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apparatus. Attendance on the institution has
been affected by the establishment, under act of
the Legislature of 1895, of the Northern State
Normal School at DeKalb (which see).

NORTHERN PENITENTIARY, THE, an insti
tution for the confinement of criminals of tlie
State, located at Joliet. Will County. The site
was purchased by the State in 1857, and com-
prises some seventy-two acres. Its erection was
found necessary because of the inadequacy of the
first penitentiary, at Alton. (See Alton Pi-ni-
tentiary.) The original plan contemplated a
cell-house containing 1,000 cells, which, it was
thought, would meet the public necessities for
many years to come. Its estimated cost was



,*;5.5O,0()O; but, within ten years, there had been
expended upon the in.stitutiou the sum of §934,-
000, and its capacity was 'taxed to the utmost.
Subsequent enlargements liave increased the
cost to over §1,600,000, but by 1877, the institution
had become so overcrowded that the erection of
another State penal institution became positively
necessary. (See Southern Penitentiary.) The
prison has always been conducted on "the
Auburn system," which contemplates associate
labor in silence, silent meals in a common refec-
tory, and (as nearly as practicable) isolation at
night. The system of labor has varied at differ-
ent times, the "lessee system," the "contract
system" and the "State account plan" being
successively in force. {See Coiivict Lulmr.) The
whole number of convicts in the institution, at
the date of the official report of 1895, was 1,566.
The total assets of the institution, Sept. 30, 1894,
were reported at §2,121,308.86, of wliich §1,644,-
601.11 was in real estate.

NORTH & SOUTH RAILROAD. (See St.
Loni.'i, Peer id &■ Nortliern Raihray.)

NORTHERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, an
institution for the echication of teachers of the
common schools, authorized to be established by
act of the Legislature passed at the session of
1895. The act made an appropriation of §50,00a
for the erection of buildings and other improve-
ments. The institution was located at DeKalb,
DeKalb County, in the spring of 1896, and the
erection of buildings commenced soon after —
Isaac F. Ell wood, of DeKalb, contributing §20,-
000 in cash, and J. F. Glidden, a site of sixty-
seven acres of land. Up to Dec. 1, 1897, the
appropriations and contributions, in land and
money, aggregated §175,000. The school was
expected to be ready for the reception of pupils
in the latter part of 1899, and, it is estimated, will
accommodate 1.000 students.

NORTHWEST TERRITORY. The name
formerly applied to that jwrtiou of the United
States north and west of the Ohio River and east
of the Mississippi, comprising the present States
of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wiscon-
sin. The claim of the Government to the land
had been acquired partly through conquest, by
the expedition of Col. George Rogers Clark
(which see), under the auspices of the State of
Virginia in 17T8; partly through treaties with the
Indians, and partly through cessions from those
of the original States laying claim thereto. The
first plan for the government of this vast region
was devised and formulated by Thomas Jefferson,
in his proposed Ordinance of 1784, which failed



404



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



of ultimate passage. But three years later a
broader scheme was evolved, and the famous
Ordinance of 1787, with its clause prohibiting the
extension of slavery beyond the Ohio River,
passed the Continental Congress. This act has
been sometimes termed "The American Magna
Charta," because of its engrafting upon the
organic law the principles of human freedom and
equal rights. The plan for the establishment of
a distinctive territorial civil government in a
new Territory — the first of its kind in the new
republic — was felt to be a tentative step, and too
much power was not granted to the residents.
All the ofBcers were appointive, and each official
was required to be a land-owner. The elective
franchise (but only for members of the General
Assembly) could first be exercised only after the
population had reached 5,000. Even then, every
elector must own fifty acres of land, and every
Representative, 200 acres. More liberal provisions,
however, were subsequently incorporated by
amendment, in 1809. The first civil government
in the Northwest Territory was established by act
of the Virginia Legislature, in the organization
of all the country west of the Ohio under the
name "Illinois County," of which the Governor
was authorized to appoint a "County Lieuten-
ant" or "Commandant-in-Chief . " The first
"Commandant" appointed was Col. John Todd,
of Kentucky, though he continued to discharge
the duties for only a short period, being killed in
the battle of Blue Licks, in 1782. After that the
Illinois Country was almost without the semblance
of an organized civil government, until 1788,
when Gen. Arthur St. Clair was appointed the
first Governor of Northwest Territory, under the
Ordinance of 1787, serving until tlie se^jaration of
this region into the Territories of Ohio and Indi-
ana in 1800, when 'William Henry Harrison
became the Governor of the latter, embracing all
that portion of the original Northwest Territory
except the State of Ohio. During St. Clair's
administration (1790) that part of the present State
of Illinois between the Mississippi and Illinois
Rivers on the west, and a line extending nortli
from about the site of old Fort Massac, on the
Ohio, to the mouth of the Mackinaw River, in the
present county of Tazewell, on the east, was
erected into a county under the name of St.
Clair, with three county-seats, viz. : Cahokia,
Kaskaskia and Prairie du Rocher. (See St. Clair
County. ) Between 1830 and 1834 the name North-
Avest Territory was applied to an unorganized
region, embracing the present State of Wisconsin,
attached to Michigan Territory for governmental



purposes. (See Illinois County; St. Clair, Arthur;
and Todd, John.)

NORTHWESTERN COLLEGE, located at
Naperville, Du Page County, and founded in
1865, under the auspices of the Evangelical Asso-
ciation. It maintains business, preparatory and
collegiate departments, besides a theological
school. In 1898 it had a faculty of nineteen profes-
sors and assistants, with some 360 students, less
than one-third of the latter being females, though
both sexes are admitted to the college on an equal
footing. The institution owns property to the
value of §307,000, including an endowment of
885,000.

NORTHWESTERN GRAND TRUNK RAIL-
WAY. (See Chicago &■ Grand Trunk Railway.)

NORTHWESTERN NORMAL, located at Gene
seo, Henry County, III, incorporated in 1884; in
1894 had a faculty of twelve teachers with 171
pupils, of whom ninety were male and eighty-one
female.

NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY, an impor-
tant educational institution, established at
Evanstou, in Cook County, in 1851. In 1898 it
reported 2,599 students (1,980 male and 619
female), and a faculty of 234 instructors.
It embraces the following departments, all of
which confer degrees: A College of Liberal
Arts; two Medical Schools (one for women
exclusively); a Law School; a School of Phar-
macy and a Dental College. The Garrett Bibli-
cal Institute, at which no degrees are con-
ferred, constitutes the theological department of
the University. The charter of the institution
requires a majority of tlie Trustees to be mem-
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Churcli, and the
University is the largest and wealthiest of the
schools controlled by that denomination. The
College of Liberal Arts and the Garrett Biblical
Institute are at Evanston ; the other departments
(all professional) are located in Chicago. In the
academic department (Liberal Arts School), pro-
vision is made for both graduate and post-gradu-
ate com-ses. The Medical School was formerly
known as the Chicago Medical College, and its
Law Department was originally the Union Col-
lege of Law, both of which have been absorbed
by the University, as have also its schools of
dentistry and pharmacy, which were formerly
independent institutions. The property owned by
the University is valued at §4,870,000, of which
§1,100,000 is real estate, and §2,250,000 in endow-
ment funds. Its income from fees paid by students
in 1898 was §215,288, and total receipts from all
sources, §482,889. Co-education of the sexes pre-



I



UlSTOUICAL EXC'YCLOI'KDIA OF ILLINOIS.



405



vails in the College of Liberal Arts. Dr. Henry
Wade Rogers is President.

NORTHWESTERJJ UMVERSITY MEDICAL

SCHOOL, located in Chicago; was organized in
1859 as Medical School of the Lind (now Lake
Forest) University. Three annual terms, of five
inontlis each, at first constituted a course,
although attendance at two only wa.s compul-
sory. The institution first opened in temporary
quarters, Oct. 9, 18.59, witli thirteen professors
and thirty-three students. By 1863 more ample
accommodations were needed, and the Trustees
of tlie Lind University being unable to provide a
building, one was erected by the faculty. In
1864 the University relinquished all claim to the
institution, which was thereupon incorporated as
the Chicago Medical College. In 1868 the length
of the annual terms was increased to six months,
and additional requirements were imposed on
candidates for both matriculation and gradu-
ation. The same year, the college building was
sold, and the erection of a new and more commo-
dious edifice, on the grounds of the Mercy Hos-
pital, was commenced. Tliis was completed in
1870, and the college became the medical depart-
ment of the Northwestern University. The
number of professorsliips had been increased to
eighteen, and that of undergraduates to 107.
Since that date new laboratory and clinicial build-
ings have been erected, and the growth of the
institution has been steady and substantial.
Mercy and St. Luke's Hospital, and tlie South
Side Free Dispensary afford resources for clinical
instruction. The teaching faculty, as constituted
in 1898, consists of al)Out fiftj' instructors, in-
cluding professors, lecturers, demonstrators, and
a,ssistants.

XORTHWESTERX IXIVERSITT WOMAN'S
MEDICAL SCHOOL, an institution for the pro
fessional education of women, located in
Chicago. Its first corporate name was the
"Woman's Hospital Medical College of Chicago,"
and it was in close connection with the Chicago
Hospital for Women and Children. Later, it
severed its connection with the hospital and took
the name of the "Woman's Medical College of
Chicago." Co-education of the sexes, in medicine
and surgery, was experimentally tried from 1868
to 1870, but the experiment proved repugnant to
the male students, who unanimously signed a
protest against the continuance of the system.
The result was the establishment f>f a separate
school for women in 1870, with a faculty of six-
teen professors. The requirements for graduation
were fixed a* four years of medical study, includ-



ing tliree annual graded college terms of six
montlis each. The first term openeii in the
autumn of 1870, with an attendance of twenty
students. The original location of the school
was in the "North Division" of Chicago, in tem-
porary quarters. After the fire of 1871 a removal
was effected to the "West Division," where (in
1878-79) a modest, but well arranged building was
erected. A larger structure was built in 1884,
and, in 1891, the institution became a part of the
Northwestern University. The college, in all its
departments, is organized along the lines of the
best medical schools of the country. In 1896
there were twenty-four professorships, all capably
filled, and among the faculty are some of the
best known specialists in the country.

XORTOX, Jesse 0., lawyer. Congressman and
Judge, was born at Bennington, Vt., April '2'>,
1812, and graduated from Williams College in
1835. He settled at JoUet in 1839, and soon
became prominent in the affairs of Will County.
His first public office was that of City Attorney,
after which he served as County Judge (1846-50).
Meanwhile, lie was chosen a Delegate to tlie Con-
stitutional Convention of 1847. In 1850 he was
elected to the Legislature, and, in 1852, to Con-
gress, as a Whig. His vigorous opposition to tlie
repeal of the Missouri Compromise resulted in
his re-election as a Representative in 1854. At
the expiration of his second term (1857) he was
chosen Judge of the eleventh circuit, to fill the
unexpired terra of Judge Randall, resigned. He
was once more elected to Congress in 1862, but
di.sagreed with his party as to the legal status of
the States latelj' in rebellion. President Johnson
appointed him LTnited States Attorney for the
Northern District of Illinois, whit'h office he filled
until 18G9. Immediately upon his retirement he
began private practice at Chicago, where he died,
August 3, 1875.

NORWOOD PARK, a village of Cook County,
on the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad (Wis-
consin Divi.sion), 11 miles northwest of Chicago.
Population (1890), 616.

JfOYES, George Clement, clergyman, was born
at Landaff, N. H., August 4, 1833, brought by
his parents to Pike County, 111., in 1844, and, at
the age of 16, determined to devote his life to the
ministry ; in 1851, entered Illinois College at Jack-
sonville, graduating with first lionors in the class
of 1855. In the following autumn lie entereil
Union Theological Seminary in New York, and.
having graduated in 1858, was ordained tlie same
year, and installed pastor of the First Presby-
terian Cliurch at Laporte, Ind. Here he remained



400



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



ten years, when he accepted a call to the First
Presbyterian Church of Evanston, 111., then a
small organization which developed, during the
twenty years of his pastorate, into one of the
strongest and most influential churches in Evans-
ton. For a number of years Dr. Noyes was an
editorial writer and weekly correspondent of
"The New York Evangelist," over the signature
of "Clement. ■' He was also, for several years, an
active and very .efficient member of the Board of
Trustees of Knox College. The liberal bent of
his mind was illustrated in the fact that he acted
as counsel for Prof. David Swing, during the cele-
brated trial of the latter for heresy before the
Chicago Presbytery — his argument on that
occasion winning encomiums from all classes of
people. His death took place at Evanston, Jan.
14, 1889, as the result of an attack of pneumonia,
and was deeply deplored, not only by his own
church and denomination, but bj' the whole com-
munity. Some two weeks after it occurred a
union meeting was held in one of the churches at
Evanston, at which addresses in commemoration
of his services were delivered by some dozen
ministers of that village and of Chicago, while
various social and literary organizations and the
press bore testimonj- to his high character. He
was a member of the Literary Society of Chicago,
and, during the last year of his life, served as its
President. Dr. Noyes was married, in 18.58, to a
daughter of David A. Smith, Esq., an honored
citizen and able lawyer of Jacksonville.

OAKLAND, a village of Coles County, at the
junction of the Terre Haute & Peoria and the
Toledo, St. Louis & Kansas City Railways. 15
miles northeast of Charleston. The district is
agricultural, and the town has a bank and a
newspaper. Population (1880), 727; (1890), 99.").

OAK PARK, a village of Cook County, and
popular residence suburb of Chicago, 9 miles
west of the initial station of the Chicago &
Northwestern Railroad, on which it is located ; is
also upon the line of the Wisconsin Central Rail-
road. The place has numerous churches, pros-
perous schools, a public library, telegraph and
express offices, banks and two local papers.
Population (1880), 1,888; (1890), 4,771.

OBERLY, John H., journalist and Civil Serv-
ice Commissioner, was born in Cincinnati,
Ohio, Dec. 6, 1837 ; spent part of his boyhood in
Allegheny County, Pa., but, in 18.")3, began learn-
ing the printer's trade in the office of "The Woos-
ter (Ohio) Republican, " completing it at Memphis,
Tenn , and becoming a journeyman printer in



1857. He worked in various offices, including
the Wooster paper, where he also began the study
of law, but, in 1860, became part proprietor of
"The Bulletin" job office at Memphis, in which
he had been emploj'ed as an apprentice, and,
later, as foreman. Having been notified to leave
Memphis on account of his LTnion principles
after the beginning of the Civil War, he returned
to Wooster, Ohio, and conducted various papers
there during the next four years, but, in 1865,
came to Cairo, 111., where he served for a time as
foreman of "The Cairo Democrat," three years
later establishing "The Cairo Bulletin. ' ' Although
tlie latter paper was burned out a few months later,
it was immediately re-established. In 1873 he
was elected Representative in the Twenty-eighth
General Assembly, and, in 1877, was appointed
by Governor Cullom the Democratic member of
the Railroad and Warehouse Commission, serving
four years, meanwhile (in 1880) being the Demo-
cratic candidate for Secretary of State. Other
positions held by him included Mayor of the city
of Cairo (1869) ; President of the National Typo-
graphical Union at Chicago (1865), and at Mem-
phis (186G) ; delegate to the Democratic National
Convention at Baltimore (1873), and Chairman of
the Democratic State Central Committee
(1883-84). After retiring from the Railroad and
AVarehouse Commission, he united in founding
"The Bloomington (111.) Bulletin," of which he
was editor some three years. During President
Cleveland's administration he was appointed a
member of the Civil Service Commission, being
later transferred to the Commissionership of
Indian Affairs. He was subsequently connected
in an editorial capacity with "The Washington
Post," "The Richmond (Va.) State," "The Con-
cord (N. H.) People and Patriot" and "The Wa.sh-
ington Times." While engaged in an attempt to
reorganize "The People and Patriot," he died at
Concord, N. H., April 15, 1899.

ODD FELLOWS. "Western Star" Lodge, No.
1, I. O. O. F., was instituted at Alton, June 11.
1836. In 1838 the Grand Lodge of Illinois was
instituted at the same place, and reorganized, at
Springfield, in 1843. S. C. Pierce was the first
Grand Master, and Samuel L. Miller, Grand Sec-
retary. Wildey Encampment, No. 1, was organ-
ized at Alton in 1838, and the Grand Encampment,
at Peoria, in 1850, with Charles H. Constable
Grand Patriarch. In 1850 the subordinate branches
of the Order numbered seventj'-six, with 3,391
members, and §35,393.87 revenue. In 1895 the
Lodges numbered 838, the membership 50. .544,
with §475,252.18 revenue, of which §135,018.40



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



407



■was expended for relief. The Encampment
branch, in l8i(o. embraced 179 organizations with
a membership of 6.812 and §23,865.25 revenue, of
whicli §6,781.40 was paid out for relief. The
Rebekah branch, for the same j-ear. comprised 422
Lodges, with 22,000 members and §43,215.65
revenue, of which §3,122.79 was for relief. The
total sum distributed for relief by the several
organizations (1895) was $144,972,59, The Order
was especially liberal in its benefactions to the
sufferers by the Chicago fire of 1871, an appeal to
its members calling forth a generous response
throughout the United States. (See Odd Fellows'
Orjihcins Hninc.)

ODD FELLOWS' ORPHANS' HOME, a benevo
lent institution, incorporated in 1889, erected at
Lincoln, 111. , under the auspices of the Daughters
of Rebekah (see Odd FfUows). and dedicated
August 19, 1892. The building is four stories in
height, has a capacity for the accommodation of
fifty children, and cost §36,524.76, exclusive of
forty acres of land valued at §8,000.

ODELL, a village of Living.ston County, and
station on the Chicago & Alton Railway, 82
miles south-southwest of Chicago. It is in a
grain and stock-raising region. Population (1880),
908: (1890), 800.

ODIN, a village of Marion County, at the cross-
ing of the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central
and the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Rail-
ways, 244 miles south by west from Chicago.
There are two newspapers and a bank here.
Population (1880), 724: (1890), 817,

O'FALLON, a village of St. Clair County, on
the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern Railway, 18
miles east of St. Louis: the region is agricultural.
The town has a bank and a new.spaper. Popula-
tion (1880), 923: (1890), 86.5.

OGDEN, William Butler, capitalist and Rail
way President, born at Walton, X. Y., June 15,
1805. He was a member of the New York Legis-
lature in 1834, and, the following year, removed
to Chicago, where he established a land and trust
agency. He took an active part in the various
enterprises centering around Chicago, and, on
the incorporation of the city, was elected its first
Mayor. He was prominently identified with the
construction of the Galena & Chicago Union
Railroad, and, in 1847, became its President.
While visiting Europe in 1853, he made a careful
study of the canals of Holland, which convinced
him of the desirability of widening and deepen-
ing the Illinois & Michigan Canal and of con-
structing a ship canal across the southern
peninsula of Michigan. In 1855 he became Presi-



dent of the Chicago, St. Paul & Fond du Lac
Riiilroad, and effected its consolidation with the
Galena & Chicago Union. Out of this consoli-
dation sprang the Chicago & Northwestern Rail-
way Company, of which he was elected President.
In 1850 he presided over the National Pacific
Railroad Convention, and, upon the formation of
the Union Pacific Railroad Company, he became
its President. He was largely connected with
the inception of the Northern Pacific line, in the
success of which he was a firm believer. He
also controlled various other interests of public
importance, among them the great lumbering
establishments at Peshtigo, Wis., and, at the time
of his death, was the owner of what was probably
the largest plant of that description in the world.
His benefactions were numerous, among the
recipients being the Rush Medical College, of
which he was President; the Theological Semi-
nary of the Northwest, the Chicago Historical
Society, the Academy of Sciences, the University
of Chicago, the Astronomical Society, and many
other educational and benevolent institutions
and organizations in the Northwest. Died, in
New York City, August 3, 1877. (See Chicago &
Xorfli western Ra ilroad. )

OGLE, Joseph, pioneer, was born in Virginia
in 1741, came to Illinois in 1785, settling in the
American Bottom within the present County of
Monroe, but afterwards removed to St. Clair
County, about the site of the present town of
O'Fallon, 8 miles north of Belleville; was selected
by his neighbors to serve as Captain in their
skirmishes with the Indians. Died, at his home
in St. Clair County, in February, 1821. Captain
Ogle had the reputation of being the earliest con-
vert to Methodism in Illinois. Ogle County, in
Northern Illinois, was named in his honor. —
Jacob (Ogle), son of the preceding, also a native
of Virginia, was born about 1772, came to Illinois
with his father in 1785, and was a "Ranger" in
the War of 1812. He served as a Representative
from St. Clair County in the Third General
Assembly (1822), and again in the Seventh
(1830), in the former being an opponent of the
pro-slavery convention scheme. Beyond two
terms in the Legislature he seems to have held
no public office except that of Justice of the
Peace. Like his father, he was a zealous Metho-
dist and highly respected. Died, in 1844, aged 72
years.

OGLE COUNTY, next to the "northern tier" of
counties of the State and originally a part of Jo
Daviess. It was separately organized in 1837,
and Lee County was carved from its territory in



408



HISTOEICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



1839. In 1890 its area was ,780 square miles, and
its population 28,710. Before the Black Hawk
War immigration was slow, and life primitive.
Peoria was the nearest food market. New grain
was "ground" on a grater, and old pounded
with an extemporized pestle in a wooden mortar.
Rock River flows across the county from north-
east to southwest. A little oak timber grows
along its banks, but, generally speaking, the sur-
face is undulating prairie, with soil of a rich
loam. Sandstone is in ample supply, and all the
limestones abound. An extensive peat-bed has
been discovered on the Killbuck Creek. Oregon,
the county-seat, has fine water-power. The other



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