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the staff of Gen. J. D. Henry with the rank of
Major ; in 1837 was appointed by Governor Dun-
can a member of the Board of Public Works for
the First Judicial District, in this capacity having
charge of the construction of the railroad between
Meredosia and Springfield (then known as the
Northern Cross Railroad) — the first public rail-
road built in the State, and the only one con-
structed during the "internal improvement" era
following 1837. He also held a commission from
Governor French as Major-General of State Mi-
litia, and was appointed by President Buchanan
Fifth Auditor of the Treasury Department, but
resigned in 1858. In 1833, on his return from
the Black Hawk War, he was elected a Repre-
sentative in the State Legislature from Morgan
County, and, in 1864, was elected to the State
Senate for the District composed of Morgan,
Menard, Cass, Schuyler and Brown Counties,
serving until 1868. Though previously a Demo-
crat and a delegate to the Democratic National
Convention of 1860, he was an earnest supporter
of the war policy of the Government, and was
one of four Democratic Senators, in the General
Assembly of 1865, who voted for the ratification
of the Thirteenth Amendment of the National
Constitution, prohibiting slavery in the United
States. His ^eath occurred by assassination, by



some unknown person, in his oflBce at Jackson-
ville, Feb. 9, 1869.— John Ludlum (McConnel),
son of the preceding, was born in Jacksonville,
111., Nov. 11, 1826, studied law and graduated at
Transylvania Law School; in 1846 enlisted as a
private in the Mexican War. became First Lieu-
tenant and was promoted Captain after the battle
of Buena Vista, where he was twice wounded.
After the war he returned to Jacksonville and
wrote several books illustrative of Western life
and character, which were ])ublished between
1850 and 1853. At the time of his death— Jan.
17, 1862— he was engaged in the preparation of a
"History of Early Explorations in America," hav-
ing special reference to the labors of the early
Roman Catholic missionaries.

McCON^ELL, {(ien). John, soldier, was born
in Madison County, N. Y., Dec. 5, 182-1, and came
with his parents to Illinois when about sixteen
years of age. His father (James McConnell) was
a native of Ireland, who came to the United
States shortly before the War of 1812, and, after
remaining in New York until 1840, came to San-
gamon County, 111., locating a few miles south of
Springfield, where he engaged extensively in
sheep-raising. He was an enterprising and pro-
gressive agriculturist, and was one of the founders
of the State Agricultural Society, being President
of the Convention of 18.52 which resulted in its
organization. His death took place, Jan. 7, 1807.
The subject of this sketch was engaged with his
father and brothers in the farming and stock
business until 1861, when he raised a company
for the Third Illinois Cavalry, of which he was
elected Captain, was later promoted Major, serv-
ing until March, 1863, during that time taking
part in some of the important battles of the war
in Southwest Missouri, including Pea Ridge, and
was highly complimented by his commander,
Gen. G. M. Dodge, for bravery. Some three
months after leaving the Third Cavalry, he was
commissioned by Governor Yates Colonel of the
Fifth Illinois Cavalry, and, in March, 1865, was
commissioned Brevet Brigadier-General, his com-
mission being signed by President Lincoln on
April 14, 1865, the morning preceding the night
of liis assassination. During the latter part of
his service. General McConnell was on duty in
Texas, being finally mustered out in October,
1863. After the death of his father, and until
1879, he continued in the business of sheep-raising
and farming, being for a time the owner of
several extensive farms in Sangamon County,
but, in 1879, engaged in the insurance business
in Springfield, where he died. March 14, 1898.

McConnell, Samuel P., .son of the preceding,
was born at Springfield, 111., on July 5, 1849.
After completing his literary studies he read law
at Springfield in the office of Stuart, Edwards &
Brown, and was admitted to the bar in 1872, soon
after establishing himself in practice in Chicago.
After various partnerships, in which he was asso-
ciated with leading lawyers of Chicago, he was
elected Judge of the Cook County Circuit Court,
in 1889. to fill the vacancy caused by the death of
Judge W. K. McAllister, serving until 1894, when
he resigned to give his attention to private prac-
tice. Although one of the youngest Judges upon
the bench. Judge McConnell was called upon,
soon after his election, to preside at the trial of
the conspirators in the celebrated Cronin murtler
case, in which he displayed great ability. He has
also had charge, as presiding Judge, of a number
of civil suits of great importance affecting cor-

McCORMICK, Cyrus Hall, inventor and manu-
facturer, born in Rockbridge County, Va., Feb. 1.5,
1809. In youth he manifested unusual mechani-
cal ingenuity, and early began attempts at the
manufacture of some device for cutting grain, his
first finished machine being produced in 1831.
Though he had been manufacturing for j-ears
in a small way, it was not until 1844 that his
first machine was shipped to the West, and,
in 1847, he came to Chicago witli a view to
establishing its manufacture in tlie heart of the
region where its use would be most in demand.
One of his early partners in the business was
William B. Ogden, afterwards so widely known
in connection with Chicago's railroad history.
The business grew on his hands until it became
one of the largest manufacturing interests in the
United States. Mr. McCormick was a Democrat,
and, in 1860, he bought "Tlie Chicago Times."'
and having united it with "The Herald," which
he already owned, a few months later sold the
consolidated concern to Wilbur F. Storey. "The
Interior," the Northwestern mouthpiece of the
Presbyterian faith, had been founded by a joint
stock-company in 1870, but was burned out in
1871 and removed to Cincinnati. In January,
1872, it was returned to Chicago, and, at the
beginning of the following year, it became the
property of Jlr. McCormick in conjunction with
Dr. Gray, who has been its editor and manager
ever since. Mr. McCormick's most liberal work
was undoubtedly the endowment of the Presby-
terian Theological Seminary in Chicago, which
goes by his name. His death occuiTed, May 13,
1884, after a business life of almost unprece-


dented success, and after conferring upon tlie
agriculturists of tlie countrj' a boon of inestimable

Mccormick theological seminary, a

Presbyterian school of theology in Chicago, be-
ing the outgrowtli of an institution originally con-
nected with Hanover College. Ind.. in 1830. In
1859 the late Cyrus H. McCormick donated $100,-
000 to the school, and it was removed to Chicago,
where it was opened in September, with a class
of fifteen students. Since then nearly §300,000
have been contributed toward a building fund by
Mr. McCormick and his lieirs, besides numerous
donations to the same end made by otliers. Tlie
number of buildings is nine, four being for the
general purposes of the institution (including
dormitories), and five being houses for the pro-
fessors. The course of instruction covers three
annual terms of seven months each, and includes
didactic and polemic theology, biblical and
ecclesiastical liistory, sacred rhetoric and pastoral
theology, church government and the sacra-
ments, New Testament literature and exegesis,
apologetics and missions, and horailetics. The
faculty consists of eight professors, one adjunct
professor, and one instructor in elocution and
vocal culture. Between 200 and 300 students are
enrolled, including post-gi-aduates.

McCULLOCH, David, lawyer and jurist, was
born in Cumberland County, Pa., Jan. 3.5. 1832;
received his academic education at Marshall Col-
lege. Mercersburg, Pa. , graduating in the class of
ISiTJ. Then, after spending some six months as
a teacher in his native village, he came west,
arriving at Peoria early in 18.58. Here he con-
ducted a private school for two years, when, in
185.5. he began the study of law in the oflBce of
Manning & Merriman, being admitted to the bar
in 1857. Soon after entering upon his law studies
he was elected School Commissibner for Peoria
County, serving, by successive re-elections, three
terms (18.55-61). At the close of this period he
was taken into partnership with his old precep-
tor, Julius Manning, who died, July 4, 1862. In
1877 he was elected Circuit Judge for the Eighth
Circuit, under the law authorizing the increase of
Judges in each circuit to three, and was re-
elected in 1879, serving until 1885, Six years of
this period were spent as a Justice of the Appellate
Court for the Third Appellate District. On
retiring from the bench. Judge McCuUoch entered
into partnership with his son, E. D. McCuUoch,
wliich is still maintained. Politically, Judge
McCuUoch was reared as a Democrat, but during
the Civil War became a Republican. Since 1886

he has been identified with the Prohibition Party,
although, as the result of questions arising during
the Spanish-American War, giving a cordial
support to the policy of President McKinley. In
religious views he is a Presbyterian, and is a mem-
ber of the Board of Directors of the McCormick
Theological Seminary at Chicago.

MfCULLOUGH, James Skiles, Auditor of
Public Accounts, was born in Mercersburg.
Franklin County, Pa., May 4, 1843; in 1854 came
with his father to Urbana, 111., and grew up on a
farm in that vicinity, receiving such education as
could be obtained in the public schools. In 1863,
at the age of 19 years, he enlisted as a private in
Company G, Seventy-sixth Illinois Volunteer
Infantry, and served during the next three years
in the Departments of the Mississippi and the Gulf,
meanwhile participating in the campaign against
Vicksburg, and, near the close of the war, in the
operations about Mobile. On the 9th of April,
1865, while taking part in the assault on Fort
Blakely, near Mobile, his left arm was torn to
pieces by a grape-shot, compelling its amputation
near the shoulder. His final discharge occurred
in July, 1865. Returning home he spent a year in
school at Urbana, after which he vvas a student in
the Soldiers' College at Fulton, 111., for two years.
He then (1868) entered the office of the County
Clerk of Champaign County as a deputy, remain-
ing until 1873, when he was chosen County Clerk,
serving by successive re-elections until 1896. The
latter year he received the nomination of the
Republican Partj' for Auditor of Public Accounts,
and, at the November election, was elected by a
plurality of 138,000 votes over his Democi'atic
opponent. He was serving his sixth term as
County Clerk when chosen Auditor, having
received the nomination of his party on each
occasion without opposition.

McDANNOLD, John J., lawyer and ex-Con-
gressman, was born in Brown County, 111., August
89, 1851, acquired his early education in the com-
mon schools of his native county and in a private
school ; graduated from the Law Department of
the Iowa State University in 1874, and was
admitted to the bar in Illinois the same year,
commencing practice at Mount Sterling. In 1885
he was made Master in Chancery, in 1886, elected
County Judge, and re-elected in 1890, resigning
his seat in October, 1892, to accept an election by
the Democrats of the Twelfth Illinois District as
Representative in the Fifty-third Congress.
After retiring from Congress (March 4, 1895), Mr.
McDannold removed to Cliicago, where he
engaged in the practice of his profession.

1= '''Vi^^^fv^



McDOXOUGH COUXTY, organized umier an
act passed, Jan. 25, 1826, and attached, for judicial
purposes, to Schuyler County until 1880. Its
present area is 580 square miles — named in honor
of Commodore McDonougli. The first settlement
in tlie county was at Industry, on tlie site of
which William Carter (the pioneer of the
county) built a cabin in 1826. James and Jolm
Vance and William Job settled in tlie vicinity in
the following year. Out of this settlement grew
Blandinsville. William Pennington located on
Spring Creek in 1828, and, in 1831, James M.
Campbell erected the first frame house on the
site of the present city of JIacomb. Tlie first
sermon, preached by a Protestant minister in the
county, was delivered in the Job settlement by
Rev. John Logan, a Baptist. Among the early
officers were John Huston, County Treasurer;
William Southward. Slieriff; Peter Hale, Coro-
ner, and Jesse Bartlett, Surveyor. The first
term of the Circuit Court was held in 1830, and
presided over by Hon. Richard M. Young. Tlie
first railway to cross the county was the Chicago,
Burlington & Quincy (1857). Since then other
lines have penetrated it. and there are numerous
railroad centers and sliipping points of consider-
able importance. Population (1880), 25,037;
(1890), 27,467.

McDOUGALL, James Alexander, lawyer and
United States Senator, was born in Bethlehem,
Albany County, N. Y., Nov. 19. 1817; educated
at the Albany grammar scliool, studied law and
settled in Pike County, 111., in 1837; was Attor-
ney-General of Illinois four years (1843-47); then
engaged in engineering and, in 1849, organized
and led an exploring expedition to the Rio del
Norte. Gila and Colorado Rivers, finally settling
at San Francisco and engaging in tlie practice of
law. In 1850 he was elected Attorney-General of
California, served s&veral terms in the State
Legislature, and, in 1852, was chosen, as a Demo-
crat, to Congress, but declined a re-election; in
1860 was elected United States Senator from Cali-
fornia, serving as a War Democrat until 1867.
At the expiration of liis senatorial term lie retired
to Albany. X. Y.. where he died, Sept. 3, 1867.
Tliough somewliat irregular in liabits, he was, at
times, a brilliant and efl'ective speaker, and, dur-
ing the War of the Rebellion, rendered valuable
aid to the Union cause.

McFARLAXD, Andrew, M.D,, alienist, was
born in Concord. N. H.. July 14. 1817, graduated
at Jefferson Medical College. Pliiladelphia, in
1841, and, after being engaged in general practice
for a few years, was invited to assume the man-

agement of the New Hampshire Asykiiii for the
Insane at Concord. Here he remained some
eight years, during which he acquired consider-
able reputation in tlie treatment of nervous and
mental disorders. In 1854 he was offered, and
accepted the position of Medical Superintendent
of the Illinois State (now Central) Hospital for
the Insane at Jacksonville, entering upon his
duties in June of that year, and continuing his
connection with that institution for a jieriod of
more than sixteen years. Having resigned his
position in the State Hospital in June, 1870, he
soon after established the Oaklawn Retreat, at
Jacksonville, a private institution for the treat-
ment of insane patients, wliicli he conducted
with a great degree of success, and with wliich
he was associated during tlie remainder of his
life, dying, Nov. 22, 1891. Dr. McFarland's serv-
ices were in frequent request as a medical expert
in cases before the courts, invariably, however,
on the side of the defense. The last case in which
he appeared as a witness was at the trial of Charles
F. Guiteau. the assassin of President Garfield,
whom he believed to be insane.

McWAHEY, David, settled in Crawford County,
III., in 1817, and served as Representative from
that County in the Third and Fourth General
Assemblies (1822-26), and as Senator in the
Eighth and Ninth (1832-36). Althougli a native
of Tennessee, Mr. McGahey was a strong opponent
of slaverj', and, at the .session of 1822. was one of
those who voted against the pro-slavery Constitu-
tion resolution. He continued to reside in Law-
rence County until his death in 1851. — James D.
(McGahey), a son of tlie preceding, was elected
to the Ninth General Assembly from Crawford
County, in 1834, but died during his term of

McGA\X, Lawrence Edward, ex-Congressman,
was born in Ireland, Feb. 2, 1852. His father
liaving died in 1884, the following year his
mother emigrated to the United States, settling
at Milford, Mass., where he attended the public
schools. In 1865 he came to Chicago, and, for
fourteen years, found employment as a shoe-
maker. In 1879 he entered the municipal service
as a clerk, and, on Jan. 1, 1885, was appointed
City Superintendent of Streets, resigning in May.
1891. He was elected in 1892, as a Democrat, to
represent the Second Illinois District in the
Fifty-second Congress, and re-elected to the Fifty-
third. In 1894 he was a candidate for re-election
and received a certificate of election by a small
majority over Hugh R. Belknap (Republican).
An investigation having shown his defeat, he



magnanimously surrendered his seat to his com-
petitor without a contest. He has large business
interests in Chicago, especially in street railroad
property, being President of an important elec-
tric line.

McHENRY, a town in McIIenry County, situ-
ated on the Fox River and the Chicago & North-
western Railway. The river is here navigable
for steamboats of light draft, which ply between
the town and Fox Lake (a distance of seven
miles), which is a favorite resort for sportsmen.
The town has four chm-ches, a manufactory of
farming implements and two weekly papers.
Population (1880), 874; (1890), 979.

McHENRY, William, legislator and soldier of
the Black Hawk War, came from Kentucky to
Illinois in 1809, locating in "White County, and
afterwards became prominent as a legislator and
soldier in the War of 1813, and in the Black Hawk
War of 1833, serving in the latter as Major of
the "Spy Battalion" and participating in the
battle of Bad Axe. He also served as Represent-
ative in the First, Fourth, Fifth and Ninth Gen-
eral Assemblies, and as Senator in the Sixth and
Seventh. While serving his last term in the
House (1835), he died and was buried at Vandalia,
then the State capital. McHenry County— organ-
ized by act of the Legislature, pas.scd at a second
session during the winter of 1835-36 — was named
in his honor

McHENRY COUNTY, lies in the northern por-
tion of the State, bounded on the north by Wis-
consin — named for Gen. William McHenry. Its
area is 624 square miles. With what is now the
County of Lake, it was erected into a county in
1836, the county-seat being at McHenry. Three
years later the eastern part was set off as the
County of Lake, and the county-seat of McHenry
County removed to Woodstock, the geograph-
ical center. The soil is well watered by living
springs and is highly productive. Hardwood
groves are numerous. Fruits and berries are
extensively cultivated, but the herbage is espe-
cially adapted to dairying, Kentucky blue grass
being indigenous. Large quantities of milk are
daily shipped to Chicago, and the annual pro-
duction of butter and cheese reaches into the
millions of pounds. The geological formations
comprise the drift and the Cincinnati and Niagara
groups of rocks. Near Fox River are found
gravel ridges. Vegetable remains and logs of
wood have been found at various depths in the
drift deposits ; in one instance a cedar log, seven
inches in diameter, having been discovered forty-
two feet below the surface. Peat is found every-

where, although the most extensive deposits are
in the northern half of the county, where they
exist in sloughs covering several thousands of
acres. Several lines of railroad cross the county,
and every important village is a railway station.
Woodstock, Marengo, and Harvard are the prin-
cipal towns. Population (1880), 24,908; (1890),

McINTOSH, (Capt.) Alexander, was born in
Fulton County, N. Y., in 1832; at 19 years of
age entered an academy at Galway Center,
remaining three years; in 1845 removed to Joliet,
111., and, two years later, started "The Joliet
True Democrat," but sold out the next year, and,
in 1849, went to California. Returning in 1852, he
bought back "The True Democrat," which he
edited until 1857, meanwhile (1856) having been
elected Clerk of the Circuit Court and Recorder
of Will County. In 1863 he was appointed by
President Lincoln Captain anil Assistant Quarter-
master, serving under General Sherman in 1864
and in the "March to the Sea," and, after the
war, being for a time Post Quartermaster at
Mobile. Having resigned in 1866, he engaged in
mercantile business at Wilmington, Will County ;
but, in 1869, bought "The Wilmington Independ-
ent," which he published until 1873. The next
year he returned to Joliet, and, a few months
after, became political editor of "The Joliet
Republican," and was subsequently connected, in
a similar capacity, with other papers, including
"The Phoenix" and "The Sun" of the same city.
Died, in Joliet, Feb. 2, 1899.

McKENDREE, William, Methodist Episcopal
Bishop, was born in Virginia, in 1757, enlisted as
a private in the War of the Revolution, but later
served as Adjutant and in the commissary depart-
ment. He was converted at 30 years of age, and
the next year began preaching in his native
State, being advanced to the position of Presiding
Elder; in 1800 was transferred to the West, Illi-
nois falling within his District. Here he remained
until his elevation to the episcopacy in 1808.
McKendree College, at Lebanon, received its
name from him, together with a donation of 480
acres of land. Died, near Nashville, Tenn., March
5, 1835.

McKENDREE COLLEGE, one of the earliest of
Illinois colleges, located at Lebanon and incorpo-
rated in 1835. Its founding was suggested by
Rev. Peter Cartwright, and it may be said to
have had its inception at the Methodist Episcopal
Conference held at Mount Carmel, in September,
1827. The first funds for its establishment were
subscribed by citizens of Lebanon, who contrib-



uted from their scanty means, §1,385. Instruc-
tion began, Nov. 24. 1828, under Rev. Edward
Ames, afterwards a Bishop of the Methodist Epis-
copal Church. In 1830 Bisliop McKendree made
a donation of land to the infant institution, and
the scliQol was named in his lionor. It cannot be
said to have become reallj- a college until 1836,
and its first class graduated in 1841. University
powers were granted it by an amendment to its
charter in 1839. At present the departments are
as follows: Preparatory, business, classical,
scientific, law, music and oratory. The institu-
tion owns property to the value of §90,000. includ-
ing an endowment of S25.000, and has about 200
students, of both sexes, and a faculty of ten
instructors. (See Colleges. Early.)

McLAREK, William Edward, Episcopal Bishop,
was born at Geneva, N. Y., Dec. 13, 1831; gradu-
ated at Washington and Jefferson College (Wash-
ington, Pa.) in 1851, and, after six years spent in
teaching and in journalistic work, entered Alle-
gheny Theological .Seminary, graduating and
entering the Presbyterian ministry in 1800. For
three years he was a missionary at Bogota, South
America, and later in charge of churclies at
Peoria, 111., and Detroit, Mich. Having entered
the Protestant Episcopal Church, he was made a
deacon in July, 1872, and ordained priest the fol-
lowing October, immediately thereafter assuming
the pastorate of Trinity Chm-ch, Cleveland, Ohio.
In July, 1875, he was elected Bishop of the Prot-
estant Episcopal Diocese of Illinois, which then
included the whole State. Subsequently, the
dioceses of Quincy and Springfield were erected
therefrom. Bishop McLaren remaining at the
head of the Chicago See. During liis episcopate,
clmrch work has been active and effective, and
the Western Tl-.eological Seminary in Chicago
has been founded. His published works include
numerous sermons, addresses and poems, besides
a volume entitled "Catholic Dogma the Antidote
to Doubt" (New York, 1884).

Mclaughlin, Robert K., early lawyer and
State Treasurer, was born in Virginia, Oct. ■ 25,
1779; before attaining liis majority went to Ken-
tucky, and, about 1815, removed to Illinois, set-
tling finally at Belleville, where he entered upon
the practice of law. The first public position
held by him seems to have been tliat of Enrolling
and Engrossing Clerk of botli Houses of the Third
(or last) Territorial Legislature (1816-18). In
August, 1819, he entered upon the duties of State

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