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LOCKWOOD, Samuel Drake, jurist, was bom
at Pouudridge, Westchester County, X. Y.,
August 2, 1789 , left fatherless at the age of ten,
after a few months at a private school in New
Jersey, he went to live with an uncle (Francis
Drake) at Waterford, N. Y., with whom he
studied law, being admitted to the bar at Batavia.
N. Y., in 1811. In 1!S13 he removed to Auburn,
and later became Master in Chancery. In 1818
he descended tlie Oliio River upon a flat-boat in
company with William H. Brown, afterwards of
Chicago, and walking across the country from
Shawneetown, arrived at Kaskaskia in Decem-
ber, but finally settled at Carmi, where he
remained a j'ear. In 1821 lie was elected Attor-
ney-General of the State, but resigned the fol-
lowing year to accept the position of Secretary of
State, to which he was appointed by Governor
Coles, and which he filled only three months,
when President Monroe made him Receiver of
Public Moneys at Edwardsville. About the same
time he was also appointed agent of the First
Board of Canal Commissioners. The Legislature
of 1824-25 elected him Judge of the Supreme
Court, his service extending until the adoption



of the Constitution of 1848, which he assisted in
framing as a Delegate from Morgan County. In
18.31 he was made State Trustee of the Illinois
Central Railroad, which office he held until his
death. He was always an uncompromising
antagonist of slavery and a leading supporter of
Governor Coles in opposition to the plan to secure
a pro-slavery Constitution in 1824. His personal
and political integrity was recognized by. all
parties. From 1838 to 1853 Judge Lockwood was
a citizen of Jacksonville, where he proved him-
self an efficient friend and patron of Illinois Col-
lege, serving for over a quarter of a century as
one of its Trustees, and was also influential in
securing several of the State charitable institu-
tions there. His later years were spent at
Batavia, where he died, April 23, 1874, in the 8.5th
year of his age.

LODA, a village of Iroquois County, on the
Chicago Division of the Illinois Central Railway.
4 miles north of Paxton. The region is agricul-
tural, and the town lias considerable local trade.
It also has a bank and one weekly paper.
Population (1880), 63.5; (189(1), 598.

LOJJAX, Cornelius Ambrose, physician and
diplomatist, born at Deerfield, Mass., August 6,
18o(i, the son of a dramatist of the same name ;
was educated at Auburn Academy and served as
Medical Superintendent of St. John's Ho.spital,
Cincinnati, and, later, as Professor in the Hos-
pital at Leavenwortli, Kan. In 1873 he was
appointed United States Minister to Chili, after-
wards served as Minister to Guatemala, and again
(1881) as Minister to Chili, remaining until 1883.
He was for twelve years editor of "The Medical
Herald," Leavenworth, Kan., and edited the
works of his relative, Gen. John A. Logan (1886),
besides contributing to foreign medical publi-
cations and publishing two or three volumes on
medical and sanitary questions. Resides in

LOtrAN, John, physician and soldier, was born
in Hamilton County, Ohio, Dec. 30, 1809; at six
years of age was taken to Missouri, his family
settling near the Grand Tower among the Shaw-
nee and Delaware Indians. He began business
as clerk in a New Orleans commission house, but
returning to Illinois in 1830, engaged in the
blacksmith trade for two years; in 1831 enlisted
in the Ninth Regiment Illinois Militia and took
part in tlie Indian troubles of that year and the
Black Hawk War of 1832, later being Colonel of
tlie Forty -fourth Regiment State Militia. At the
close of the Black Hawk War he settled in
Carlinville, and having graduated in medicine,

engaged in practice in that place until 1861. At
the beginning of the war he raised a company
for the Seventh Illinois Volunteers, but the quota
being already full, it was not accepted. He was
finally commissioned Colonel of the Thirty -
second Illinois Volunteers, and reported to Gen-
eral Grant at Cairo, in January, 1802, a few weeks
later taking part in the battles of Forts Henry
and Donelson. Subsequently he had command
of the Fourth Division of the Army of the Ten-
nessee under General Hurlbut. His regiment
lost heavily at the battle of Shiloh, he himself
being severely wounded and compelled to leave
the field. In December, 1864, he was discharged
with the brevet rank of Brigadier-General. In
1866 Colonel Logan was appointed by President
Johnson United States Marshal for the Southern
District of Illinois, serving until 1870, when he
resumed the practice of his profession at Carlin-
ville. Originall}- a Democrat, he became a
Republican on the organization of that party,
serving as a delegate to the first Republican State
Convention at Bloomington in 1856. He was a
man of strong personal characteristics and an
earnest patriot. Died at his home at Carlinville,
August 24, 1885.

LO(tA\, John Alexander, soldier and states-
man, was born at old Brownsville, the original
county-seat of Jackson County, 111., Feb. 9, 1826,
the son of Dr. John Logan, a native of Ireland
and an early immigrant into Illinois, where he
attained prominence as a public man. Young
Logan volunteered as a private in the Mexican
War, but was soon promoted to a lieutenancy,
and afterwards became Quartermaster of his
regiment. He was elected Clerk of Jackson
County in 1849, but resigned the office to prose-
cute his law studies. Having graduated from
Louisville University in 1851, he entered into
partnership with his uncle, Alexander M. Jenk-
ins ; was elected to the Legislature as a Democrat
in 1852, and again in 1856, having been Prosecut-
ing Attorney in the interim. He was chosen a
Presidential Elector on the Democratic ticket in
1856, was elected to Congress in 1858, and again
in 1860, as a Douglas Democrat. During the
special session of Congress in 1861, he left his
seat, and fought in the ranks at Bull Run, In
September, 1861, he organized the Thirty-first
Regiment Illinois Infantry, and was commis-
sioned by Governor Yates its Colonel. His mili-
tary career was brilliant, and he rapidly rose to
be Major-General. President Johnson tendered
him the mission to Mexico, which he declined.
In 1866 he was elected as a Republican to Con-



gress for the State-at-large, and acted as one of
the managers in the impeachment trial of the
President; was twice re-elected and, in 1H71, was
cliosen United States Senator, as he was again in
1879. In 1884 he was an unsuccessful candidate
for the Presidential nomination at the Republican
Convention in Chicago, but was finally placed on
the ticket for tlie Vice-Presidency witli James (i.
Blaine, the ticket being defeated in November
following. In 1885 he was again elected Senator,
but died during his term at \Va.shington, Dec. 26,
1886. General Logan was the author of "The
Great Conspiracy" and of "The Volunteer Soldier
of America. " In 1897 an equestrian statue was
erected to his memory on the Lake Front Park in

LOGAN, Stephen Triarer, eminent Illinois jurist,
was born in Franklin County, Ky., Feb. 24. 1800;
studied law at Glasgow, Ky., and was admitted
to the bar before attaining his majority. After
practicing in Ids native State some ten years, in
1832 he emigrated to Illinois, settUng in Sanga-
mon County, one year later opening an office at
Springfield. In 1835 he was elevated to the
bench of the First Judicial Circuit; resigned two
years later, wa.s re-commi.ssioned in 1839, but
again resigned. In 1842, and again in 1844
and 1846, he was elected to the General Assem-
bly; also served as a member of the Consti-
tutional Convention of 1847. Between 1841
and 1844 he was a partner of Abraham Lin-
coln. In 1854 he was again chosen a member
of the lower house of the Legislature, was
a delegate to the Republican National Conven-
tion in 1860, and, in 1861, was commissioned
by Governor Yates to represent Illinois in the
Peace Conference, wliich assembled in Wash-
ington. Soon afterward he retired to private
life. As an advocate his ability was widely
recognized. Died at Springfield, July 17, 1880.

LOGAX COUXTY, situated in tlie central part
of the State, and liaving an area of about 620
square miles. Its surface is chiefly a level or
moderately undulating prairie, with some high
ridges, as at Elkliart. Its soil is extremely fertile
and well drained by numerous creeks. Coal-
mining is successfully carried on. The other
staple products are corn, wheat, oats, hay, cattle
and pork. Settlers began to locate in 1819-22,
and the county was organized in 1839, being
originally cut off from Sangamon. In 1840 a
portion of Tazewell was added and. in 1845, a
part of De Witt County. It was named in honor
of Dr. John Logan, fatlier of Senator John A.
Logan. Postville was the first county-seat, but.

in 1847, a change was made to Moinit Pulaski,
and, later, to Lincoln, wliich is the pre.sent capi-
tal. Population (1880), 25,037; (1890), 25.489.

LOMBARD, a village of Dupage County, on the
Chicago & Great Western and the Chicago &
Northwestern Railways. Population (1880), 378;
(1890), 515.

LOMBARD UMVERSITY, an institution at
Galesburg under control of the Universalist
denomination, foundetl in 1851. It has prepara-
tory, collegiate and theological departments.
The collegiate department includes both classical
and scientific courses, with a speciallj' arranged
course of three years for young women, wlio con-
stitute nearly half the number of students. Tlie
University has an endowment of $200,000, and
owns additional property, real and personal, of
the value of §100,000. In 1898 it reported a fac-
ulty of tliirteen professors, with an attendance of
191 .students.

LONDON MILLS, a village and railway station
of Fulton County, on the Fulton Narrow Gauge
and Iowa Central Railroads, 19 miles southeast of
Galesburg. The district is agricultural ; the town
has a bank and a weekly newspaper. Population
(18001, 661.

LONG, Stephen Harriman, civil engineer, was
born in Hopkinton, N. H., Dec. 30, 1784; gradu-
ated at Dartmouth College in 1809, and, after
tejiching some years, entered the United States
Army in December, 1814, as a Lieutenant in the
Corps of Engineers, acting as Assistant Professor
of Mathematics at West Point; in 1816 was trans-
ferred to tlie Topographical Engineers with the
brevet rank of Jlajor. From 1818 to 1823 he had
charge of explorations between the Mississippi
River and the Rocky Mountains, and, in 1823-24,
to the sources of the Mississippi. One of the
highest peaks of the Rocky Mountains was named
in his honor. Between 1827 and 1830 he was
employed as a civil engineer on the Baltimore &
Ohio Railroad, and from 1837 to 1840, as Engineer-
in-Chief of the Western & Atlantic Railroad, in
Georgia, where he introduced a system of cui-ves
and a new kind of truss bridge afterwards gener-
ally adopted. On the organization of the Topo-
graphical Engineers as a separate corps in 1838,
he became Major of that body, ajid, in 1861, chief,
with the rank of Colonel. An account of his
first expedition to tlie Rocky Mountains (1819-20)
by Dr. Edwin James, was published in 1823. and
the following year appeared "Long's Expedition
to the Source of St. Peter's River, Lake of the
Woods. Etc." He was a member of the .Ameri-
can Philosophical Society and the author of the



first original treatise on railroad building ever
published in this country, under the title of
"Railroad Manual" (1839). During the latter
days of his life his home was at Alton, 111., where
he died, Sept. 4, 1864. Though retired from
active service in Jvme, 1863, he continued in the
discharge of important duties up to his death.

LONGENECKER, Joel M., lawyer, was born in
Crawford County, III, June 12, 1847; before
reaching his eighteenth year he enlisted in the
Fifth Illinois Cavalry, servinguntil the close of the
■war. After attending the high school at Robinson
and teaching for some time, he began the study
of law and was admitted to the bar at Olney in
1870 ; served two years as City Attorney and four
(1877-81) as Prosecuting Attorney, in the latter
year removing to Chicago. Here, in 1884, he be-
came the assistant of Luther Laflin Mills in the
office of Prosecuting Attorney of Cook County,
retaining that position with Mr. Mills' successor.
Judge Grinnell. On the promotion of the latter
to the bench, in 1886, Mr. Longenecker succeeded
to the office of Prosecuting Attorney, continuing
in that position until 1893. While in this office
he conducted a large number of important crimi-
nal cases, the most important, perhaps, being the
trial of the murderers of Dr. Cronin, in which he
gained a wide reputation for skill and ability as
a prosecutor in criminal cases.

LOOMIS, (Rev.) Hiibbell, clergyman and edu-
cator, was born in Colchester, Conn., May 31,
1775; prepared for college in the common schools
and at Plainfield Academy, in his native State,
finally graduating at Union College, N. Y., in
1799— having supported himself during a con-
siderable part of his educational course by
manual labor and teaching. He subsequently
theology, and, for twenty-four years,
is pastor of a Congregational church at
Willington, Conn., meanwhile fitting a number
of young men for college, including among them
Dr. Jared Sparks, afterwards President' of Har-
vard College and author of niimerous historical
works. About 1829 his views on the subject of
baptism underwent a change, resulting in his
uniting himself with the Baptist Church. Com-
ing to Illinois soon after, he spent some time at
Kaskaskia and Edwardsville, and, in 1833, located
at Upper Alton, where he became a prominent
factor in laying the foundation of Shurtleff Col-
lege, first by the establishment of the Baptist
Seminary, of which he was the Principal for
several years, and later by assisting, in 1885, to
secure the charter of the college in which the
seminary was merged. His name stood first on

the list of Trustees of the new institution, and,,
in proportion to his means, he was a liberal con-
tributor to its support in the period of its infancy.
The latter years of his life were spent among his
books in literary and scientific pursuits. Died at
Upper Alton, Dec. 15, 1873, at the advanced age
of nearly 98 years. — A son of his — Prof. Elias^
Loomls — an eminent mathematician and natural-
ist, was the author of "Loomis" Algebra" and
other scientific text-books, in extensive use in the
colleges of the country. He held professorships
in various institutions at different times, the last
being that of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy
in Yale College, from 1860 up to his death in 1889.

LORIMER, William, Member of Congress, was-
born in Manchester, England, of Scotch parent-
age, April 37, 1861 ; came with his parents to
America at five years of age, and, after spending
some years in Michigan and Ohio, came to Chi-
cago in 1870, where he entered a private school.
Having lost his father by death at twelve years
of age, he became an apprentice in the sign-paint-
ing business; was afterwards an employe on a
street-railroad, finally engaging in the real-estate
business and serving as an appointee of Mayor
Roche and Mayor Washburne in the city water
department. In 1893 he was the Republican
nominee for Clerk of the Superior Court, but was.
defeated. Two years later he was elected to the
Fifty- fourth Congress from the Second Illinois
District, and re-elected in 1896, as lie was again,
in 1898. His plurality in 1896 amounted to 36,736-

LOUISVILLE, the county-seat of Clay County ;
situated on the Little Wabash River and on the-
Springfield Division of the Baltimore & Ohio
Southwestern Railroad. It is 100 miles south-
southeast of Sjjringfield and 6 miles north of
Flora. It has a court house, three churclies, a
high scliool, a savings bank and two weekljr
newspapers. Population (1880), 514; (1890), 637.

BANY RAILROAD. (See LonisvUle. Evansville
li- St. Louis (Consolidated) Railroad.)

(Consolidated) RAILROAD. The length of this,
entire line is 358.55 miles, of which nearly 150^
miles are operated in Illinois. It crosses the States
from East St. Louis to Mount Carmel, on the.
Wabash River. Within Illinois the system uses:
a single track of standard gauge, laid with steel
rails on wliite-oak ties. The grades are usually
light, although, as the line leaves the Mississippi
bottom, the gradient is about two per cent or
105.6 feet per mile. The total capitalization



(1898) was $lS,'33t!.24li. of which §4,247,909 was in
stock and §10,,')68, 350 in boniis.— (History. ) The
original corporation was organized in both Indi-
ana and Illinois in 1869, and the Illinois section of
i,he line opened from Mount Carniel to Albion (18
miles) in January, 1873. The Indiana division
was sold under foreclosure in 1876 to the Louis-
ville. New Albany & St. Louis Railway Com-
pany, while the Illinois division was reorganized
in 1878 under the name of the St. Louis, Mount
Carmel & New Albany Railroad. A few months
later the two divisions were consolidated under
the name of the former. In 1S81 this line vi-as
again consolidated with the Evansville, Rockport
& Eastern Railroad (of Indiana), taking the name
of the Louisville, Eran.sville & St. Louis Railroad.
In 1889, by a still further consolidation, it
absorbed several short lines in Indiana and Illi-
nois — those in the latter State being the Illinois
& St. Louis Railroad and Coal Company, the
Belleville, Centralia & Eastern (projected from
Belleville to Mount Vernon) and the Venice &
Carondelet — the new organization assuming the
present name — Louisville, Evansville & St. Louis
(Consolidated) Railroad.

corporation operating an extensive system of
railroads, chiefl}' south of the Ohio River and
extending through Kentucky and Tennessee
into Indiana. The portion of the line in Illinois
(known as the St. Louis. Evansville & Nashville
line) extends from East St. Louis to the Wabash
River, in White County (133.64 miles), with
branches from Belleville to O'Fallon (6.07 miles),
and from JIcLeansboro to Shawneetown (40.7
miles)— total, 180.41 miles. The Illinois Divi-
sion, though virtually owned by the operating
line, is formally leased from the Southeast & St.
Louis Railway Company, whose corporate exist-
ence is merely nominal. Tlie latter company
acquired title to the property after foreclo.sure
in November, 1880, and leased it in per|ietuity to
the Louisville & Nashville Company. The total
earnings and income of the lea-sed line in Illinois,
for 1898, were $1,0.52,789, and the total expendi-
tures (including $17,198 taxes) were S6.57, 12.5.

Jacksonville d- St. Louis Kailtrtnj. )

LOVEJOY, Elijah Parish, minister and anti-
slavery journalist, was born at Albion, Maine,
Nov. 9. 1802 — the son of a Congregational minis-
ter. He graduated at Waterville College in 1826,
came west and tauglit school in St. Louis in
1827, and became editor of a Whig paper there in
1829. Later, he studied theologj' at Princeton

and was licensed as a Presbyterian miui.ster in
1833. Returning to St. Louis, he started "The
Observer"— a religious weekly, whicli condemned
slave-holding. Threats of violence from the
pro-slavery party induced him to remove his
paper, presses, etc., to Alton, in July. 11S36. Three
times within twelve months liis plant was de-
stroyed by a mob. A fourth press having been
procured, a number of his friends agreed to pro-
tect it from destruction in the warehouse where
it was stored. On the evening of Nov. 7, 1837, a
mob, having assembled about the building, sent
one of their number to tlie roof to set it on fire.
Lovejoy, witli two of his friends, stepped outside
to reconnoiter, when he was shot down by parties
in ambush, breathing his last a few minutes
later. His death did much to strengthen the
anti-slavery sentiment nortli of Mason and
Dixon's line. His party regarded him as a
martyr, and his death was made the text for
many impassioned and effective appeals in oppo-
sition to an institution which employed moboc-
racy and murder in its efforts to suppress free
discussion. (See Alton Riots.)

LOVEJOY, Owen, clergyman and Congressman,
was born at Albion, Maine, Jan. 6, 1811. Being
tlie son of a clergyman of small means, he was
thrown upon his own resources, hut secured a
collegiate education, graduating at Bowdoin
College. In 1836 he removed to Alton, 111,, join-
ing his brother, Elijah Parish Lovejoy, who was
conducting an anti-slavery and religious journal
there, and whose assassination by a pro-slavery
mob he witnessed the following year. (See Alton
Riots and Elijah P. Lovejoy.) This tragedy
induced him to devote his life to a crusade slavery. Having previously begun the
study of theology, he was ordained to the minis-
try and officiated for several years as pastor of a
Congregational church at Princeton. In 1847 he
was an unsuccessful candidate for the Constitu-
tional Convention on the "Liberty" ticket, but. in
18.54. was elected to the Legislature upon that
issue, and earnestly supported Abraham Lincoln
for United States Senator. Upon his election to
the Legislature he resigned his pastorate at
Princeton, his congregatiim i)resenting him with
a .solid silver .service in token of their esteem. In
1^^.56 he was elected a Representative in Congress
l)y a majority of 7.000, and was re-electeil for
three successive terms. As an orator he had few
equals in the State, while his courage in the
support of his principles was indomitable. In
the campaigns of 18.56, '.58 and "60 he rendererl
valuable service to the Republican party, as he



did later in upholding the cause of the Union in
Congress. He died in Brooklyn, N. Y., March 2.5,

LOVINGTOX, a village of Moultrie County, at
the intersection of the Terre Haute & Peoria
Railroad, witli the Bement & Altaniont Division
of the Wabash Railway, 23 miles southeast of
Decatur. Tlie town has a bank and a newspaper.
Considerable grain and live-stock are shipped
here. Population (1880), 557; (1890), 767.

LUDLAM, (Dr.) Reuben, physician and author,
was born at Camden, N. J., Oct. 11, 1831, the son
of Dr. Jacob Watson Ludlam, an eminent phy-
sician who, in his later years, became a resident
of Evanston, 111. The younger Ludlam, having
taken a course in an academy at Bridgeton,
N. J., at sixteen years of age entered upon the
study of medicine with his father, followed by a
course of lectures at the University of Pennsyl-
vania, where he graduated, in 1852. Having
removed to Chicago the following j^ear, he soon
after began an investigation of the homoeopathic
system of medicine, which resulted in its adop-
tion, and, a few years later, had acquired such
prominence that, in 1859, he was appointed Pro-
fessor of Physiology and Pathology in the newly
established Hahnemann Medical College in the
city of Chicago, with which he continued to be
connected for nearly f6rty years. Besides serving
as Secretary of the institution at its inception, he
had, as early as 18.14, taken a position as one of the
editors of "The Chicago Homoeopath," later
being editorially associated with "The North
American Journal of Homoeopathy, " published in
New York City, and "The United States Medical
and Surgical Journal" of Chicago. He also
served as President of numerous medical associ-
ations, and, in 1877, was appointed bj' Governor
Cullom a member of the State Board of Health,
serving, by two subsequent reappointments, for a
period of fifteen years. In addition to his labors
as a lecturer and practitioner, Dr. Ludlam was
one of the most prolific authors on professional
lines in the city of Chicago, besides numerous
monographs on special topics, liaving produced a
"Course of Clinical Lectures on Diphtheria"
(1863); "Clinical and Didactic Lectures on the
Diseases of Women" (1871), and a translation
from the French of "Lectures on Clinical Medi-
cine" (1880). The second work mentioned is
recognized as a valuable text-book, and has
pas.sed through seven or eight editions. A few
years after his first connection with the Hahne-
mann Medical College, Dr. Ludlam became Pro-
fessor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and, on the

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