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the ship "Beverly." When thirty days out a
mutiny arose, and shortly afterward the vessel
was burned. Morgan escaped to South America,
and, after many hardships, returned to Boston.
In 1834 he removed to Quincy.IU., and engaged
in mercantile pursuits; aided iu raising the
"Quincy Grays" during the Mormon difficulties
(1844-45) ; during the Mexican War commanded a
company in the First Regiment Illinois Volun-
teers; in 1861 became Lieutenant-Colonel of the
Tenth Regiment in the three months' service,
and Colonel on reorganization of the regiment
for three years ; was promoted Brigadier-General



in July, 1862, for meritorious service ; commanded
a brigade at Nashville, and, in March, 1865, was
brevetted Major-General for gallantry at Benton-
ville, N. C, being mustered out, August 34, 1865.
After the war he resumed business at Quincy,
111., being President of the Quincy Gas Company
and Vice-President of a bank; was also Presi-
dent, for some time, of the Society of the Army
of the Cumberland. Died, at Quincy, Sept. 13, 1896.

MORGAN COUNTY, a central county of the
State, lying west of Sangamon, and bordering on
the Illinois River — named for Gen. Daniel Mor-
gan; area, 580 square miles; population (1890),
32,636. The earliest American settlers were
probably Elisha and Seymour Kellogg, who
located on Mauvaisterre Creek in 1818. Dr. George
Caldwell came in 1830, and was the first phy-
sician, and Dr. Ero Chandler settled on the pres-
ent site of the city of Jacksonville in 1821.
Immigrants began to arrive in large numbers
about 1833, and, Jan. 31, 1833, the county was
organized, the first election being held at the
house of James G. Swinerton, six miles south-
west of the present city of Jacksonville. 01m-
stead's Mound was the first county-seat, but this
choice was only temporary. Two years later,
Jacksonville was .selected, and has ever since so
continued. (See Jaeksonville.) Cass County
was cut off from Morgan in 1837, and Scott
County in 1839. About 1837 Morgan was the
most populous county in the State. The county
is nearly equally divided between woodland and
prairie, and is well watered. Besides the Illinois
River on its western border, there are several
smaller streams, among them Indian, Apple,
Sandy and Mauvaisterre Creeks. Bituminous
coal underlies the eastern part of the county, and
thin veins crop out along the Illinois River
bluffs. Sandstone has also been quarried.

MORGAN PARK, a suburban village of Cook
County, 13 miles south of Chicago, on the Chi-
cago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway ; is the seat
of the Academy (a preparatory branch) of the
University of Chicago and the Scandinavian De-
partment of the Divinity School connected with
the same institution. Population (1880), 187;
(1890), 1,037.

MORMONS, a religious sect, founded by Joseph
Smitli, Jr., at Fayette, Seneca County, N. Y.,
August 6, 1830, styling themselves the "Chm-ch of
Jesus Christ of Latter- Day Saints. " Membership
in 1892 was estimated at 330,000, of whom some
20,000 were outside of the United States. Their
religious teachings are peculiar. They avow faith
in the Trinity and in the Bible (as by them



HISTORICAL EXCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



385



interpreted). They beUeve, however, tliat the
"Book of Mormon" — assumed to be of divine
origin and a direct revelation to Smith — is of
equal authority with the Scriptures, if not supe-
rior to them. Among their ordinances are
baptism and the laying-on of hands, and, in their
chureli organization, thej' recognize various orders
— apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangel-
ists, etc. They also believe in the restoration of
the Ten Tribes and the literal re assembling of
Israel, the return and rule of Christ in person,
and the rebuilding of Zion in America. Polyg-
amy is encouraged and made an article of faith,
though professedly not practiced under existing
laws in the United States. The supreme power
is vested in a President, who has authority in
temporal and spiritual affairs alike; although
there is less effort now than formerly, on the part
of the priesthood, to interfere in temporalities.
Driven from New York in 1831, Smith and his
followers first settled at Kirtland, Ohio. There,
for a time, the sect flourished and built a temple ;
but, within seven years, their doctrines and prac-
tices excited so much hostility that they were
forced to make another removal. Their next
settlement was at Far West. Mo. ; but here the
hatred toward them became so intense as to
result in open war. From Missouri they
recrossed the Mississippi and founded the city
of Nauvoo, near Commerce, in Hancock County,
111. The charter granted by the Legislature was
an extraordinary instrument, and well-nigh made
the city independent of the State. Nauvoo soon
obtained commercial importance, in two years
becoming a city of some 16,000 inhabitants. The
Mormons rapidly became a powerful factor in
State politics, when there broke out a more
bitter public enmity than the sect liad yet en-
countered. Internal dissensions also sprang up,
and, in 1844, a discontented Mormon founded a
newspaper at Nauvoo, in which he violently
assailed the prophet and threatened him with
exposure. Smith's answer to this was the de-
struction of the printir^g office, and the editor
promptly secured a warrant for his arrest, return-
able at Carthage. Smith went before a friendlj'
justice at Nauvoo, who promptly discharged him,
but he positively refused to appear before the
Carthage magistrate. Tliereupon the latter
issued a second warrant, cliarging Smith with
treason. This also was treated with contempt.
The militia was called out to make the arrest, and
the Mormons, who had formed a strong military
organization, armed to defend their leader.
After a few trifling clashes between the soldiers



and the "Saints," Smith was persuaded tq sur-
render and go to Carthage, the county -seat, where
he was incarcerated in the county jail. Within
twenty-four hours (on Sunday, June 37, 1844), a
mob attacked the prison. Joseph Smith and his
brother Hyrum were killed, and some of their
adherents, who had accompanied them to jail,
were wounded. Brigham Young (then an
apostle) at once assumed the leadership and,
after several montlis of intense popular excite-
ment, in the following year led his followers
across the Mississippi, finally locating (1847) in
Utah. (See also Nauvoo.) There their history
has not been free from charges of crime; but,
whatever may be the character of the leaders,
they have succeeded in building up a prosperous
community in a region which they found a vir-
tual desert, a little more than forty years ago.
The polity of the Church has been greatly modi-
fied in consequence of restrictions placed upon it
by Congressional legislation, especially in refer-
ence to polygamy, and by contact with other
communities. {See Smith, Joaeph.)

MORRIS, a city and the county-seat of Grundy
County, on the Illinois River, the Illinois &
Michigan Canal, and the Chicago, Rock Island &
Pacific Railroad, 61 miles southwest of Chicago.
It is an extensive grain market, and the center of
a region rich in bituminous coal. Tliere is valu-
able water-power here, and much manufacturing
is done, including builders' hardware, plows, iron
specialties, paper car-wheels, brick and tile, flour
and planing-mills, oatmeal and tanned leather.
There are also a normal and scientific school, two
national banks and three daily and weekly news-
papers. Population (1880), 3,486; (1890), 3,658;
(1898) estimated, 4, .WO.

MORRIS, Buckner Smith, early lawyer born
at Augusta, Ky., August 19, 1800; was admitted
to the bar in 1827, and. for seven years thereafter,
continued to reside in Kentucky, serving two
terms in the Legislature of that State. In 1834
he removed to Chicago, took an active part in
the incorporation of the city, and was elected its
second Mayor in 1838. In 1840 he was a Whig
candidate for Presidential Elector, Abraham
Lincoln running on the same ticket, and. in
18.52, was defeated as tlie Whig candidate for
Secretary of State. He was elected a Judge of
the Seventh Circuit in 18.51, but declined a re-
nomination in 185.5. In 1856 he accepted the
American (or Know-Nothing) nomination for
Governor, and, in 1860, that of the Bell-Everett
party for the same office. He was vehementlj-
opposed to the election of either Lincoln on



HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



Breckenridge to the Presidency, believing that
civil war vi^ould result in either event. A shadow
was thrown across his life, in 1864, by his arrest
and trial for alleged complicity in a rebel plot to
burn and pillage Chicago and liberate the
prisoners of war held at Camp Douglas. The
trial, however, which was lield at Cincinnati,
resulted in his acquittal. Died, in Kentucky,
Dec. 18, 1879. Those who knew Judge Morris, in
his early life in the city of Chicago, describe him
as a man of genial and kindly disposition, in spite
of his opposition to the abolition of slavery — a
fact which, no doubt, had much to do with his
acquittal of tlie charge of complicity with tlie
Camp Douglas conspiracy, as the evidence of his
being in communication with the leading con-
spirators appears to have been conclusive. (See
Cam}) Dotiglas Conspiracy.)

MORRIS, Freeman P., lawyer and politician,
was born in Cook County, 111., March 19, 1854,
labored on a farm and attended the district
school in his youth, but completed his education
in Chicago, graduating from the Union College
of Law, and was admitted to practice in 1874,
when he located at Watseka, Iroquois County.
In 1884 he was elected, as a Democrat, to the
House of Representatives from the Iroquois Dis-
trict, and has since been re-elected in 1888, "94,
"96, being one of the most influential members of
his party in that body. In 1893 he was appointed
by Governor Altgeld Aid-de-Camp, with the rank
of Colonel, on his personal staff, but resigned in
1896.

MORRIS, Isaac Newton, lawyer and Congress-
man, was born at Bethel, Clermont Coimty,
Ohio, Jan. 23, 1812; educated at Miami Univer-
sity, admitted to the bar in 183.5, and the next
year removed to Quincy, 111. ; was a member and
President of the Board of Canal Commissioners
(1842-43), served in the Fifteenth General Assem-
bly (1846-48) ; was elected to Congress as a Demo-
crat in 1856, and again in 1858, but opposed the
admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Con-
stitution; in 1868 supported General Grant — who
had been his friend in boyhood— for President,
and, in 1870, was appointed a member of the
Union Pacific Railroad Commission. Died, Oct.
29, 1879.

MORRISON, a city, the county -seat of White-
side County, founded in 1855 ; is a station on the
Chicago & Northwestern Railroad, 124 miles west
of Chicago. Agriculture, dairying and stock-
raising are the principal pursuits in the surround-
ing region. Although a small city, it has good
I water-works, thorough sewerage, electric lighting



and several manufactories, including car and
refrigerator works ; also has numerous churches,
a large graded school, a public library and ade-
quate banking facilities. Two weekly papers are
published here. Population (1880), 1.981; (1890),
2,088; (1898) estimated, 2,i500.

MORRISON, Isaac L., lawyer and legislator,
born in Barren County, Ky., in 1826; was edu-
cated in the common scliools and the Masonic
Seminary of his native State; admitted to the
bar, and came to Illinois in 1851, locating at
Jacksonville, where he has become a leader of
the bar and of the Republican party, which he
assisted to organize as a member of its first State
Convention at Bloomington, in 1856. He was also
a delegate to the Republican National Convention
of 1864, which nominated Abraham Lincoln for
the Presidency a second time. Mr. Morrison was
three times elected to the lower house of the
General Assembly (1876, '78 and "82), and, by his
clear judgment and incisive powers as a public
speaker, took a high rank as a leader in that
body. Of late years, he has given his attention
solely to the practice of his profession in
Jacksonville.

MORRISON, James lowery Donaldson, poli
tician, lawyer and Congressman, was born at Kas-
kaskia. 111., April 12, 1816; at the age of 16 was
appointed a midshipman in the United States
Navy, but leaving the service in 1836, read law
with Judge Nathaniel Pope, and was admitted to
the bar, practicing at Belleville. He was electeil
to the lower house of the General Assembly from
St. Clair County, in 1844. and to the State Senate
in 1848, and again in "54. In 1853 lie was an
unsuccessful candidate for the Lieutenant-Gov-
ernorship on the Whig ticket, but. on the disso-
lution of that party, allied himself with the
Democracy, and was, for many years, its leader in
Southern Illinois. In 1855 he was elected to Con-
gress to fill the vacancy caused by the resigna-
tion of Lyman Trumbull, who had been elected to
the United States Senate. In 1860 he was a can-
didate before the Democratic State Convention
for the nomination for Governor, but was defeated
by James C. Allen. After that year he took no
prominent part in public affairs. At the outbreak
l. I)ie(i. at
St. Louis, Mo., August 14, INsy.

MORRISON, William, pioneer mercliant, came
from Philadelphia, Pa., to Kaskaskia, 111., in 1790,
as representative of the mercantile house of
Brjaut & Morrison, of Philadelphia, and finally
established an extensive trade throughout the
Jlississippi Valley, supplying merchants at St.
Louis, St. Genevieve, Cape Girardeau and New-
Madrid. He is also said to have sent an agent
with a stock of goods across the plains, with a
view to opening up trade with the Jlexicans at
Santa Fe, about 1804, but was defrauded by the
agent, who appropriated the goods to his own
benefit without accounting tt) his employer.
He became the principal merchant in the Terri-
tory, doing a thriving business in early days,
when Kaskaskia was the principal supply j)oint
for merchants throughout the vallej'. He is de-
scribed as a public-spirited, enterprising man. to
whom was due the chief part of the credit for
securing construction of a bridge across the Kas-
kaskia River at the town of that name. He died
at Kaskaskia in 1837, and was buried in the ceme-
tery there. — Robert (Morrison), a brother of the
preceding, came to Kaskaskia in 1793, was
appointed Clerk of the Common Pleas Court in
1801, retaining the position for many years,
besides holding other local offices. He was the
father of Col. James L. D. Morrison, politician
and soldier of the Mexican War. whose sketch is
given elsewhere. — Joseph (Morrison), the oldest
son of William Morrison, went to Ohio, residing
there several years, but finally returned to Prairie
du Rocher, where he died in 1845. — Jame$i,
another son, went to Wisconsin ; William located
at Belleville, dying there in 1843; while Lewisj
another son, settrled at Covington, Washington
County, 111., where he practiced medicine up to
1851; then engaged in mercantile business at
Chester, dying there in 1856.

MORRISON, William Ralls, ex Congre.ssman,
Inter-State Commerce Commissioner, was born,
Sept. 14, 1825, in Monroe County, 111., and edu-
cated at McKendree College; served as a private
in tlie Mexican War, at its close studied law, and
was admitted to the bar in 1835; in 1852 was
elected Clerk of the Circuit Court of Monroe
County, but resigned before the close of his term,
accepting the office of Representative in the State
Legislature, to which he was elected in 1854; was
re-elected in 1856, and again in 1858, serving as
Speaker of the House during the session of 1859.
In 1861 he assisted in organizing the Forty-ninth
Regiment Illinois Volunteers and was commis-



sioned Colonel. The regiment was mustered in,
Dec. 31, 1861, and took part in the battle of Fort
Donelson in February following, where he was
severely wounded. While yet in the service, in
1863, he was elected to Congress as a Democrat,
when he resigned his commission, but was de-
feated for re-election, in 1864, by Jehu Baker, as
he was again in 1866. In 1870 he was again
elected to the General Assembly, and, two years
later (1873), retfirned to Congress from the Belle-
ville District, after which he served in that body,
by successive re-elections, nine terms and until
1887, being for several ternjs Chairman of the
House Ways and Means Committee and promi-
nent in the tariff legislation of that period. lu
March, 1887, President Cleveland appointed him
a member of the first Inter-State Commerce Com-
mission for a period of five years ; at the close of
his term he was reappointed, by President Harri-
son, for a full term of six years, serving a part of
the time as President of the Board, and retiring
from office in 1898.

MORRISONVILLE, a town in Christian
County, situated on the Wabash Railway, 40
miles southwest of Decatur and 20 miles north-
northeast of Litclitield. Grain is extensively
raised in the surrounding region, and Morrison-
ville, with its elevator, is an important shipping
point. It also has brick and tile works, two
lianks, five churches, graded and high schools,
and a weekly paper. Population (1880), 748;
(1890), 844.

MORTOX, a village of Tazewell County, at the
intersection of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe
and the Terre Haute & Peoria Railroads, 10 miles
northeast of Peoria; has a bank and a newspaper.
Population (1880). 426; (1890), 657.

MORTON, Joseph, pioneer farmer and legisla-
tor, was born in Virginia, August 1, 1801, came
to Madison County, 111., in 1819, and the follow-
ing year to Morgan County, when he engaged in
farming in the vicinity of Jacksonville. He
served as a member of the House in the Tenth
and Fifteenth General Assemblies, and as Senator
in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth. He was a
Democrat in politics, but, on ((uestions of State
and local policy, was non-partisan, faithfully
representing the interests of his constituents.
Died, at his home near Jacksonville, March 3, 1881.

MOSES, Adolph, lawyer, was born in Speyer,
Germany, Feb. 27, 1837, and, until fifteen years
of age, was educated in the public and Latin
schools of his native country ; in the latter part
of 1852, came to America, locating in Nen-
Orleans, and, for some years, being a law student



388



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



in Louisiana University, under the preceptorship
of Randall Hunt and other eminent lawyers of
that State. In the early days of the Civil War
lie espoused the cause of the Confederacy, serving
some two years as an officer of the Twenty-first
Louisiana Regiment. Coming north at the expi-
ration of this period, he resided for a time in
Quincy, 111., but, in 1869, removed to Chicago,
where he took a place in the front rank at the
bar, and where he has resitted ever since.
Although in sympathy with the general princi-
ples of the Democratic party. Judge Moses is an
independent voter, as shown by the fact that he
voted for General Grant for President in 1868,
and supported the leading measures of the Repub-
lican party in 1896. He is the editor and pub
lisher of "The National Corporation Reporter,"
established in 1890, and which is devoted to the
interests of business corporations.

MOSES, John, lawyer and author, was born at
Niagara Falls, Canada, Sept. 18, 182.5; came to
Illinois in 1837, his family locating flr.st at Naples,
Scott County. He pursued the vocation of a
teacher for a time, studied law, was elected Clerk
of the Circuit Court for Scott Coimty in 1856, and
served as County Judge from 1857 to 1861. The
latter year he became the private secretary of
Governor Yates, serving until 1863, during that
period assisting in the organization of seventy-
seven regiments of Illinois Volunteers. While
serving in this capacity, in company with Gov-
ernor Yates, he attended the famous conference
of loyal Governors, held at Altoona, Pa. , in Sep-
tember, 1862, and afterwards accompanied the
Governors in their call upon President Lincoln, a
few days after the issue of the preliminary proc-
lamation of emancipation. Having received the
appointment, from President Lincoln, of Assessor
of Internal Revenue for the Tenth Illinois Dis-
trict, he resigned the position of private secretary
to Governor Yates. In 1874 he was chosen
Representative in the Twenty-ninth General
Assembly for tlie District composed of Scott,
Pike and Calhoun Counties ; served as a delegate
to the National Republican Convention at Phila-
delphia, in 1872, and as Secretary of the Board of
Railroad and Warehouse Commissioners for
three years (1880-83). He was then appointed
Special Agent of the Treasury Department, and
assigned to duty in connection with the customs
revenue at Chicago. In 1887 he was chosen Sec-
retary of the Chicago Historical Society, serving
until 1893. While connected with the Chicago
Historical Library he brought out the most com-
plete History of Illinois yet published, in two



volumes, and also, in connection with the late
Major Kirkland, edited a History of Chicago in
two large volumes. Other literary work done by
Judge Moses, includes "Personal Recollections of
Abraham Lincoln" and "Richard Yates, the
War Governor of Illinois, " in the form of lectures
or addresses. Died in Chicago, July 3, 1898.

MOULTON, Samuel W., lawyer and Congress-
man, was born at Wenham, Mass., Jan. 20, 1822,
where he was educated in the public schools.
After spending some years in the South, he
removed to Illinois (1845). where he studied law,
and was admitted to the bar, commencing prac-
tice at Shelby ville. From 1852 to 1859 he was a
member of the lower house of the General Assem-
bly; in 1857, was a Presidential Elector on the
Buchanan ticket, and was President of the State
Board of Education from 1859 to 1876. In 1864
he was elected, as a Republican, Representative in
Congress for the State-at-large, being elected
again, as a Democrat, from the Shelbj'ville Dis-
trict, in 1880 and '82. During the past few years
(including the campaign of 1896) Mr. Moulton
has acted in cooperation with the Republican
party.

MOULTRIE COUNTY, a comparatively small
county in the eastern section of the middle tier of
the State — named for a revolutionary hero. Area,
340 square miles, and population (by the census
of 1890), 14,481. Moultrie was one of the early
"stamping grounds" of the Kickapoos, who were
always friendly to English-speaking settlers. The
earliest immigrants were from the Southwest,
but arrivals from Northern States soon followed. •
County organization was effected in 1848, botli
Shelby and Macon Counties surrendering a portion
of territory. A vein of good bituminous coal
underlies the county , but agriculture is the more
important industry. SuUivan is the county-seat,
selected in 1845. In 1890 its population was about
1,700. Hon. Richard J. Oglesby (former Gover-
nor, Senator and a Major-General in the Civil
War) began the practice of law liere.

MOUND-BUILDERS, WORKS OF THE. One
of the most conclusive evidences that the Mis-
sissippi Valley was once occupied by a people
different in customs, character and civilization
from the Indians found occupying the soil when
the first white explorers visited it, is the exist-
ence of certain artificial mounds and earthworks,
of the origin and purposes of which the Indians
seemed to have no knowledge or tradition. These
works extend throughout the valley from the
Allegheny to the Rocky Mountains, being much
more numerous, however, in some portions than



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



:i89



in others, and also varying greatlj- in form. This
fact, with the remains found in some of them, has
been regarded as evidence that the purposes of
their construction were widely variant. They
have consequently been classified by archaeolo-
gists as sepulchral, religious, or defensive, while
some seem to have had a purpose of which
writers on the subject are unable to form any
satisfactory conception, and which are, therefore,
still regarded as an unsolved mystery. Some of
the most elaborate of these works are found along
the eastern border of the Mississippi Valley,



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