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Church." Again, in 18.53, he was chosen Chap-



lain of Congress. While in Europe, in 1859, he
took orders in the Episcopal Church, but returned
to Methodism in 1871. He has since been twice
Chaplain of the House (1885 and "87) and tliree
times (1893. '95 and '97) elected to tlie same posi
tion in tlie Senate He is generally known as
"the blind preacher" and achieved considerable
prominence bj- his eloquence as a lecturer on
"What a Blind Man Saw in Europe." Among
his published writings are, "Rifle. Axe and Sad-
dlebags" (1856), "Ten Years of Preacher Life'
(1858) and "Pioneers, Preachers and People of tlie
Mississippi Valley" {18(i0).

MILCHRIST, Thomas E., lawyer, was born in
the Isle of Man in 1839, and, at the age of eight
years, came to America with his parents, who
settled in Peoria, 111. Here he attended scliool
and worked on a farm until the beginning of the
Civil War, when he enlisted in the One Hundred
and Twelfth Illinois Volunteers, serving until
1865, and being discharged with the rank of Cap-
tain. After the war he read law with John I.
Bennett — then of Galena, but later Master in
Chancery of the United States Court at Chicago
—was admitted to the bar in 1867, and, for a
number of years, served as State's Attorney in
Henry County. In 1888 he was a delegate from
Illinois to the Republican National Convention,
and the following year was appointed by Presi-
dent Harrison United States District Attorney
for the Northern District of Illinois. Since
retiring from office in 1893, Mr. lias been
engaged in private practice in Chicago. In 1898
he was elected a State Senator for the Fifth Dis-
trict (city of Chicago) in the Forty-first General

MILE!^, Nelson A., Major-General. was born
at Westminster, Mass., August 8, 1839. and, at
the breaking out of the Civil War, was engaged
in DQercantile pursuits in the city of Boston. In
October, 1861, lie entered the service as a Second
Lieutenant in a Massachusetts regiment, dis-
tinguished himself at the battles of Fair Oaks,
Charles City Cross Roads and Malvern Hill,
in one of which he was wounded. In Sep-
tember, 1862, he was Colonel of the Sixty-
first New York, which he led at Fredericksburg
and at ChanceUorsviUe, where he was again
severely wounded. He commanded the First
Brigade of the First Division of the Second Army
Corps in the Richmond campaign, and was made
Brigadier-General. May Vi. 1864, and Major-
Genpral, by brevet, for gallantry shown at Ream"s
Station, in December of the same year. At the
close of the war he was commissioned Colonel of

the Fortieth United States Infantry, and distin-
guished himself in campaigns against the Indians;
became a Brigadier-General in 1880, and Major-
General in 1890, in the interim being in command
of the Department of the Columbia, and, after
1890, of the Missouri, with headquarters at Chi-
cago. Here he did much to give efficiency and
importance to the post at Fort Sheridan, and, in
1894, rendered valuable service in checking the
strike riots about Chicago Near the close of the
year he was transferred to the Department of the
East, and, on the retirement of ( Jeneral Schofield
in 1895, was placed in command of the army,
with headquarters in Washington. During the
Spanish- American war (1898) (Jeneral Miles gave
attention to the fitting out of troops for the Cuban
and Porto Rican campaigns, and visited Santiago
during the siege conducted by General Shafter,
but took no active command in the fieUl until the
occupation of Porto Rico, which was conducted
with rare discrimination and good judgment, and
with comparatively little loss of life or suffering
to the troops.

MILFORD, a growing town in Iroquois County,
situated on Sugar Creek, and on t he Chicago &
Eastern Illinois Railroad, 35 miles north of Dan-
ville and 93 miles south of Chicago. The sur-
rounding region is agricultural, and wheat is
extensively grtwn. Beds of clay of excellent
quality are abundant, and flour, brick and tile
manufacturing are the chief mechanical indus-
tries of the town. A weeklj' newspaper is pub-
lished here. Population (1880), 612, (1890), 957.

Tract. )

MILITARY TRACT, a popular name given to
a section of the State, set apart under an act of
Congress, passed. May 6, 1812, as bounty-lands for
soldiers in the war with Great Britain commenc-
ing the same year. Similar reservations in the
Territories of Michigan and Louisiana (now
Arkansas) were provided for in the same act.
The lands in Illinois embraced in this act were
situated between the Illinois and Mississippi
Rivers, and extended from the junction of these
streams due north, by the Fourth Principal Merid-
ian, to the northern boundary of Township 15
north of the "Base Line." This "base line"
started about opposite the present site of Beards-
town, and extended to a point on the Mississippi
about seven miles north of Quincy. The north-
ern border of the "Tract" was identical with
the northern boundary of Mercer County, whicli,
extended eastward, reached the Illinois about
the present village of De Pue, in the southeastern



part of Bureau County, where the Illinois makes
a great bend towards the south, a few miles west
of the city of Peru. The distance between the
Illinois and the Mississippi, by this line, was about
90 miles, and the entire length of the "Tract,"
from its northern boundary to the junction of
the two rivers, was computed at 169 miles, — con-
sisting of 90 miles north of the "base line" and 79
miles south of it, to the junction of the rivers.
The "Tract" was surveyed in 1815-16. It com-
prised 307 entire townships of six miles square,
each, and 61 fractional townships, containing an
area of 5,360,000 acres, of which 3,500,000 acres—
a little less than two-thirds — were appropriated to
military bounties. The residue consisted partly
of fractional sections bordering on rivers, partly of
fractional quarter-sections bordering on township
lines, and containing more or less than 160 acres,
and partly of lands that were returned by the sur-
veyors as unfit for cultivation. In addition to
this, there were large reservations not coming
within the above exceptions, being the overplus
of lands after satisfying the military claims, and
subject to entry and purchase on the same con-
ditions as other Government lands. The "Tract"
thus embraced the present counties of Calhoun,
Pike, Adams, Brown, Schuyler, Hancock, Mo-
Donough, Fulton, Peoria, Stark, Knox, Warren,
Henderson and Mercer, with parts of Henry,
Bureau, Putnam and Marshall — or so much of
them as was necessary to meet the demand for
bounties. Immigration to this region set in quite
actively about 1823, and the development of some
portions, for a time, was very rapid ; but later, its
growth was retarded by the conflict of "tax-
titles" and bounty-titles derived by purchase
from the original holders. This led to a great
deal of litigation, and called for considerable
legislation; but since the adjustment of these
questions, this region has kept pace with the most
favored sections of the State, and it now includes
some of the most important and prosperous towns
and cities and many of the finest farms in

MILITIA. Illinois, taught by the experiences
of the War of 1812 and the necessity of providing
for protection of its citizens against the incur-
sions of Indians on its borders, began the adop-
tion, at an early date, of such measures as were
then common in the several States for the main-
tenance of a State militia. The Constitution of
1818 made the Governor "Commander-in-Chief
of the army and navy of this State, " and declared
that the militia of the State should "consist of
all free male able-bodied persons (negroes, mu-

lattoes and Indians excepted) resident in the
State, oetween the ages of 18 and 45 years," and
this classification was continued in the later con-
stitutions, except that of 1870, which omits all
reference to the subject of color. In each there
is the same general provision exempting persons
entertaining "conscientious scruples against
bearing arms," although subject to payment of
an equivalent for such exemption. The first law
on the subject, enacted by the first General
Assembly (1819), provided for the establishment
of a general militia system for the State ; and the
fact that this was modified, amended or wholly
changed by acts passed at the sessions of 1821,
'23, '25, '26, '37, '29, '33, '37 and '39, shows tie
estimation in which the subject was held. While
many of these acts were of a special character,
providing for a particular class of organization,
the general law did little except to require per-
sons subject to military duty, at stated periods, to
attend county musters, which were often con-
ducted in a very informal manner, or made the
occasion of a sort of periodical frolic. The act of
July, 1833 (following the Black Hawk War),
required an enrollment of ' 'all free, white, male
inhabitants of military age (except such as might
be exempt under the Constitution or laws) " " ;
divided the State into five divisions by counties,
each division to be organized into a certain speci-
fied number of brigades. This act was quite
elaborate, covering some twenty-four pages, and
provided for regimental, battalion and company
musters, defined the duties of officers, manner of
election, etc. The act of 1837 encouraged the
organization of volunteer companies. The Mexi-
can War (1845-47) gave a new impetus to this
class of legislation, as also did the War of the
Rebellion (1861-65). While the office of Adju-
tant-General had existed from the first, its duties
— except during the Black Hawk and Mexican
Wars — were rather nominal, and were discharged
without stated compensation, the incumbent
being merely Chief -of-staff to the Governor as
Commander-in-Chief. The War of the Rebellion
at once brought it into prominence, as an impor-
tant part of the State Government, which it has
since maintained. The various measures passed,
during this period, belong rather to the history of
the late war than to the subject of this chapter.
In 1865, however, the office was put on a different
footing, and the important part it had played,
during the preceding four years, was recognized
by the passage of "an act to provide for the ap-
pointment, and designate the work, fix the pay
and prescribe the duties, of the Adjutant-General



of Illinois." During the next four years, its
most important work was the publication of
eight volvuues of war records, containing a com-
plete roster of the officers and men of the various
regiments and other military organizations from
Illinois, with an outline of their movements and
a list of the battles in which they were engaged.
To the Adjutant-General's office, as now adminis-
tered, is entrusted the custody of the war-
records, battle-flags and trophies of the late war.
A further step was taken, in 1877, in the passage
of an act formulating a military code and provid-
ing for more thorough organization. Modifying
amendments to this act were adopted in 1879 and
1885. While, under these laws, "all able-bodied
male citizens of this State, between the ages of 18
and 4.'5"' (with certain specified exceptions), are
declared "subject to military duty, and desig-
nated as the Illinois State Militia," provision is
made for the organization of a body of "active
militia," designated as the "Illinois National
Guard, "to consist of "not more than eighty-four
companies of infantry, two batteries of artillery
and two troops of cavalry," recruited by volun-
tary enlistments for a period of three years, with
right to re-enlist for one or more years. The
National Guard, as at present constituted, con-
sists of three brigades, with a total force of about
9,000 men, organized into nine regiments, besides
the batteries and cavalry already mentioned.
Gatling guns are used by the artillery and breech-
loading rifles by the infantry. Camps of instruc-
tion are held for the regiments, respectively— one
or more regiments participating — each year,
usually at "Camp Lincoln" near Springfield,
when regimental and brigade drills, competitive
rifle practice and mock battles are had. An act
establishing the "Naval Militia of Illinois," to
consist of "not more than eight divisions or com-
panies." divided into two battalions of four divi-
sions each, was passed by the General Assembly
of 1893 — the whole to be under the command of
an ofticer with the rank of Commander. The
commanding officer of each battalion is styled a
"Lieutenant-Commander," and both the Com-
mander and Lieutenant-Commanders have their
respective staffs— their organization, in other
respects, being conformable to the laws of the
United States. A set of "Regulations," based
upon these several laws, has been prepared by the
Adjutant-General for the government of the
various organizations. The Governor is author-
ized, by law. to call out the militia to resist inva-
sion, or to suppress violence and enforce execution
of the laws, when called upon by the civil author-

ities of any city, town or county. This authority,
however, is exercised with great discretion, and
only when the local authorities are deemed unable
to cope with threatened resistance to law. The
oflScers of the National (iuard, when called into
actual service for the suppression of riot or the
enforcement of the laws, receive the same com-
pensation paid to officers of the United States
army of like grade, while the enlisteil men receive
$2 per day. During the time they are at any
encampment, the officers and men alike receive
f 1 per day. with necessary subsistence and cost
of transportation to and from the encampment.
(For list of incumbents in Adjutant-General's
office, see Adjutants-General; see, also, Spanish-
American TT'ar. )

MILLER, James H., Speaker of the House of
Representatives, was born in Ohio, May 29, 1843;
in early life came to Toulon, Stark County, 111.,
where he finally engaged in the practice of law.
At the beginning of the Rebellion he enlisted in
the Union army, but before being mustered into
the service, received an injury wliich rendered
him a cripple for life. Though of feeble physical
organization and a sufferer from ill-health, he
was a man of decided ability and much influence.
He served as State's Attorney of Stark County
(1872-76) and. in 1884. was elected Representative
in the Thirty-fourtli General Assembly, at the
following session being one of the most zealous
supporters of Gen. John A. Logan, in the cele-
brated contest which resulted in the election of
the latter, for the third time, to the United States
Senate. By successive re-elections he also served
in the Thirty-fifth and Tliirty-sixth General
Assemblies, during the session of the latter being
cho.sen Speaker of the House, as successor to
A. C. Matthews, who had been appointed, during
the session. First Comptroller of the Treasury at
Washington. In the early part of the summer
of 1890, Mr. Miller visited Colorado for the bene-
fit of his health, but, a week after his arrival at
Manitou Springs, died suddenly. June 27, 1890.

MILLS, Benjamin, lawyer and early poli-
tician, was a native of Western Massachusetts,
and described by his contemporaries as a highly
educated and accomplished lawyer, as well as a
brilliant orator. The exact date of his arrival in
Illinois cannot be determined with certainty, hut
he appears to liave been in the "Lead Mine
Region" about Galena, as early as 1836 or '27. and
was notable as one of the first "Yankees" to
locate in that section of the State. He was
elected a Representative in the Eighth f Jeneral
Assembly (1832), his district embracing the



counties of Peoria, Jo Daviess, Putnam, La Salle
and Cook, including all the State north of Sanga-
mon (as it then stood), and extending from the
Mississippi River to the Indiana State line. At
this session occurred the impeachment trial of
Theophilus W. Smith, of the Supreme Court, Mr.
Mills acting as Chairman of the Impeachment
Committee, and delivering a speech of great
power and brilliancy, whicli lasted two or three
days. In 1834 he was a candidate for Congress
from the Northern District, but was defeated by
"William L. May (Democrat), as claimed by Mr.
Mill's friends, unfairly. He early fell a victim
to consumption and, returning to Massachusetts,
died in Berkshire County, in tliat State, in 1841.
Hon. R. H. McClellan, of Galena, says of him:
"He was a man of remarkable ability, learning
and eloquence," while Governor Ford, in his
"History of Illinois," testifies that, "by common
con.sent of all liis contemporaries, Mr. Mills was
regarded as the most popular and brilliant lawyer
of his day at the Galena bar."

MILLS, Henry A., State Senator, was born at
New Hartford, Oneida County, N. Y., in 1827;
located at Mount Carroll, Carroll County, 111., in
18.')6, finally engaging in the banking business at
that place. Having served in various local
offices, he was, in 1874, cliosen State Senator for
the Eleventh District, but died at Galesburg
before the expiration of his term, July 7, 1877.

MILLS, Luther Lafliu, lawyer, was born at
North Adams, Mass., Sept. 3, 1848; brought to
Chicago in infancy, and educated in the public
scliools of that city and at Michigan State Uni-
versity. In 1868 lie began tlie study of law, was
admitted to practice three years later, and, in
1876, was elected State's Attorney, being re-
elected in 1880. While in this office he was con-
nected with some of the most important cases
ever brought before the Chicago courts.
Although he has held no official position except
that already mentioned, his abilities at the bar
and on the rostrum are widely recognized, and
his services, as an attorney and an orator, have
been in frequent demand.

MILLSTADT, a town in St. Clair County,
about 8 miles west-southwest of Belleville, and 14
miles south-southeast of St. Louis. Coal mining
and the manufacture of flour and farm-imple-
ments are the principal industries of tlie place.
Population (1880). 1.239; (1890), 1,186.

Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway.)

MINER, Orlln H., State Auditor, was born in
Vermont, May 13, 1835; from 1834 to '51 he lived

in Ohio, the latter year coming to Chicago, where
he worked at his trade of watch- maker. In 1855
he went to Central America and was with Gen-
eral William Walker at Grey town. Returning to
Illinois, he resumed his trade at Springfield; in
1857 lie was appointed, by Auditor Dubois, chief
clerk in the Auditor's office, serving until 1864,
when he was elected State Auditor as successor
to his chief. Retiring from office in 1869, he
gave attention to liis private business. He was
one of the founders and a Director of the Spring-
field Iron Company. Died in 1879.

MINIER, a village of Tazewell County, at the
intersection of the Jacksonville Division of the
Chicago & Alton and the Terre Haute & Peoria
Railroads. 36 miles southeast of Peoria ; has sev-
eral grain elevators, some manufactures, a bank
and a newspaper. Population (1880). 600; (1890),

MIJfONK, a city in Woodford County, 39 miles
north of Bloomington and 53 miles northeast of
Peoria, on the At

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 79 of 207)