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Peoria (1834); "The Mount Carmel Sentinel and
Wabash Advocate" (1834); "The Illinois State
Gazette and Jacksonville News, ' ' at Jacksonville
(1835); "The Illinois Argus and Bounty Land
Register," at Quincy (183.5); "The Rushville
Journal and Military Tract Advertiser" (1835);
"The Alton Telegraph" (1836); "The Alton
Observer" (1836); "The Carthaginian," at Car-
thage (1836) ; "The Bloomington Observer" (1837) ;
"The Backwoodsman," founded by Prof. John
Russell, at Grafton, and the first paper published
in Greene County (1837); "The Quincy Whig"
(1838) ; "The Illinois Statesman." at Paris, Edgar
County (1838); "The Peoria Register" (1838).
The second paper to be established in Chicago
was "The Chicago American," whose initial
number was issued, June 8, 1835, with Thomas O.
Davis as proprietor and editor. In July, 1837, it
passed into the hands of AVilliam Stuart & Co. ,
and, on April 9, 1839, its publishers began the
issue of the first daily ever published in Chicago.
"The Chicago Express" succeeded "The Ameri-
can" in 1842, and, in 1844, became the forerunner
of "The Chicago Journal." The third Chicago
paper was "The Commercial Advertiser,"
founded by Hooper Warren, in 1836. It lived
only about a year. Zebina Eastman, who was
afterwards associated with Warren, and became
one of the most influential journalistic opponents
of slavery, arrived in the State in 1839, and, in
the latter part of that year, was associated with
the celebrated Abolitionist, Benjamin Lundy, in
the preliminary steps for the issue of "The
Genius of Universal Emancipation," projected
by Ijundy at Lowell, in La Salle County. Lundy's
untimely death, in August, 1839, however, pre-



vented him from seeing the consummation of his
I>lan, although Eastman lived to carry it out in
part. A paper wliose career, although extending
only a little over one year, marked an era in Illi-
nois journalism, was "The Alton Observer," its
liistory closing with the assassination of its
editor. Rev. Elijah P. Lovejoy, on the night of
Xov. 8, 1837. while unsuccessfully attempting to
protect his press from destruction, for the fourtli
time, by a pro-slavery mob. Humiliating as was
this crime to every law-abiding Illinoisan, it
undoubtedly strengthened the cause of free
speech and assisted in hastening the downfall of
the institution in whose behalf it was committed.

That the development in the field of journal-
ism, within the past sixty years, has more than
kept pace witli the growth in population, is
shown by the fact that there is not a county in
the State without its newspaper, while every
town of a few hundred population has either one
or more. According to statistics for 1898, there
were 605 cities and towns in the State having
periodical publications of some sort, making a
total of 1,709, of which 174 were issued daily, 34
semi-weekly, 1,20.5 weekly, 28 semi-monthly, 238
monthly, and the remainder at various periods
ranging from tri-weekly to eight times a year.

>'EWTO\, the county-seat of Jasper County,
situated on the Embarras River, at the intersec-
tion of the Peoria, Decatur & Evansville and the
Indiana & Illinois Southern Railways ; is an in-
corporated city, was settled in 1828. and made
the county-seat in 1830. Agriculture, coal-min-
ing and dairy farming are the principal pursuits
in the surrounding region. The city has water-
power, which is utilized to some extent in manu-
facturing, but most of its factories are operated
by steam. Among these establishments are flour
and saw-mills, creameries, and canning and egg
case factories. Tliere are a half-dozen churches,
a good public school system, including a high
school, besides a private bank and two weekly
papers. Population (1880), 1,168; (1890), 1,428. '

WAY (Nickel Plate), a line .522.47 miles in length,
of which (1898) only 9,96 miles are operated in
Illinois. It owns no track in Illinois, but uses
the track of the Cliicago & State Line Railroad
(9.96 miles in length), of which it has financial
control, to enter the city of Chicago. The total
capitalization of the New York, Chicago & St.
Louis, in 1898, is $.50,222,568, of which 519,425,000
is in bonds.— (History.) The New York, Chi-
cago & St. Louis Railroad was incorporated under
the laws of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio,

Indiana and Illinois in 1881, construt^tion begun
immediately, and the roail put in operation in
1882. In 1885 it passed into the hands of a
receiver, was sold under foreclosure in 1887, and
reorganized by the consolidation of various east-
ern lines with the Fort Wayne & Illinois Railroad,
forming the line under its present name. The
road between Buffalo, N. Y. , and the west line of
Indiana is owned by the Company, but, for its
line in Illinois, it uses the track of the Chicago &
State Line Railroad, of which it is the lessee, as
well as the owner of its capital stock. The main
Hue of the "Nickel Plate" is controlled by the
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, which
owns more than half of both the preferred and
common stock.

NIANTIC, a town of Macon County, on the
Wabash Railway, 25 miles east of Springfield.
There is a coal mine here, though agriculture is
the leading industry. The town has a newspaper
and a bank. Population (1880), 321; (1890), 639.

NICOLAY, John (ieorge, author, was born in
Essingen, Bavaria, Feb. 20, 1832; at 6 years of age
was brought to the United States, lived for a
time in Cincinnati, attending the public schools
there, and then came to Illinois; at 16 entered tlie
oflBce of "The Pike County Free Pr«ss" at Pitts-
field, and, while still in his minority, became
editor and proprietor of the paper. In 1857 he
became Assistant Secretary of State under O. M.
Hatch, the first Republican Secretary, but during
Mr. Lincoln's candidacy for Pre.sident, in 1860,
aided him as private secretary, also acting as a
correspondent of "The St. Louis Democrat."
After the election he was formally selected by
Mr. Lincoln as his private secretary, accompany-
ing him to Washington and remaining until Mr.
Lincoln's assassination. In 1805 he was appointed
United States Consul at Paris, remaining until
1869; on his return for some time eilited "The
Chicago Republican"; was also Marshal of the
United States Supreme Court in Wasliington
from 1872 to 1887. Mr. Nicolay is author, in col-
laboration with John Hay, of "Abraham Lincoln:
A History," fii'st published serially in "The Cen-
tury Magazine," and later issued in ten volumes;
of "The Outbreak of the Rebellion" in "Cam-
paigns of the Civil War," besides numerous maga-
zine articles. He lives in Washington, D. C.

NICOLET, Jean, early Frencli explorer, came
from Cherbourg, France, in 1618, and, for several
years, lived among the Algonquins, whose lan-
guage he learned and for whom he acted as
interpreter. On July 4, 1634, he discovered Lake
Michigan, then called the "Lake of the Illinois,"



and visited the Chippewas, Menominees and
Winnebagoes, in the region about Green Bay,
among whom he was received kindly. From the
Mascoutins, on the Fox River (of Wisconsin), he
learned of the Illinois Indians, some of whose
northern villages he also visited. He subse-
quently returned to Quebec, where he was
drowned, in October, 1642. He was probably the
first Caucasian to visit Wisconsin and Illinois.

NILES, Nathaniel, lawyer, editor and soldier,
born at Plainfield, Otsego County, N. Y., Feb. 4,
1817; attended an academy at Albany, from 1830
to "34, was licensed to practice law and removed
west in 1837, residing successively at Delphi and
Frankfort, Ind.. and at Owensburg, Ky., until
1843, when he settled in Belleville, 111. In 184G
he was commissioned a First Lieutenant in the
Second Regiment Illinois Volunteers (Colonel
Bisseirs) for the Mexican War, but, after the
battle of Buena Vista, was promoted by General
Wool to the captaincy of an independent cora-
jjany of Texas foot. He was elected Chief Clerk
of the House of Representatives at the session of
1849, and the same year was chosen County
Judge of St. Clair County, serving until 1861.
With the exception of brief periods from 1851 to
'.59, he was editor and part owner of "The Belle-
ville Advocate." a paper originally Democratic,
but which became Republican on the organiza-
tion of the Republican part}'. In 1861 he was
api>ointed Colonel of the Fifty-fourth Illinois
Volunteer Infantry, but the completion of its
organization having been delayed, he resigned,
and, the following year, was commissioned Colo-
nel of the One Hundred and Thirtieth, serving
until May, 1864, when he resigned — in March,
186,5, receiving the compliment of a brevet Briga-
dier-Generalship. During the winter of 1862 68
he was in command at Memphis, but later took
part in the Vicksburg campaign, and in the cam-
paigns on Red River and Bayou Teche. After
the war he served as Representative in the
General Assembly from St. Clair County (1865-66) :
as Trustee of the Institution for the Deaf and
Dumb at Jacksonville: on the Commission for
building the State Penitentiary at Joliet, and as
Commissioner (by appointment of Governor
Oglesby) for locating the Soldiers' Orphans'
Home. His later years have been spent chiefly
in the practice of his profession, with occasional
excursions into journalism. Originally an anti-
slavery Democrat, he became one of the founders
of the Republican party in Southern Illinois.

NIXON, William Penn, journahst. Collector of
Customs, was born in Wayne County, Ind., of

North Carolina and Quaker ancestry, early in
1832. In 1853 he graduated from Farmers' (now
Belmont) College, near Cincinnati, Ohio. After
devoting two years to teaching, he entered the
law department of the University of Pennsyl-
vania (1855), graduating in 1859. For nine years
thereafter he practiced law at Cincinnati, during
which period he was thrice elected to the Ohio
Legislature. In 1868 he embarked in journalism,
he and his older brother. Dr. O. W. Nixon, with
a few friends, founding "The Cincinnati Chron-
icle." A few years later "The Times" was pur-
chased, and the two papers were consolidated
under the name of "The Times-Chronicle." In
May, 1872, having disposed of his interests in
Cincinnati, he assumed the business manage-
ment of "The Chicago Inter Ocean," then a new
venture and struggling for a foothold. In 1875
he and his brother. Dr. O. W. Nixon, secured a
controlling interest in the paper, when the
former assumed the position of editor-in-chief,
which he continued to occupy until 1897, when
he was appointed Collector of Customs for the
City of Chicago — a position which he now holds.

NOKOMIS, a city of Montgomery County, on
the Indianapolis & St. Louis Railway, 17 miles
east-northeast of Litchfield, and 44 miles south
by west of Decatur. Grain-growing is the prin-
cipal pursuit in the surrounding country. Noko-
mis has two elevators and is an important
shipping point, besides having two flouring mills.
There are six churches, a graded school, a
National bank, and three weekly papers. Popula-
tion (1880), 1,062; (1890), 1,305.

NORMAL, a city in McLean County, 2 miles
north of Bloomington and 124 miles southwest of
Chicago ; the intersecting point of the Chicago &
Alton and the Illinois Central Railroads. It lies
in a rich coal region, and has extensive nurseries.
It also has a stove foundry and canning factory,
banks and four periodicals. It is the seat of two
State institutions — the Soldiers' Orphans' Home,
founded in 1869, and the Illinois State Normal
University, foimded in 1857. Population (1880),
2,470: (1890), 3.4.59.

Illinois Normal University; State Normal Uni-
versity. )

NORTH ALTON, a village of Madison County
and suburb of the city of Alton. Population
(1880), 838: (1890), 762.

NORTHCOTT, William A., Lieutenant-Gov-
ernor, was born in Murfreesboro, Tenn. , Jan. 28,
1854— -the son of Gen. R. S. Northcott, whose
loyalty to the Union, at the beginning of the



Rebellion, compelled him to leave his Southern
home and seek safety for himself and family in
the North. He went to West Virginia, was com-
missioned Colonel of a regiment and served
througli the war, being for some nine months a
prisoner in Libby Prison. After aciiuiring his
literary education in the public schools, the
younger Northcott spent some time in the Naval
Academy at Annapolis, Md., after which lie was
engaged in teaching. Meanwliile, he was prepar-
ing for the practice of law and was admitted to
the bar in 1877, two years later coming to Green-
ville. Bond County, 111., which has since been his
home. In 1880. by appointment of President
Hayes, he served as Supervisor of tlie Census for
the Seventh District ; in 1882 was elected State's
Attorney for Bond County and re-elected suc-
cessively in "8-1 and '88; in 1890 was appointed on
the Board of Visitors to tlie United States Naval
Academy, and, by selection of the Board,
delivered the annual address to the graduating
class of that year. In 1893 he was the Repub-
lican nominee for Congress for the Eighteenth Dis-
trict, but was defeated in the general landslide of
that year. In 1896 he was more fortunate, being
elected Lieutenant-Governor by the vote of the
State, receiving a plurality of over 137,000 over
liis Democratic opponent.

NORTH PEORIA, a suburban village in Peoria
County, 2 miles north of the city of Peoria.
Population (1890). 1.086.

The Ordinance of 1787. making the first specific
provision, bj' Congress, for the government of the
country l3'ing northwest of the Ohio River and
east of the Mississippi (known as the Nortliwest
Territory), provided, among other things (Art.
v., Ordinance 1787), that " 'there shall be formed
in the said Territory not less than three nor more
than five States." It then proceeds to fix the
boundaries of the proposed States, on tlie assump-
tion that there shall be three in number, adding
thereto the following proviso; "Provided, how-
ever, and it is further understood and declared,
that the boundaries of these tliree States sliall be
subject so far to be altered that, if Congress shall
hereafter find it expedient, they shall have
authority to form one or two States in tliat part
of the said Territory which lies north of an east
and west line drawn through the southerly bend
or extreme of Lake Michigan." On the basis of
this provision it has been claimed that the north-
ern boundaries of Illinois, Indiana and Ohio
should have been on the exact latitude of the
southern limit of Lake Michigan, and that the

failure to establish this boundary was a violation
of the Ordinance, inasmuch as the fourteenth sec-
tion of the preamble thereto declares that "the
following articles sliall be considered as articles
of compact between the original States and tlie
people and States in the said Territory, and for-
ever remain unalterable, unless by common con-
sent."— In the limited state of geographical
knowledge, existing at the time of the adoption of
the Ordinance, there seems to have been con-
siderable difference of opinion as to the latitude
of the southern limit of Lake Michigan. The
map of Mitchell (US.")) had placed it on the paral-
lel of 43° 20', while that of Thomas Ilutchins
(1778) fixed it at 41' 37'. It was oflScially estab-
lished by Government survey, in 183r). at 41 37'
07.9". As a matter of fact, the northern bound-
ary of neither of the three States named was finally
fixed on the line mentioned in the proviso above
quoted from the Ordinance— that of Oliio, where
it meets the shore of Lake Erie, being a little
north of 41° 44'; that of Indiana at 41' 46' (some
lO^miles north of the southern bend of the lake),
and that of Illinois at 42 30' — about 61 miles
north of the same line. The boundary line
between Ohio and Michigan was settled after a
bitter controversy, on the admission of the latter
State into the Union, in 1837, in the acceptance
by her of certain conditions proposed by Congress.
These included the annexation to Michigan of
what is known as the "LTpper Peninsula,"
lying between Lakes Michigan and Superior,
in lieu of a strip averaging six miles on her
southern border, which she demanded from
Ohio.— The establishment of the northern bound-
ary of Illinois, in 1818, upon the line which now
exists, is universally conceded to have been due
to the action of Judge Nathaniel Pope, then the
Delegate in Congress from Illinois Territory.
While it was then acquiesced in without ques-
tion, it has since been the subject of considerable
controversy and has been followed by almost
incalculable results. The "enabling act," as
originally introduced early in 1818, empowering
the people of Illinois Territory to form a State
Government, fixed tlie northern boundary of the
proposed State at 41 39', then the supposed lati-
tude of the southern extremity of Lake Michigan.
While the act was under consideration in Com-
mittee of the Whole, Mr. Pope offered an amend-
ment advancing the northern boundary to 42°
30'. The object of his amendment (as he ex-
plained) was to gain for the new State a coast
line on Lake Michigan, bringing it into political
and commercial relations with the States east of



it — Indiana, Oliio, Pennsylvania and New York —
thus '"affording additional security to tlie per-
petuity of tlie Union." He argued that the
location of the State between the Mississippi,
Wabash and Ohio Rivers— all flowing to the
south — would bring it in intimate communica-
tion with the Southern States, and that, in the
event of an attempted disruption of the Union, it
was important that it should be identified with
the commerce of the Lakes, instead of being left
entirely to the waters of the south-flowing
rivers. ' 'Thus, " ' said he, "a rival interest would be
created to check the wish for a Western or South-
ern Confederacy. Her interests would thus be
balanced and her inclinations turned to the
North." He recognized Illinois as already "the
key to the West," and he evidently foresaw that
the time might come when it would be the Key-
stone of the Union. While this evinced wonder-
ful foresight, scarcely less convincing was his
argument that, in time, a commercial emporium
would grow up upon Lake Michigan, which would
demand an outlet by means of a canal to the ;ili-
nois River — a work which was realized in the
completion of the Illinois & Michigan Canal
thirty years later, but which would scarcely have
been accomplished had the State been practically
cut off from the Lake and its chief emporium
left to grow up in another commonwealth, or not
at all. Judge Pope's amendment was accepted
without division, and, in this form, a few days
later, the bill became a law. — The almost super-
human sagacity exhibited in Judge Pope's argu-
ment, has been repeatedly illustrated in the
commercial and political history of the State
since, but never more significantly than in the
commanding position which Illinois occupied
during the late Civil War, with one of its citi-
zens in the Presidential chair and another leading
its 3.50,000 citizen soldiery and tlie armies of the
Union in battling for the perpetuity of the
Republic— a position wliich more than fulfilled
every prediction made for it. — The territory
affected by this settlement of the northern
boundary, includes all that part of the State
north of the northern line of La Salle County,
and embraces the greater portion of the fourteen
counties of Cook, Dupage, Kane, Lake, McHenry,
Boone, DeKalb, Lee, Ogle, Winnebago, Stephen-
son, Jo Daviess, Carroll and Whiteside, with por-
tions of Kendall. Will and Rock Island— estimated
at 8, ."500 .square miles, or more than one-seventh
of the present area of the State. It has been
argiied that this territory belonged to the State
of Wisconsin under the provisions of the Ordi-

nance of 1787, and there were repeated attempts
made, on the part of the Wisconsin Legislature
and its Territorial Governor (Doty), between 1839
and 1843, to induce the people of these counties to
recognize this claim. These were, in a few
instances, partially sviccessful, although no official
notice was taken of them by the authorities of Illi-
nois. The reply made to the Wisconsin claim by
Governor Ford — who wrote his "History of Illi-
nois" when the subject was fresh in the public
mind— was that, while the Ordinance of 1787
gave Congress power to organize a State north of
the parallel running through the southern bend
of Lake Michigan, "there is nothing in the Ordi-
nance requiring such additional State to be
organized of the territory north of that line." In
other words, that, when Congress, in 1818,
authorized the organization of an additional
State north of and in (i. e., within) the line
named, it did not violate the Ordinance of 1787,
but acted in accordance with it — in practically
assuming that the new State "need not neces-
sarily include the whole of the region north of
that line. " The question was set at rest by Wis-
consin herself in the action of her Constitutional
Convention of 1847-48, in framing her first con-
stitution, in form recognizing the northern
boundary of Illinois as fixed by the enabling act
of 1818.

an institution for the treatment of the insane,
created by Act of the Legislature, approved, April
16, 1869. The Commissioners appointed by Gov-
ernor Palmer to fix its location consisted of
August Adams, B. F. Shaw, W. R. Brown, M. L.
Joslyn, D. S. Hammond and William Adams.
After considering many offers and examining
numerous sites, the Commissioners finally selected
the Chisholm farm, consisting of about 155 acres,
11/2 miles from Elgin, on the west side of Fox
River, and overlooking that stream, as a site —
this having been tendered as a donation by the
citizens of Elgin. Plans were adopted in the
latter part of 1869, the system of constrviction
chosen conforming, in the main, to that of the
United States Hospital for the Insane at Wash-
ington, D. C. By January, 1873. the north wing
and rear building were so far advanced as to per-
mit the reception of sixty patients. The center
building was ready for occupancy in April, 1873,
and the south wing before the end of the follow-
ing year. The total expenditures previous to
1876 had exceeded §637,000, and since that date
liberal appropriations have been made for addi-
tions, repairs and improvements, including the



additiou of between 300 and 400 acres to the lauds
coiiuected with the institution The first Board
of Trustees consisted of Charles N. Holden,
Oliver Everett and Henry \V, Sherman, with Dr.
E. A. Kilbourne as the first Superintendent, and
Dr. Richard A. Dewey (afterwards Superintend-
ent of the Eastern Hospital at Kankakee) as his
Assistant. Dr. Kilbourne remaineil at the head
of the institution until his death, Feb. 27, 1890,
covering a period of nineteen years. Dr. Kil-
bourne was succeeded by Dr. Henry J. Brooks,
and he, by Dr. Loewy. in June, 1893, and the
latter by Dr. John B. Hamilton (former Super-
vising Surgeon of the United States Marine Hos-
pital Service) in 1897. Dr. Hamilton died in
December. 1898. (See Hamilton. John B.) The
total value of State property, June 30, 1894, was
1882,74.1.66, of which §701,330 was in land and
buildings. Under the terms of the law estab-
lishing the hospital, provision is made for the
care therein of the incurably insane, so that it is
both a hospital and an asylum. The whole num-
ber of patients under treatment, for the two years
preceding June 30, 1894, was 1,797, the number
of inmates, on Dec. 1, 1897, 1,054, and the average
daily attendance for treatment, for the year 1896,
1,396. The following counties comprise the dis-
trict dependent upon the Elgin Hospital : Boone,
Carroll, Cook, DeKalb, Jo Daviess, Kane, Ken-
dall, Lake, Stephenson, Whiteside and Winne-

an institution, incorporated in 1884, at Dixon, Lee
County, 111., for the purpose of giving instruction
in branches related to the art of teaching. Its
last report claims a total of 1,639 pupils, of whom
88ij were men and 744 women, receiving instruc-
tion from thirty-six teachers. The total value of
property was estimated at more than §200,000, of
which §160,000 was in real estate and §45,000 in

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 84 of 207)