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Monroe County. He was a man of enterprise
and sterling integrity, and ultimately became the
head of one of the most prominent and influential
families in Southern Illinois. He is said to have
been the first person admitted to the Baptist
Church by immersion in Illinois, finally becoming
a minister of that denomination. Of a family of
eight children, four of his sons became ministers.
Mr. Lemen's prominence was indicated by the
fact that he was approached by Aaron Burr, with
offers of large rewards for his influence in found-
ing that ambitious schemer's projected South-
western Empire, but the proposals were
indignantly rejected and the scheme denounced.
Died, at Waterloo, Jan. 8, 1833.— Robert (Lemen),
oldest son of the preceding, was born in Berkeley
County, V^a., Sept. 25, 1783; came with his father
to Illinois, and, after his marriage, settled in St.
Clair County. He held a commission as magis-
trate and, for a time, was United States Marshal
for Illinois under the administration of John
Quincy Adams. Died in Ridge Prairie, St. Clair
County, August 24, I860.— Rev. Joseph (Lemen),
the second son, was born in Berkeley County,
Va., Sept. 8, 1785, brought to Illinois in 1786, and,
on reaching manhood, married Mary Kinney, a
daughter of Rev. William Kinney, who after-
wards became Lieutenant-Governor of the State.
Joseph Lemen settled in Ridge Prairie, in the
northern part of St. Clair County, and for many
years supplied the pulpit of the Bethel Baptist
church, which had been founded in 1809 on the
principle of opposition to human slavery. His
death occurred at his home, June 29, 1861. — Kev.
James (Lemen), Jr., the third son, was born in
Monroe County, 111., Oct. 8, 1787; early united
with the Baptist Church and became a minister
— assisting in the ordination of his father, whose
sketch stands at the head of this article. He
served as a Delegate from St. Clair County in the
first State Constitutional Convention (1818), and as
Senator in the Second, Fourth and Fifth General
Assemblies. He also preached extensively in
Illinois, Missouri, and Kentucky, and assisted in
the organization of many churches, although his
labors were chiefly within his own. Mr. Lemen
was the second child of American parents born in
Illinois — Enoch Moore being the first. Died,
Feb. 8, 1870.— William (Lemen), the fourth son.
born in Monroe County, 111., in 1791; served as a
soldier in the Black Hawk War. Died in Monroe


County, in 1857— Rev. Josiah (Lemen), the
fifth son, born in Monroe County, 111.. August 15,
1794; was a Baptist preacher. Died near Du-
quoin, July 11, 1867.— Kev. Moses (Lemen), the
sixth son, born in Monroe County, III., in 1797;
became a Baptist minister early in life, served as
Representative in the Sixth General Assembly
(1828-30) for Monroe Count}-. Died, in Montgom-
ery County, 111. , Marcli 5, 1859.

LEMOXT, a city in Cook County, 25 miles
southwest of Chicago, on tlie Des Plaiiies River
and the Chicago & Alton Railroad. A thick vein
of Silurian limestone (Athens marble) is exten-
sively quarried here, constituting the chief in-
dustry. Owing to the number of industrial
enterprises, Lemont is at times the temporary
home of a large number of workmen. The popu-
lation is constantly shifting. The city lias a bank,
five churches, two weekly papers and a public
school. Aluminum and concrete works are
operated there. Population of the township
(1880), 3,798; (1890), 5,.539.

LE MOTNE, John V., ei-Congressman, was
born in Wasliington County, Pa., in 1828, and
graduated from Washington College, Pa., in
1847. He studied law at Pittsburg, where he was
admitted to the bar in 1852. He at once removed
to Chicago, wliere lie continued a permanent
resident and active practitioner. In 1872 he was
a candidate for Congress on the Liberal Repub-
lican ticket, but was defeated by Charles B. Far-
well, Republican. In 1874 he was again a
candidate against Mr. Farwell. Both claimed
the election, and a contest ensued which was
decided by the House in favor of Mr. Le Moyne.

LENA, a village in Stephenson County, on the
Illinois Central Railroad, 13 miles northwest of
Freeport and 38 miles east of Galena. It is in a
farming and dairying district, but has manufac-
tories of boots and shoes, sash and blinds, car-
riages, and a foundry. There are also six
churches, banks and a newspaper. Population
(1880), 1,520: (1890), 1,270.

LEONARD, Edward F., Railway President,
was born in Connecticut in 1836; graduated from
Union College, N. Y., was admitted to the bar
and came to Springfield. 111., in 1858: served for
several years as clerk in the office of the State
Auditor, was afterwards connected with the con-
struction of the "St. Louis Short Line" (now a
part of the Illinois Central Railway), and was
private secretary of Governor CuUom during his
first term. For several years lie has been Presi-
dent of the Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroad,
with headquarters at Peoria.

LEROY, a city in McLean County, 15 miles
southwest of Bloomington. It has banks, several
churches, a graded school and a plow factory.
Two weekly papers are published there. Popu-
lation (1880), 1,068; (1890), 1,258.

LEVERETT, Washington and Warren, edu-
cators and twin-brothers, whose careers were
strikingly similar : born at Brookline, Mass., Dec.
19, 1805, and passed their boyliood on a farm; in
1827 began a preparatory course of study under
an elder brother at Roxbury, Mass., entered
Brown University as freshmen, the next year, and
graduated in 1832. Warren, being in bad health,
spent the following winter in South Carolina,
afterwards engaging in teaching, for a time, and
in study in Newton Theological Seminary, while
Washington served as tutor two years in his
Alma Mater and in Columbian College in Wash-
ington, D. C, tlien took a course at Newton,
graduating there in 1836. The same year he
accepted the chair of Mathematics in Shurtleff
College at Upper Alton, remaining, witli slight
interruption, until 1808. Warren, after sulTering
from hemorrhage of the lungs, same west in the
fall of 1837, and, after teaching for a few months
at Greenville, Bond County, in 1839 joined his
brother at Shurtleff College as Principal of the
preparatory department, subsequently being
advanced to the chair of Ancient Languages,
which he continued to occupy until June, 1868,
when he retired in the same year with his brother.
After resigning he established himself in the book
business, which was continued until his death,
Nov. 8, 1872. Washington, the surviving brother,
continued to be a member of the Board of Trus-
tees of Shurtleff College, and to discharge the
duties of Librarian and Treasurer of the institu-
tion. Died, Dec. 13, 1889.

LEWIS INSTITUTE, an educational institu-
tion based upon a bequest of Allen C. Lewis, in
the city of Chicago, e.stablished in 1895. It main-
tains departments in law, the classics, prepara-
tory studies and manual training, and owns
property valued at .51.600,000, with funds and
endowment amounting to .$1,100,000. No report
is made of the number of pupils.

LEWIS, John H., ex-Congressman, was born
in Tompkins County, N. Y., July 21, 1830.
When six years old he accompanied his parents
to Knox County, 111., where he attended the
public schools, read law, and was admitted to the
bar in 1860. The same year lie was elected Clerk
of the Circuit Court of Knox County. In 1874 he
was elected to the lower house of the General
Assembly, and, in 1880. was the successful Repub-



lican candidate for Congress from the old Ninth
District. In 1883, he was a candidate for re-
election from the same district (then the Tenth),
but was defeated by Nicholas E. Worthington,
his Democratic opponent.

LEWISTOWN, the county -seat of Fulton
County, located on two lines of railway, fifty
miles southwest of Peoria and sixty miles north-
west of Springfield. It contains flour and saw-
mills, carriage and wagon, can-making,
duplex-scales and evener factories, six churches
and four newspapers, one issuing a daily edition ;
also excellent public schools. Population (1880),
1.771; (1890), 3,166.

LEXINGTON, a town in McLean County, on
the Chicago & Alton Railroad, 110 miles south of
Chicago and 16 miles northeast of Bloomington.
The surrounding region is agricultural and stock-
raising, and the town has a flourishing trade in
horses and other live-stock. Tile is manufactured
here, and the town has two banks, five churches,
a high school and a weekly newspaper. Popula-
tion (1880), 1,354; (1890), 1,187.

LIBEETYVILLE, a village of Lake County, at
the terminus of a spur of the Milwaukee Division
of the Chicago, Jlilwaukee & St. Paul Railway, 36
miles north-northwest of Chicago. The region
is agricultural. The town has a bank and a
weekly paper. Population (1880), 695; (1890),

LIBRAKIES. (Statistical. )— A report of the
Commissioner of Education for 1895-96, on the
subject of "Public, Society and School Libraries
in the United States," presents some approximate
statistics of libraries in the several States, based
upon the reports of librarians, so far as they
could be obtained in reply to inquiries sent out
from the Bureau of Education in Washington.
As shown by the statistical tables embodied in
this report, there were 348 libraries in Illinois
reporting 300 volumes and over, of which 134
belonged to the smallest class noted, or those con-
taining less than 1,000 volumes. The remaining
214 were divided into the following classes :

Containing 300,000 and less than 500, 000 volumes 1


" 300,000 •■ 3

50.000 "

" 100,000 " 1


" 50,000 " 5


" 25,000 " 27


" 10,000 " 34

1,000 "

5,000 " 144

A general classification of libraries of 1,000
volumes and over, as to character, divides them
into. General, 91; School, 36; College, 42; College
Society, 7; Law, 3; Theological, 7; State, 3; Asy-

lum and Reformatory, 4; Young Men's Christian
Association, 2; Scientific, 6; Historical, 3; Soci-
ety, 8; Medical, Odd Fellows and Social, 1 each.
The total number of volumes belonging to the
class of 1,000 volumes and over was 1,833, .580 with
447,168 pamphlets; and, of the class between 300
and 1,000 volumes, 66,993 — making a grand total of
1,889,573 volumes. The library belonging to the
largest (or 300,000) class, is that of the University
of Chicago, reporting 305.000 volumes, with
180,000 pamphlets, while tlie Chicago Public
Library and tlie Newberry Library belong to the
second class, reporting, respectively, 317,065 vol-
umes witli 43,000 pamphlets, and 135,344 volumes
and 35,654 pamphlets. (The report of the Chi-
cago Public Library for 1898 shows a total, for
that year, of 335,385 volumes and 44,069 pam-
phlets. )

As to sources of support or method of adminis-
tration, 48 of the class reporting 1,000 volumes
and over, are supported by taxation ; 27, by appro-
priations by State, County or City ; 30, from
endowment funds ; 54, from membership fees and
dues; 16, from book-rents; 26. from donations,
leaving 53 to be supported from sources not
stated. The total income of 131 reporting on tliis
subject is 5787,262; the aggregate endowment
of 17 of this class is S3.383.197. and the value of
buildings belonging to 36 is estimated at §2,981,-
575. Of the 214 libraries reporting 1,000 volumes
and over, 88 are free, 28 are reference, and 158
are both circulating and reference.

The free public libraries in the State containing
3,000 volumes and over, in 1896, amounted to 39.
The following list includes those of this class con-
taining 10,000 volumes and over:

Chicago, Public Library . . (1896) 217,065

Peoria, " " 57,604

Springfield, " " 28,639

Rockford, " " 28,000

Quincy, " " and Reading Room 19,400

Galesburg " " 18,4b9

Elgin, Gail Borden Public Library . . 17,000

Bloomington. Withers " " ... 16,068

Evanston, Free " " ... 15,515

Decatur, " " " . . . 14,766

Belleville, " " . . . 14,511

Aurora, " " ... 14,3.50

Rock Island, " " ... 13,6.34

Joliet. " " ... 32,325

The John Crerar Library (a scientific reference
library)— established in the City of Chicago in
1854, on the basis of a bequest of the late John
Crerar, estimated as amounting to fully $3,000,-
000 — is rapidly adding to its resources, having,
in the four years of its history, acquired over
40,000 volumes. With its princely endowment.


it is destined, in the course of a few years, to be
reckoned one of the leading libraries of its class
in the United States, as it is one of the most
modern and carefully selected.

The Newberry and Chicago Historical Society
Libraries fill an important place for reference pur-
poses, especially on historical subjects. A tardy
beginning has been made in building up a State
Historical Library in Springfield; but, owing to
the indifference of the Legislature and the meager
support it has received, the State wliich was, for
nearly a hundred years, the theater of the most
important events in the development of the Mis-
sissippi Valley, has, as yet, scarcely accomplished
anything worthy of its name in collecting and
preserving the records of its own history.

In point of historical origin, next to the Illinois
State Library, which dates from tlie admission
of the State into the Union in 1818, the oldest
library in the State is that of the McCormick
Theological Seminary, which is set down as hav-
ing had its origin in 182.'), though this occurred
in another State. The early State College Li-
braries follow next in chronological order: Shurt-
leff College, at Upper Alton, 1827 ; Illinois College,
at Jacksonville. 1829; McKendree College, at
Lebanon, 1834; Rockford College, 1849; Lombard
University, at Galesburg, 1859. In most cases,
however, these are simply the dates of the estab-
lishment of the institution, or the period at which
instruction began to be given in tlie school which
finally developed into the college.

The school library is constantly becoming a
more important factor in the liberal education of
the youth of the State. Adding to this the "Illi-
nois Pupils" Reading Circle," organized by the
State Teachers' Association some ten years ago,
but still in the experimental stage, and the sys-
tem of "traveling libraries," set on foot at a later
period, there is a constant tendency to enlarge
the range of popular reading and bring the public
library, in some of its various forms, within the
reach of a larger class.

The Free Public Library Law of Illinois.
— The following history and analysis of the Free
PubUc Library Law of Illinois is contributed, for
the "Historical Encyclopedia," by E. S. Wilcox.
Librarian of the Peoria Public Library :

The Library Law passed by the Legislature
of Illinois in 1872 was the first broadly planned,
comprehensive and complete Free Public Li-
brary Law placed on the statute book of any
State in the Union. It is true. New Hamp-
shire, in 1849, and Massachusetts, in 1851,
had taken steps in this direction, with three or
four brief sections of laws, permissive in their

character rather than directive, but lacking the
vitalizing qualities of our lllincis law. in that
they provided no sutticit^ntly specific working
method — no sailing directions — lor starting and
administering sucli free jmblic libraries. They
seem to have had no influence on subsecjuent
library legislation, while, to quote the language
of Mr. Fletcher in his "Public Libraries in
America," "the wi.sdom of the Illinois law, in tliis
regard, is probably the reason why it has been so
widely copied in other States. ' '

By this law of 1873 Illinois placed herself at the
head of her sister States in encouraging the
spread of general intelligence among the people ;

within less than five years after her admission to
the Union, Dec. 3, 1818— that is. at the first ses-
sion of her Third General Assembly — a general
Act was passed and approved, Jan. 31, 1823,
entitled : "An act to incorporate such persons as
may associate for the purpose of procuring and
erecting public libraries in this State," with the
following preamble •

state, by associating for procurinR and erectiiiK
libraries: and, whereas, it is of tlie utmost importance to
tlie iml)lic that tlie .sources of information should be inulti
plied, and institutions for that purpose encouraged and pro-
moted: Seel. Be it enacted," etc.

Then follow ten sections, covering five and a
half pages of the published laws of that session,
giving explicit directions as to the organizing
and maintaining of such Associations, with pro-
visions as enlightened and liberal as we could ask
for to-day. The libraries contemplated in this act
are, of course, subscription libraries, the only
kind known at that time, free public librarie"s
supported by taxation not having come into
vogue in that early day.

It is the one vivifying quality of the Illinois
law of 1872, that it showed how to start a free
public library, how to manage it when started
and how to provide it with the necessary funds.
It furnished a 'full and minute set of sailing
directions for the ship it launched, ami. moreover,
was not loaded down with useless limitations.

With a few exceptions — notably tlie Boston
Public Library, working imder a special charter,
and an occasional endowed library, like the Astor
Library— all public libraries in those days were
subscription libraries, like the great Mercantile
Libraries of New York, St. Louis and Cincinnati,
with dues of from S3 to 810 from each member
per year. With dues at S4 a year, our Peoria
Mercantile Library, at its best, never had over
280 members in any one year. Compare this with
our present pulilic membersliip of 6, .500, and it
^yiIl be seen that some kind of a free pubhc
library law was needed. That was the conclu-
sion I, as one of the Directors of the Peoria Mer-
cantile Library, came to in 1869. We had tried
every expedient for years, in the way of lecture
courses, concerts, .spelling matches, "Drummer
Boy of Shiloh," and begging, to increase our
membership and revenue. So far, and no farther,
seemed to be the rule with all subscription
libraries. They did not reach the masses wli..
needed them most. And, for this manifest rea-


son : the necessary cost of annual dues stood in
the way ; the women and young people who
wanted something to read, who thirsted for
knowledge, and who are the principal patrons of
the free public library to-day, did not hold the
family purse-strings; while the men, who did
hold the purse-strings, did not particularly care
for books.

It was my experience, derived as a Director in
the Peoria Mercantile Library when it was still a
small, struggling subscription library, that sug-
gested the need of a State law authorizing cities
and towns to tax themselves for the support of
public libraries, as they already did for the sup-
port of public schools. When, in 1870, I
submitted the plan to some of my friends, they
pronounced it Quixotic — the people would never
consent to pay taxes for libraries. To which I
replied, that, until sometime in the "50's, we
had no free public schools in this State.

I then drew up the form of a law, substantially
as it now stands; and, after submitting it to
Justin Winsor, then of the Boston Public Li-
brary ; William F. Poole, then in Cincinnati, and
William T. Harris, then in St. Louis, I placed it
in the hands of my friend. Mr. Samuel Caldwell,
in December, 1870, who took it with him to
Springfield, promising to do what he could to get
it through the Legislature, of which he was a
member from Peoria. The bill was introduced
by Jlr. Caldwell, March 23, 1871, as House bill
No. 563, and as House bill No. 563 it finally
received the Governor's signature and became a
law, March 7, 1872.

The essential features of our Illinois law are :

/. The power of initiative in starting a free
public library lies in the City Coiincil. and not in
an appeal to the voters of the city at a general

It is a weak point in the English public libra-
ries act that this initiative is left to the electors or
voters of a city, and, in several London and pro-
vincial districts, the proposed law has been
repeatedly voted down by the very people it was
most calculated to benefit, froni fear of a little
extra taxation.

//. The amount of tax to be levied is permissive,
not mandatory.

We can trust to the public spirit of our city
authorities, supported by an intelligent public
sentiment, to provide for the library needs. A
mandatory law, requiring the levying of a certain
fixed percentage of the city's total assessment,
might invite extravagance, as it has in several
instances wherq a mandatory law is in force.

III. Tlie Library Board han e.rclusive control of
library appropriations.

This is to be interpreted that Public Library
Boards are separate and distinct departments of
the city administration; and experience has
shown that they are as capable and honest in
handling money as School Boards or City

IV. Library Boards consist of nine members to
serve for three years.

V. The members of the Board are appointed by
the Mayor, subject to the approval of the City
Council, from the citizens at large with reference
to their fitness for such office.

VI. An annual report is to be made by the
Board to the City Council, stating the condition
of their trust on the first day of June of each

This, with slight modifications adapting it to
villages, towns and townships, is, in substance,
the Free Public Library Law of Illinois. Under
its beneficent operation flourishing free public
libraries have been established in the principal
cities and towns of our State — slowly, at first,
but, of late years, more rapidly as their usefulness
has become apparent.

No argument is now needed to show the im-
portance — the imperative necessity — of the widest
possible diffusion of intelligence among the people
of a free State. Knowledge and ignorance — the
one means civilization, the other, barbarism.
Give a man the taste for good books and the
means of gratifying it, and you can hardly fail of
making him a better, happier man and a wiser
citizen. You place him in contact with the best
society in every period of history ; you set before
him nobler examples to imitate and safer paths
to follow.

We have no way of foretelling how many and
how great benefits will accrue to society and the
State, in the future, from the comparatively
modern introduction of the free public library
into our educational system ; but when some
youthful Abraham Lincoln, poring over .,^sop's
Fables, Weems' Life of Washington and a United
States History, by the flickering light of a pine-
knot in a log-cabin, rises at length to be the hope
and bulwark of a nation, then we learn what the
world may owe to a taste for books. In the gen-
eral spread of intelligence through our free
schools, our free press and our free libraries, lies
our only hope that our free American institutions
shall not decay and perish from the earth.


The office of Lieutenant-Go%'ernor, created by the
Constitution of 1818, has been retained in each of
the subsequent Constitutions, being elective by
the people at the same time with that of Gov-
ernor. The following is a list of the Lieutenant-
Governors of the State, from the date of its
admission into the LTuiou to the present time
(1899), with the date and length of each incum-
bent's term; Pierre Menard, 1818-22; Adolphus
Frederick Hubbard, 1822-26; William Kinney,
1826-30; Zadoc Casey, 1830-33; William Lee D.
Ewing (succeeded to the oflfice as President of the
Senate), 1833-34; Alexander M. Jenkins, 1834-36;
William H. Davidson (as President of the
Senate), 1836-38; Stinson H. Anderson, 1838-42;
John Moore, 1842-46; Joseph B. Wells, 1846-49;
William McMurtry, 1849-53; Gustavus Koerner,
1858-57; John Wood, 1857-60; Thomas A. Mar-
shall (as President of the Senate), Jan. 7-14, 1861;
Francis A. Hoffman, 1861-65; William Bross,
1865-69; John Dougherty, 1869-78; John L.



Beveridge. Jan. 13-23. 1873; John Early (as
President of the Senate). 1873-7.5; Archihald A.
Glenn (as President of the Senate), 187.5-77;
Andrew Shuman. 1877-81 ; John M. Hamilton.
1881-83; William J. Campbell (as President of
the Senate), 1883-85; John C. Smith. 1885-89;

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