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Historical encyclopedia of Illinois online

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Lyman B. Ray, 1889-93; Jo.seph B. Gill, 1893-97;
William A. Northcott. 1897 — .

LIMESTONE. Illinois ranks next to Pennsyl-
vania in its output of limestone, the United
States Census Report for 1890 giving tlie number
of quai-ries as 104. and tlie total value of tlie
product as §2. 190.604. In the value of stone used
for building purposes Illinois far exceeds any
other State, the greater proportion of the output
in Pennsylvania being suitable only for flux.
Next to its employment as building stone. Illinois
limestone is chiefly used for street-work, a small
percentage being used for flux, and still less for
bridge-work, and but little for burning into lime.
The quarries in this State employ 3,383 hands, and
represent a capital of $3,316,016, in the latter par-
ticular also ranking next to Pennsylvania. The
quarries are found in various parts of the State,
but the most productive and most valuable are in
the northern section.

LINCOLN, an incorporated city, and county-
seat of Logan County, at the intersection of the
Chicago & Alton, the Champaign and Havana
Division of the Illinois Central, and the Peoria,
Decatur & Evansville Railroads; is 28 miles
northeast of Springfield, and 1-57 miles southwest
of Chicago. The surrounding country is devoted
to agriculture, stock-raising and coal-mining.
Considerable manufacturing is carried on, among
the products being flour, press drills, brick and
drain tile. There are also machine shops and ex-
tensive canning works. There are some twenty
churches, three national banks, a public library,
electric street railways, and two daily and four
weekly newspapers. Besides possessing a good
common school system, it is the seat of Lincoln
University (a Cumberland Presbyterian institu-
tion, founded in 1865). The Odd Fellows'
Orphans' Home and the Illinois (State) Asylum
for Feeble-Minded Children are also located here.
Population (1880). 5,639; (1890), 6,7'25; (1899)
estimated. 10.000.

LINCOLN, Abraham, sixteenth President of the
United States, was born in Hardin County, Ky.,
Feb. 12, 1809, of Quaker-English descent, his
grandfather having emigrated from Virginia to
Kentucky about 1780, where he was killed by the
Indians in 1784. Thomas Lincoln, the father of
Abraham, settled in Indiana in 1816, and removed



to Macon County in 1830. Abraham was the
issue of his father's first marriage, his mother's
maiden name being Nancy Hanks. The early-
occupations of the future Presiilent were varied.
He served at dirt'erent times as farm-laborer, flat-
boatman, country salesman, merchant, surveyor,
lawyer, State legislator, Congressman and Presi-
dent. In 1832 he enlisted for the Black Hawk
War, and was chosen Captain of his company ;
was an unsuccessful candidate for the Legislature
the same year, but elected two years later.
About this time he turned his attention to the
study of law, was admitted to the bar in 1836,
and, one year later, began practice at Springfield.
By successive re-elections he served in the House
until 1842, when he declined a re-election. In
1838, and again in 1840. he was the Whig candi-
date for Speaker of the House, on both occasions
being defeated by William L. D. Ewing. In 1841
he was an applicant to President William Henry
Harrison for the position of Commissioner of the
General Land Office, the appointment going to
Justin Butterfield. His next oflicial position was
that of Representative in the Thirtieth Congress
(1847-49). From that time he gave his attention
to his profession imtil 1855. when he was a lead-
ing candidate for the United States Senate in
opposition to the principles of the Nebraska Bill,
but failed of election, Lyman Trumbull being
chosen. In 1856, he took a leading part in the
organization of the Republican party at Bloom-
ington, and, in 1858, was formally nominated by
the Republican State Convention for the United
States Senate, later engaging in a joint debate
with Senator Douglas on party issues, during
which they delivered speeches at seven different
cities of the State. Although he again failed to
secure the prize of an election, owing to the char-
acter of the legislative apportionment then in
force, which gave a majority of the Senators and
Representatives to a Democratic minority of the
voters, his burning, incisive utterances on the
subject of slavery attracted the attention of the
whole country, and prepared the way for the
future triumph of the Republican party. Previ-
ous to this he had been four times (1840, '44, '52,
and '56) on the ticket of his party as candidate
for Presidential Elector. In 1860, he was the
nominee of the Republican party for the Presi-
dency and was chosen by a decisive majority in
the Electoral College, though receiving a minor-
ity of the aggregate popular vote. Unquestion-
ably his candidacy was aided by internal
dissensions in tlie Democratic party. His election
and his inauguration (on March 4, 1861) were



338



HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



made a pretext for secession, and he met the
issue with promptitude and firmness, tempered
with kindness and moderation towards the se-
cessionists. He was re-elected to the Presidency
in 1864, the vote in tlie Electoral College standing
213 for Lincoln to 21 for his opponent, Gen.
George B. McClellan. The history of Mr. Lin-
coln's life in tlie Presidential chair is the liistory
of the whole country during its most dramatic
period. Next to his success in restoring the
authority of the Government over tlie whole
Union, history will, no doubt, record his issuance
of the Emancipation Proclamation of January,
1863, as the most important and far-reacliing act
of his administration. And yet to this act, which
has embalmed his memory in the hearts of the
lovers of freedom and liuman justice in all ages
and in all lands, the world over, is due his death
at tlie hands of the assassin, J. Wilkes Booth, in
Wasliington City, April 15, 1865, as the result of
an assault made upon him in Ford's Theater the
evening previous — his deatli occurring one week
after the fall of Richmond and the surrender of
Lee's army — just as peace, with tlie restoration of
the Union, was assured. A period of National
mourning ensued, and he was accorded tlie honor
of a National funeral, his remains being finally
laid to rest in a mausoleum in Springfield. His
profound sympathy with every class of sufferers
during the War of tlie Rebellion ; his forbearance
in the treatment of enemies; his sagacity in
giving direction to public sentiment at home and
in dealing with international questions abroad ;
his courage in preparing the way for the removal
of slavery — tlie bone of contention between the
warring sections — have given him a place in the
affections of the people beside that of Washington
himself, and won for him the respect and admi-
ration of all civilized nations.

LINCOLN, Robert Todd, lawyer, member of
the Cabinet and Foreign Minister, tlie son of
Abraham Lincoln, was born in Springfield, 111.,
August 1, 1843, and educated in the home schools
and at Harvard University, graduating from the
latter in 1864. During the last few months of
the Civil War, he served on the staff of General
Grant with the rank of Captain. After the war
he studied law and, on his admission to the bar.
settled in Chicago, finally becoming a member of
the firm of Lincoln & Isham. In 1880, he was
chosen a Presidential Elector on the Republican
ticket, and, in March following, appointed Secre-
tary of War by President Garfield, serving to the
close of the term. In 1889 he became Minister to
England by appointment of President Harrison,



gaining high distinction as a diplomatist. This
was the last public office held by him. After the
death of George M. Pullman he became Acting
President of the Pullman Palace Car Companj',
later being formally elected to that office, which
(1899) he still holds. Mr. Lincoln's name has
been frequently mentioned in connection with
the Republican nomination for the Presidency,
but its use has not been encouraged by him.

LINCOLN AND DOUGLAS DEBATE, a name
popularly given to a series of joint discussions
between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Doug-
las, held at different points in the State during the
summer and autumn of 1858, while both were
candidates for the position of United States Sena-
tor. The places and dates of holding these
discussions were as follows: At Ottawa, August
21 ; at Freeport, August 27 ; at Jonesboro, Sept.
15; at Charleston, Sept. 18; at Galesburg, Oct. 7;
at Quinc}-, Oct. 13 ; at Alton, Oct. 15. Immense
audiences gathered to hear these debates, which
have become famous in the political history of
the Nation, and the campaign was the most noted
in the history of any State. It resulted in the
securing by Douglas of a re-election to the Senate ;
but his answers to the shrewdly-couched interrog-
atories of Lincoln led to the alienation of liis
Southern following, the disruption of the Demo-
cratic party in 1860, and the defeat of his Presi-
dential aspirations, with the placing of Mr.
Lincoln prominently before the Nation as a
sagacious political leader, and his final election
to the Presidency.

LINCOLN UNIVERSITY, an institution located
at Lincoln, Logan County, 111., incorporated in
1865. It is co-educational, has a faculty of eleven
instructors and, for 1896-8, reports 209 pupils —
ninety-one male and 118 female. Instruction
is given in the classics, the sciences, music, fine
arts and preparatory studies. The institution
has a library of 3,000 volumes, and reports funds
and endowment amounting to 860,000, with
l)roperty valued at $55,000.

LINDER, Usher F., lawyer and politician, was
born in Elizabethtown, Hardin County, Ky. (ten
miles from the birthplace of Abraham Lincoln),
March 30, 1809; came to Illinois in 1835, finaUy
locating at Charleston, Coles County ; after travel-
ing the circuit a few months was elected Repre-
sentative in the Tenth General Assembly (1836),
but resigned before tlie close of the session to
accept the office of Attorney-General, which he
held less than a year and a half, when he resigned
that also. Again, in 1846, he was elected fo the
Fifteenth General Assembly and re-elected to the



HISTORICAL EJSC"Y('LOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



:!;3!>



Sixteentli and Seventeentli. afterwards giving his
attention to the prautit-e of his profession. Mr.
Linder, in his best days, was a fluent speaker with
some elements of eloquence which gave him a
wide popularity as a campaign orator. Originally
a Whig, on the dissolution of that party he
became a Democrat, and, in 18G0, was a delegate
to the Democratic National Convention at
Charleston, S C, and at Baltimore. During the
last four years of his Ufe he wrote a series of
articles under tlie title of "Reminiscences of the
Biirly Bencli and Bar of Illinois," which was pub-
lished in book form in 1876, Died in Chicago,
June 5, 1876.

LINEUAR, David T., legislator, was born in
Ohio, Feb. 12, 1880; came to Spencer Count}',
Ind., in 1840, and to "Wayne County, 111., in 1858,
afterward locating at Cairo, where he served as
Postmaster during the Civil War ; was a Repub-
lican Presidential Elector in 1872, but afterwards
became a Democrat, and served as such in the
lower branch of the General Assembly (1880-86).
Died at Cairo, Feb. 2. 1886.

LIPPIXCOTT, Charles E., State Auditor, was
born at Edwardsville, 111., Jan. 26, 182"); attended
Illinois College at Jacksonville, but did not
graduate; in 1849 graduated from the St. Louis
Medical College, and began the practice of medi-
cine at Chandlerville, Cass County. In 18.52 he
went to California, remaining there live years,
taking an active part in the anti-slavery contest,
and serving as State Senator (18.'j3-05). In 1857,
having returned to Illinois, he resumed practice
at Chandlerville, and, in 1861, under authority of
Governor Yates, recruited a company which was
attached to the Thirty-third Illinois Infantry as
Company K, and of which he was commissioned
Captain, having declined the lieutenant-colo-
nelcy. Within twelve months he became Colonel,
and, on Sept. 16, 1865, was mustered out as brevet
Brigadier-General. In 1866 he reluctantly con-
sented to lead the Republican forlorn hope as a
candidate for Congress in the (then) Ninth Con-
gressional District, largely reducing the Demo-
cratic majority. In 1867 he was elected Secretary
of the State Senate, and the same year chosen
Doorkeeper of the House of Representatives at
Washington. In 1868 he was elected State Audi-
tor, and re-elected in 1872 ; also served as Perma-
nent President of the Republican State Conven-
tion of 1878. On the establishment of the Illinois
Soldiers" and Sailors' Home at Quincy, he became
its first Superintendent, assuming liis duties in
March, 1887, but died Sept. 13, following, as a
result of injuries received from a runaway team



while driving through tlie grounds of the institu
tion a few days previous. — Emily Webster
Chandler (Lippincott), wife of the preceding,
was born March 13, 1833, at Chandlerville, Cass
County, 111., the daughter of Dr. Charles Chaml-
ler, a prominent physician widely known in that
section of the State ; was educated at Jacksonville
Female Academy, and married, Dec. 25, 1851, to
Dr. (afterwards General) Charles E. Lippincott.
Soon after the death of her husband, in Septem-
ber, 1887, Mrs. Lippincott, who liail already
endeared herself by her acts of kindne.ss to tlie
veterans in the Soldiers' and Sailors' Home, was
appointed Matron of the institution, serving until
her death, May 21, 1895. The re.spect in which
she was held by the old soldiers, to wliose com
fort and necessities she had ministered in hos-
pital and elsewhere, was shown in a most touching
manner at the time of her death, and on the
removal of her remains to be laid by the side of
her hiisband, in Oak Ridge Cemetery at Spring-
field.

LIPPINCOTT, (Rev.) Thomas, early, clergy-
man, was born in Salem, N. J., in 1791; in 1817
started west, arriving in St. Louis in February,
1818 ; the same year established himself in mer-
cantile business at Milton, then a place of some
importance near Alton. This place proving
unhealthy, he subsequently removed to Edwards-
ville, where he was for a time employed as clerk
in the Land Office. He afterwards served as
Secretary of the Senate (1822-23). That he was a
man of education and high intelligence, as well
as a strong opponent of slavery, is shown by his
writings, in conjunction with Judge Samuel D.
Lockwood, George Churchill and others, in oppo-
sition to the scheme for securing the adoption of
a pro-slavery Constitution in Illinois in 1824. In
1825 he purchased from Hooper Warren "The
Edwardsville Spectator," which he edited for a
year or more, but soon after entered the ministry
r)f tlie Presbyterian Church and became an influ-
ential factor in building up that denomination in
Illinois. He was also partly instrumental in
.securing the location of Illinois College at Jack
sonville. He died at Pana, 111,, April 13, 1869.
Gen. Charles E. Lippincott, State Auditor
(1869-77), was a .son of the subject of this sketch

LIQUOR LAWS. In the early history of tl e
State, the question of the regulation of the sale of
intoxicants was virtuallj- relegated to the conti



Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 71 of 207)