by Charles A. Dana (then Assistant
Secretary of War) "one of the most splendid
exploits of the war. " ' After the fall of Vicksburg
he took part in the siege of Jackson, Miss. , and
in tlie campaigns on the Teche and Red River, and
in Texas, also being in command, for six months,
;it Baton Rouge, La. In March, 1865, he was
brevetted Major-General, and mustered out,
January. 1866, after a service of four years and
seven months. He then returned to his Gallatin
County farm, where he died, July 26, 1882.

LAWLER, Thomas G., soldier and Com-
mander-in-Cliief of the Grand Army of the
Republic, was born in Liverpool, Eng., April
7, 1844; was brought to Illinois by liis parents
in childhood, and, at 17 years of age, enlisted
in the Nineteenth Illinois Volunteers, serv-
ing first as a private, then as Sergeant, later
being elected First Lieutenant, and (although
not mustered in, for two months) during the
Atlanta campaign being in command of his com-
pany, and placed on the roll of honor by order of
General Rosecrans. He participated in every
battle in which his regiment was engaged, and.
at the battle of Missionary Ridge, was the first
man of his command over the enemy's works.
After the war he became prominent as an officer


of the Illinois Xatioiial (luanl. oisaiiiziuK thi'
Rockford Rifles, in lST(i. and serving as Colonel of
the Third Regiment for seven years; was ap-
lK)inted Postmaster at Rockford by President
Hayes, but removed by Cleveland in 1S85; re-
appointed by Harrison anil again disjilaced on the
accession of Cleveland. He was one of tlie
organizers of O. L. Xevius Post, G. A. R., of
wliich he served as Commander twenty -six years ;
in 1883 was elected Department Commander for
the State of Illinois and. in 1894. Commander-in-
Chief, serving one vear.

LAWREXCE, Cliarl.'s 1J„ jurist, was bnrn at


Vt.. I)e.

After tw.

spent at Midillel)ury College, he entered the
junior class at Unitm College, graduating from
the latter in 1841. He devoted two years to
teaching in Alal)iinia. anil began reading law at
Cincinnati in 184:5. completing his studies at St.
Louis, where lie was admitted to the bar and
began practice in 1844. The following year he
removed to Quincy. 111., where he was a promi-
nent practitioner for ten years. The years
1856-.58 he spent in foreign travel, with the pri-
marj' object of restoring his impaired health. On
his return home he began farming in Warren
County, with the same end in view. In 1861 he
accepted a nomination to the Circuit Court bench
and was elected without opposition. Before the
expiration of his term, in 18fi4. he was elected a
Justice of the Illinois Supreme Court for the
Northern Grand Division, and, in 1870, became
Chief Justice. At this time his home was at
Galesburg. Failing of a re-election in 1873, he
removed to Chicago, and at once became one of
the leaders of the Cook Countj- bar. Although
l>ersistently urged bj' personal and political
friends, to permit his name to lie iLsed in connec-
tion with a vacancy on the bench of the United
States Supreme Court, lie steadfastlj- declined.
In 1877 he received the votes of the Republicans
in the State Legislature for United States Senator
against David Davis, who was elected. Died, at
Decatur, Ala.. April 9, I8S3.

LAWREXCE COl'MV, one of the ea.stern
counties in the "'southern tier," originally a part
of Edwards, but separated from the latter in
1821, and named for Commodore Lawrence. In
1890 its area was 360 sijuare miles, and its popu-
lation. 14,693. The first English speaking settlers
seem to have emigrated from the colony at Vin-
cennes, Ind. St. Francisville, in the southeast-
ern portion, and Allison prairie, in the northeast,
were favored by the American pioneers. Settle-
ment was more or less desultory tintil after the

War of ISVJ. Game was abundant and the soil
productive. About a dozen negro families found
homes, in 1819, near Lawrenceville, and a Shaker
colony was established about Charlottesville the
same year. Among the best remembered pio-
neers are the families of Lautermann. Chubb,
Kincaid, Buchanan and Laus — the latter having
come from South Carolina. ToussJiint Dubois,
a Frenchman and father of Jesse K. Dubois, State
Auditor (1857-64), was a large land proprietor at
an early day. and his house was first utilized as a
court Tlie county is richer in historic
associations than in populous towns. Lawrence-
ville. the county-seat, was credited with 865
inhabitants by the census of 1890. St. Francis-
ville and Sumner are flourishing towns.

LAWRENCEVILLE, the county-seat of Law-
rence Coimt.v. is situated on the Embarras River,
at tlie intersection of the Baltimore & Ohio South-
western and the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago
& St. Louis Railways. 9 miles west of Vincennes,
Ind., and 139 miles east of St. Louis. It has a
court house, tliree churches, a graded school and
two weekly newspapers. Population (1880), 514;
(1890). sfi.-).

L.VWSOX, Victor P., journalist ami newspaper
proprietor, was born in Chicago, of Scandinavian
parentage. Sept 9, 1850. After graduating at the
Chicago High School, he prosecuted his studies
at Phillips Academy, Andover, Mass., and at
Harvard University. In August, 1876, he pur-
chased an interest in "The Chicago Daily News,"
being for some time a partner of Melville E.
Stone, but became sole proprietor in 1888, pub-
lishing morning and evening editions. He
reduced the price of the morning edition to one
cent, and changed its name to "The Chicago
Record." He has always taken a deep interest
in the cause of popular education, and, in 1888,
established a fund to provide for the distribution
of medals among public school children of Chi-
cago, the award to be made upon the basis of
comparative excellence in the preparation of
essays upon topics connected with American

LEBANON, a city in St. Clair County, situated
on Silver Creek, and on the Baltimore & Ohio
Southwestern Railroad, 11 miles northeast of
Belleville and 24 miles east of St. Louis. It is
located in an agricultural and coal-mining region,
and has various descriptions of manufacture.s, the
chief industrial establishments being flouring-
mills, a distillery, a brewery, a planing-mill. and
a manufactory of farming implements. The city
also has a bank, eiglit churches and a newspaper,



and is the seat of McKendree College, chartered
in 1834. (See McKendree College.) Population
(1880), 1,934; (1890), 1,636.

LEE COUNTY, one of the third tier of counties
south of the Wisconsin State line; named for
Richard Henry Lee of Revolutionary fame ; area,
740 square miles; population (1890), 26,187. It
was cut off from Ogle County, and separately
organized in 1839. In 1840 the population was
but little over 3,000. Charles F. Ingals, Nathan
R. Whitney and James P. Dixon were the first
County-Commissioners. Agriculture is the prin-
cipal pursuit, although stone quarries are found
here and there, notably at Ashton. The county-
seat is Dixon, where, in 1828, one Ogee, a half-
breed, built a cabin and established a ferry across
the Rock River In 1830, John Dixon, of New
York, purchased Ogee's interest for $1,800. Set-
tlement and progress were greatly retarded by
the Black Hawk War, but immigration fairly set
in in 1838 The first court house was built in
1840, and the same year the United States Land
Office was removed from Galena to Dixon, Colo.,
John Dement, an early pioneer, being appointed
Receiver. Dixon was incorporated as a city in
1859, and. in 1890, had a population of 5,161.

Apportionment, Legislative. )

LEGISLATURE. (See General Assemblies.)

LELAND, a village of La Salle County, on the
Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway, 29 miles
southwest of Aurora. Population (1890), 554.

LELAND, Edwin S., lawyer and Judge, was
born at Denuysville, Me., August 28, 1812, and
admitted to the bar at Dedham, Mass., in 1834.
In 1835 he removed to Ottawa, III, and, in 1839,
to Oregon, Ogle County, where he practiced for
four years. Returning to Ottawa in 1843, he
rapidly rose in his profession, until, in 1853, he
was elected to the Circuit Court bench to fill the
unexpired term of Judge T. Lyle Dickey, who
had resigned. In 1866 Governor Oglesby ap-
pointed him Circuit Judge to fill the unexpired
term of Judge Hollister. He was elected by
popular vote in 1867, and re-elected in 1873, being
assigned to the Appellate Court of the Second
District in 1877. He was prominently identified
with the genesis of the Republican party, whose
tenets he zealously championed. He was also
prominent in local affairs, having been elected
the first Republican Mayor of Ottawa (1856),
President of tlie Board of Education and County
Treasurer. Died, June, 24, 1889.

LEMEN, James, Sr., pioneer, was born in Berk-
eley County, Va. , Nov. 30, 1760 ; served as a soldier

in the War of the Revolution, being present at
the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781 ;
in 1786 came to Illinois, settling at the village of
New Design, near the present site of Waterloo, in

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 69 of 207)