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reside at Lockport, Will County, until near the
close of his life, when he removed to Joliet, dying
there, Jan. 8, 1869.

MANNINCt, Jnlins, lawyer, was born in Can-
ada, near Chateaugay, N. Y., but passed his
earlier years chiefly in the State of New York,
completing his education at Middlebury College,
Vt. ; in 1839 came to Knoxville. 111., where he
served one term as County Judge and two terms
(1812-46) as Representative in the General Assem-
bly. He was also a Democratic Presidential
Elector in 1848. In 18o3 he removed to Peoria,
where he was elected, in 1861, a Delegate to the
State Constitutional Convention of the following
year. Died, at Knoxville, July 4, 1862.

MANSFIELD, a village of Piatt County, at
the intersection of the Peoria Division of the
Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis and
the Chicago Division of the Wabasli Railways,
32 miles southeast of Bloomington. It is in the
heart of a rich agricultural region ; has one news-
paper. Population (1880), 398; (1890), 533.

MANTENO, a village of Kankakee County,
on the Illinois Central Railroad, 47 miles south
of Chicago; a shipping point for grain, live-
stock, small fruits and dairy products; has
one newspaper. Population (1880), 632; (1890),



MA, a village of Knox County, on the
Peoria Division of the Chicago, Burlington &
Quiucy Railway, 10 miles southeast of Gales-
burg. The region is agricultural. The town has
banks and a weekly paper. Population (1880),
548; (1890), 501.

MARCV, (Dr.) Oliver, educator, was born in
Coleraine, Mass., Feb. 13, 1820; received his early
education in the grammar schools of his native
town, graduating, in 1842, from the Wesleyan
University at Middletown, Conn. He early mani-
fested a deep interest in the natural sciences and
became a teacher in an academy at Wilbrahaui,
Mass., where he remained until 1862, meanwhile
making numerous trips for geologic investigation
One of these was made in 1849, overland, to
Puget Sound, for the purpose of securing data
for maps of the Pacific Coast, and settling dis-
puted questions as to the geologic formation of .
the Rocky Mountains. During this trip he visited
San Francisco, making maps of the mountain
regions for the use of the Government. In 1862
he was called to the professorship of Natural
History in the Northwestern University, at
Evanston, remaining there until his death. The
institution was tlien in its infancy, and he taught
mathematics in connection with liis other duties.
From 1890 he vas Dean of the faculty. He
received the degee of LL.D. from the University
of Chicago in 1876. Died, at Evanston, March
19, 1899.

MAREDOSIA (MARAIS de OGEE), a peculiar
depression (or slough) in the southwestern part of
Whiteside County, connecting the Jlississippi
and Rock Rivers, through which, in times of
freshets, the former sometimes discharges a part
of its waters into the latter. On the other hand,
when Rock River is relatively higher, it some-
times discharges through the same channel into
the Mississippi. Its general course is north and
south. — Cat-Tall Slough, a similar depression,
runs nearly parallel with the Maredosia. at a dis-
tance of five or six miles from the latter. The
highest point in the Maredosia above low water
in the Jlississippi is thirteen feet, and that in the
Cat-Tail Slough is twenty-six feet. Eacli is
believed, at some time, to have served as a
channel for the Mississippi.

MARENGO, a city of McHenry County, settled
in 1835, incorporated as a town in 1857 and, as a
city, in 1893; lies 68 miles northwest of Chicago,
on the Cliicago & Northwestern Railroad. It is
in the heart of a dairying and fruit-growing di.s-
triot; has a foundry, stove-works, and canning
factory; is also supplied with water- works, elec-



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HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



trio lights, has six churches, good schools and
two weekly newspapers. Population (1880), 1,264 ;
(1890), 1, 445.

MARINE, a village of Madison County, on the
St. Louis & Eastern Railroad, 37 miles northeast
of St. Louis. Several of its earliest settlers were
sea-captains from the East, from whom the
"Marine Settlement" obtained its name. Popu-
lation (1880), 774; (1890), 637.

MARION, the county-seat of Williamson
County, 172 miles southeast of Springfield, on the
St. Louis, Alton & Terre Haute Railroad. It is
in an agricultural and coal region, and contains
cotton and woolen mills, besides six churches and
a graded public school. Three weekly news-
papers are published there. Population (1880),
SSI; (1890), 1,338; (1898) estimated, 1,800.

MARION COUNTY, located near the center of
the southern half of the State, with an area of
580 square miles ; was organized in 1823, and, by
the census of 1890, had a population of 24,381.
About half the county is prairie, the chief prod-
ucts being tobacco, wool and fruit. The
remainder is timbered land. It is watered by the
tributaries of the Kaskaskia and Little Wabash
Rivers. The bottom lands have a heavy growth
of choice timber, and a deep, rich soil. A large
portion of the county is underlaid with a thin
vein of coal, and the rocks all belong to the upper
coal measures. Sandstone and building sand are
also abundant. Ample shipping facilities are
afforded by the Illinois Central and theBaltimore &
Ohio (S.W.) Railroads. Salem is the county-seat,
but Centralia is the largest and most important
town, being a railroad junction and center of an
extensive fruit-trade. Sandoval is a thriving
town at the junction of the Illinois Central and
the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railroads.

MARISSA, a village of St. Clair County, on the
St. Louis & Cairo Short Line Railroad, 39 miles
southeast of St. Louis. It is in a farming and
mining district; the place has a bank and a
newspaper. Population (1890), 876.

MAROA, a city in Macon County, on the Illi-
onis Central Railroad, 18 miles north of Decatur
and 31 miles south of Bloomington. A steam
flour-mill and a manufactory of windmills are
the chief industrial establisliments. The city has
two banks, two newspapers, three or four
churches and a graded school. Population (1880),
870; (1890). 1,164.

MARQUETTE, (Father) Jacques, a French
missionary and explorer, born at Laon, France,
in 1637. He became a Jesuit at the age of 17, and,
twelve years later (1666), was ordained a priest.



The same year he sailed for Canada, landing at
Quebec. For eighteen months )ie devoted him-
self chiefly to the study of Indian dialects, and,
in 1668, accompanied a party of Nez-Perces to
Lake Superior, where he founded the mission of
Sault Ste. Marie. Later, after various vicissi-
tudes, he went to Mackinac, and, in that vicinity,
founded the Mission of St. Ignace and built a
rude church. In 1673 he accompanied Juliet on
his voyage of discovery down the Mississippi, the
two setting out from Green Bay on May 17, and
reaching the Mississippi, by way of the Fox and
Wisconsin Rivers, June 17. (For an interesting
translation of Marquette's quaint narrative of the
expedition, see Shea's "Discovery and Explo-
ration of the Mississippi,'' N. Y., 1852.) In Sep-
tember, 1673, after leaving the Illinois and stop-
ping for some time among the Indians near
"Starved Rock," he returned to Green Bay much
broken in health. In October, 1674, under orders
from his superior, he set out to establish a mis-
sion at Kaskaskia on the Upper Illinois. In
December he reached the present site of Chicago,
where he was compelled to halt because of
exhaustion. On March 29, 1675, he resumed his
journey, and reached Kaskaskia, after much
suffering, on April 8. After laboring indefati-
gably and making many converts, failing health
compelled him to start on his return to Macki-
nac. Before the voyage was completed he died.
May 18, 1675, at the mouth of a stream which
long bore his name — but is not the present Mar-
quette River — on the eastern shore of Lake Michi-
gan. His remains were subsequently removed to
Point St. Ignace. He was the first to attempt to
explain the lake tides, and modern science -has
not improved his theory.

MARSEILLES, a city on' the Illinois River, in
La Salle County, eight miles east of Ottawa, and
77 miles southwest of Chicago, on the line of the
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railroad. Excel-
lent water power is furnished by a dam across
the river. The city has several factories, among
the leading products being flour, paper and agri-
cultural implements. Coal is mined in the
vicinity. The grain trade is large, sufficient to
support tliree elevators. There are two weekly
newspapers. Population (1880), 1,882; (1890),
2,310.

MARSH, Benjamin F., Congressman, born in
Wythe Township, Hancock County, 111. , was edu-
cated at private schools and at Jubilee College,
leaving the latter institution one year before
graduation. He read la w under the tutelage of his
brother, Judge J. W. Marsh, of Warsaw, and was



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOrEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



;553



admitted to the bar in 18G0. The same year lie was
an unsuccessful candidate for State's Attorney.
Immediately upon tlie first call for troops in 1861,
he raised a company of cavalry, and, going to
Springfield, tendered it to Governor Yates. No
cavalry having been called for, tlie Governor felt
constrained to decline it. On his way home Mr.
Marsh stopped at Quincy and enlisted as a private
in the Sixteentli Illinois Infantry, in which regi-
ment he served until July 4, 1861, when Gov-
ernor Yates advised him by telegraph of his
readiness to accept his cavalry company.
Returning to "Warsaw he recruited another com-
pany within a few days, of which he was com-
missioned Captain, and which was attached to
tlie Second Illinois Cavalry. He served in the
army until January, 1866, being four times
wounded, and rising to the rank of Colonel. On
his return home he interested himself in politics.
In 1869 he was a Republican candidate for the
State Constitutional Convention, and. in 1876,
was elected to represent the Tenth Illinois Dis-
trict in Congi-ess, and re-elected in 1878 and 1880.
In 188.5 he was appointed a member of the Rail-
road and Warehou.se Commission, serving until
1889. In 1894 he was again elected to Congress
from his old district, which, under the new
apportionment, had become the Fifteenth, was
re-elected in 1896, and again in 1898. In the
Fifty-fifth Congress he was a member of the
House Committee on Military Affairs and Chair-
man of the Committee on Militia.

MARSH, William, juri.st, was born at Moravia,
N. Y., May 11, 1823; was educated at Groton
Academy and Union College, graduating from
the latter in 1842. He studied law. in part, in
the office of Millard Fillmore, at Buffalo, and was
admitted to the bar in 184.5, practicing at Ithaca
until 1854, when he removed to Quincy, 111. Here
he continued in practice, in partnership, at differ-
ent periods, with prominent lawyers of that city,
until elected to the Circuit bench in 1885, serv-
ing until 1891. Died, April 14, 1894.

MARSHALL, the county-seat of Clark County,
and an incorporated citj-, 16>^ miles southwest
of Terre Haute, Ind., and a point of intersection
of the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis
and the Vandalia Railroads. The surrounding
country is devoted to farming and stock-raising.
The city has woolen, flour, saw and planing
mills, besides considerable mercantile trade. It
has banks, eight churches and a good public
school system, which includes a high school.
Three weekly newspapers are ])ublisheil. Popu-
lation (1880), 1,885; (1890), 1,900.



MARSHALL, Samuol S., lawyer and Con-
gressman, was born in Gallatin County, 111., in
1824; studied law and soon after located at
McLeansboro. In 1846 he was chosen a member
of the lower house of the Fifteenth General
Assembly, but resigned, early in the following
year, to become State's Attorney, serving until
1848; was Judge of the Circuit Court from 1851
to 1854, and again from 1861 to 1865; was delegate
from the State-at-large to the Charleston and
Baltimore Conventions of 1860, and to the
National Union Convention at Philadelphia in
1866. In 1861 he received the complimentary
vote of his party in the Legislature for United
States Senator, and was similarly honored in the
Fortieth Congress (1867) by receiving the Demo-
cratic support for Speaker of the House. He
was first elected to Congress in 1854, re-elected in
1856, and, later, served continuously from 1865 to
1875, when he returned to the practice of his
profession. Died, July 26, 1890.

MARSHALL COUNTY, situated in the north-
central part of the State, with an area of 400
square miles — named for Chief Justice John Mar-
shall. Settlers began to arrive in 1827, and
county organization was effected in 1839. The
Illinois River bisects the county, which is also
drained by Sugar Creek. The surface is gener-
ally level prairie, except along the river, although
occasionally undulating. The soil is fertile,
corn, wheat, hay and oats forming the staple
agricultural products. Hogs are raised in great
number, and coal is extensively mined. Lacon
is the county-seat. Population (1880), 15,0.53;
(1890), 13,653.

MARTIN, (Gen.) James S., ex Congressman
and soldier, was born in Scott County, Va.,
August 19, 1826, educated in the common
schools, and, at the age of 20, accompanied his
parents to Southern Illinois, settling in Marion
County. He served as a non-commissioned
officer in the war with Mexico. In 1849, he was
elected Clerk of the Marion County Court, which
office he filled for twelve years. By profession ho
is a lawyer, and has been in active practice when
not in public or military life. For a number of
years lie was a member of the Republican State
Central Committee. In 1S62 he was commis-
sioned Colonel of the One Hundred and Eleventh
Illinois Volunteers, and, at the close of the war,
brevetted Brigadier-General. On his return home
he was elected County Judge of Marion County,
and, in 1868, appointed United States Pension
Agent. The latter post he re.signed in 1872, hav-
ing been elected, as a Republican, to represent



354



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



the Sixteenth District in the Forty-third Con-
gress. He was Commander of the Grand Army
for the Department of Illinois in 1889-90.

MARTINSVILLE, a village of Clark County,
on the Tene Haute & Indianapolis Railroad, 13
miles southwest of Marshall; the place has a bank
and two newspapers. Population (1880;, 663;
(1890), 779.

MASCOUTAH, a city in St. Clair County, S5
miles from St. Louis and 11 miles east of Belle-
ville, on the line of the Louisville & Nashville
Railroad. Coal-mining and agriculture are the
principal industries of the surrounding country.
Flour manufacture is carried on to some extent
in the city. Population (1880), 3,558; (1890),
3,033.

MASON, Roswell B., civil engineer, was born
in Oneida County, N. Y., Sept. 19, 1805; in his
boyhood was emploj'ed as a teamster on the Erie
Canal, a year later (l833) accepting a position as
rodman under Edward F. Gaj-, assistant-engineer
in charge of construction. Subsequently he was
emploj'ed on the Schuylkill and Morris Canals,
on the latter becoming assistant-engineer and,
finally, chief and superintendent. Other works
with which Mr. Mason was connected in a similar
capacity were the Pennsylvania Canal and tlie
Housatonio, New York & New Haven and the
Vermont Valley Railroads. In 1851 he came
west and took charge of the construction of the
Illinois Central Railroad, a work which required
five years for its completion. The next four
years were spent as contractor in the construction
of roads in Iowa and Wisconsin, until 1860, when
he became Superintendent of the Chicago &
Alton Railroad, but remained only one year, in
1861 accepting the position of Controller of the
land department of tlie Illinois Central Railroad,
which he retained until 1867. The next two
years were occupied in the service of the State in
lowering the summit of the Illinois & Michigan
Canal. In 1869 he was elected Mayor of the city
of Chicago, and it was in the closing days of
his term that the great fire of 1871 occurred,
testing his executive ability to the utmost. From
1873 to 1883 he served as one of the Trustees of
the Illinois Industrial University, and was one of
the incorporators, and a lifelong Director, of the
Presbyterian Theological Seminary of the North-
west. Died, Jan. 1, 1893.— Edward Gay (Mason),
son of the preceding, was born at Bridgeport,
Conn., August 33, 1839; came with his father's
family, in 1853, to Chicago, where he attended
school for several years, after which he entered
Yale College, graduating there in 1860. He then



studied law, and, later, became a member of the
law firm of Mattocks & Mason, but subsequently,
in conjunction with two brothers, organized the
firm of Mason Brothers, for the prosecution of a
real-estate and law business. In 1881 Mr. Mason
was one of the organizers of the Chicago Musical
Festival, which was instrumental in bringing
Theodore Thomas to Chicago. In 1887 he became
President of the Chicago Historical Society, as the
successor of Elihu B. Washburne, retaining the
position until his death, Dec. 18, 1898. During
his incumbency, the commodious building, nowr
occupied by the Historical Society Library, was
erected, and he added largely to the resources of
the Society by the collection of rare manuscripts
and other historical records. He was the author
of several historical works, including "Illinois in
the Eighteenth Century," "Kaskaskia and Its
Parish Records, ' " besides papers on La Salle and
the first settlers of Illinois, and "The Story of
James Willing — An Episode of the American
Revolution. " ' He also edited a volume entitled
"Early Chicago and Illinois," which was pub-
lished under the auspices of the Chicago Histor-
ical Society. Mr. Mason was, for several years, a
Trustee of Yale University and, about the time of
his death, was prominently talked of for President
of that institution, as successor to President
Timothy Dwight.

MASON, William E., United States Senator,
was born at Franklinville, Cattaraugus County,
N. Y., July 7, 18.50. and accompanied his parents
to Bentonsport, Iowa, in 1858. He was educated
at the Bentonsport Academy and at Birmingham
College. From 1866 to 1870 he taught school, the
last two years at Des Moines. In that city he
studied law with Hon. Thomas F. Withrow, who
afterward admitted him to partnership. In 1873
he removed to Chicago, where he has since prac-
ticed his profession. He soon embarked in poli-
tics, and, in 1878, was elected to the lower house
of the General Assembly, and, in 1883, to the
State Senate. In 1884 he was the regular Repub-
lican candidate for Congress in the Third Illinois
District (then strongly Republican), but. owing
to party dissensions, was defeated by James H.
Ward, a Democrat. In 1886, and again in 1888,
lie was elected to Congress, but, in 1890, was
defeated for reelection by Allan C. Durborow.
He is a vigorous and effective campaign speaker.
In 1897 he was elected United States Senator,
receiving in the Legislature 135 votes to 77 for
John P. Altgeld, the Democratic candidate.

MASON CITY, a prosperous city in Mason
County, at the intersection of the Chicago &



ISTOKICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



355



Alton and the Havana branch of the IlUnois
Central Railroads, 18 miles west by north of
Lincoln, and about 30 miles north of Springfield.
Being in the heart of a rich corn-growing district,
it is an important shipping point for that com-
modity. It has four churches, two bank; - , two
newspapers, brick works, flour-mills, grain-ele-
vators and a carriage factory. Population ( 1880),
1,714; (1890), 1,869.

MASON COUNTY, organized in 1841, with a
population of about 2,000; population (1890),
16,067, and area of 560 square miles, — named for a
count}' in Kentuckj-. It lies a little northwest
of the center of the State, the Illinois and Sanga-
mon Rivers forming its west and its south bound-
aries. The soil, while sandy, is fertile. The
chief staple is corn, and the county offers excel-
lent opportunities for viticulture. The American
pioneer of Mason County was probably Maj.
Ossian B Ross, who settled at Havana in 1832.
Not imtil 1837, however, can immigration be said
to have set in rapidly. Havana was first chosen
as the county seat, but Bath enjoyed the honor
for a few years, the county offices being per-
manently removed to the former point in 1851.
Mason City is an important shipping point on the
Chicago & Alton Railroad

MASONS, ANCIENT ORDER OF FREE AND
ACCEPTED. (See Free-.Vasous.)

MASSAC COUNTY, an extreme southern
county of the State and one of the smallest, its
area, being but little more than 240 square miles,
with a population (1890) of 11.313— named for
Fort JIassac, within its borders. The surface is
liilly toward the north, but the bottom lands
along the Ohio River are swampy and liable to
frequent overflows. A considerable portion of the
natural resources consists of timber — oak, wal-
nut, poplar, hickory, cypress and Cottonwood
abounding. Saw-mills are found in nearly every
town, and considerable grain and tobacco are
raised. The original settlers were largely from
Ohio, Kentucky and North Carolina, and hospi-
tality is traditional. Jletropolis, on the Ohio
River, is the county-seat. It was laid off in 1839,
although Massac County was not separately
organized until 18-13. At Massac City may be
seen the ruins of the early French fort of that
name.

MASSAC COUNTY REBELLION, the name
commonly given to an outbreak of mob violence
which occurred in Massac County, in 1845-46. xVn
arrested criminal having asserted that an organ-
ized band of tliieves and robbers existed, ami
having given the names of a large number of the



alleged members, popular excitement rose to
fever heat. A company of self-appointed "regu-
lators" was formed, whose acts were so arbitrary
that, at the August election of 1846, a Sheriff and
County Clerk were elected on the avowed issue
of opposition to these irregular tactics. This
served to stimulate the "regulators" to renewed
activity. Many persons were forced to leave tlie
county on suspicion, and others tortured into
making confession. In consequenc^e, some leading
"regulators" were thrown into jail, only to be soon
released by their friends, who ordered the Sheriff
and County Clerk to leave the county. The feud
rapidly grew, both in proportions and in inten-
sity. Governor French made two futile efforts to
restore order through mediation, and the ordinary
processes of law were also found vmavailing.
Judge Scates was threatened with lynching
Only 60 men dared to serve in the Sheriffs posse,
and these surrendered upon promise of personal
immunity from violence. This pledge was not
regarded, several members of the posse being led
away as prisoners, some of whom, it was believed,
were drowned in the Ohio River. All the incarcer-
ated "regulators" were again released, the Sheriff
and his supporters were once more ordered to
leave, and fresh seizures and outrages followed
each other in quick succession. To remedy this
condition of affairs, the Legislatuie of 1847 enacted
a law creating district courts, under the provi-
sions of which a Judge might hold court in any
county in his circuit. This virtually conferred
upon the Judge the right to change the venue at
his own discretion, and thus secure juries unbiased
by local or partisan feeling. The effect of this
legislation was highly beneficial in restoring
quiet, although the embers of the feud still
smoldered and intermittently leaped into flame
for several years thereafter.

MATHENY, Charles R., pioneer, was born in
Loudoun County, Va., March 6, 1786, licensed as a
Methodist preacher, in Kentucky, and, in 1805,
came to St. Clair County (then in Indiana Terri-
tory), as a missionary. Later, he studied law and
was admitted to the bar; served in the Third
Territorial (1817) and the Second State Legisla-
tures (1820-22); removed, in 1821, to the newly
organized county of Sangamon, where he was
appointed the first County Clerk, remaining in
office eighteen years, also for some years holding,
at the same time, the offices of Circuit Clerk.
Recorder and Probate Judge. Died, while
County Clerk, in 1839.— Noah W. (Matheny), son
of the preceding, was born in St. Clair Countj', 111. ,
July 3L 1815; was assistant of his father in the



356



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



County Clerk's ofBce in Sangamon County, and,
on the death of the latter, (November, 1839), was
elected his successor, and re-elected for eight con-



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