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grants" (1831), of which a new edition appeared
in 1836, and a "Gazetteer of Illinois" (Jackson-
ville, 1834, and Bo.ston, 1837), which continue to
be valued for the information they contain of the
condition of the country at that time. He was
an industrious collector of historical records in
the form of newspapers and pamphlets, which
were unfortunately destroyed bj- fire a few years
before his deatli. In 1852 he received the degree
of D. D. from Harvard University. Died, at Rock
Spring, St. Clair County, March"l5, 1858.

PECK, PhiUp F. W., pioneer merchant, was
born in Providence, R. I., in 1809, the son of a
wliole.sale merchant who had lost his fortune by
indorsing for a friend. After some years spent
in a mercantile house in New York, he came to
Chicago on a prospecting tour, in 1830; the fol-
lowing year brought a stock of goods to the
embryq emporium of the Northwest— then a small
backwoods hamlet — and. by trade and fortunate
investments in real estate, laid the foundation of
wliat afterwards became a large fortune. He
died, Oct. 23, 1871, as tlie result of an accident
occurring about the time of the great fire of two
weeks previous, from which he was a heavy
sufferer pecuniarily. Three of his sons, Walter L. ,
Clarence I. and Ferdinand W. Peck, are among
Chicago's most substantial citizens.

PEKIX, a flourishing city, the coanty-seat of
Tazewell County, and an important railway cen-
ter, located on the Illinois River, 10 miles south
of Peoria and 56 miles north of S])ringfield.
Agriculture and coal-mining are the chief occu-
pations in the surrounding country, but the city
itself is an important grain market with large



418



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



general shipping interests. It has several distill-
eries, besides grain elevators, malt-houses, brick
and tile works, lumber yards, planing mills,
marble works, plow and wagon works, and other
important manufacturing industries. Its bank-
ing facilities are adequate to its large trade, and
its religious and educational advantages are ex-
cellent. The city has a public library, and sup-
ports three daily and four weekly papers.
Population (18S0), 5,993; (1890), 6,347.

PEKIN, LINCOLN & DECATUR RAILROAD.
(See Peoria, Decatur ct Evansville Railway.)

PELL, Gilbert T., Representative in the Third
Illinois General Assembly (1822) from Edwards
County, and an opponent of the resolution for a
State Convention adopted by the Legislature at
that session, designed to open the door for the
admission of slavery. Mr. Pell was a son-in-law
of Morris Birkbeck, who was one of the leaders
in opposition to the Convention scheme, and very
naturally sympathized with his father in-law.
He was elected to the Legislature, for a second
terra, in 1828, but subsequently left the State,
dying elsewhere, when his widow removed to
Australia.

PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD. As to oper
ations of this corporation in Illinois, see Calumet
River ; Pittsburg, Fort Wayne & Chicago : South
Chicago & Southern, and Pittsburg, Cincinnati,
Chicago & St. Louis Railways. The whole num-
ber of miles owned, leased and operated by the
Pennsylvania System, in 1898, was 1,987.21, of
whicli only 61.34 miles were in Illinois. It owns,
however, a controlling interest in the stock of
the Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway (which
see).

PEORIA, the second largest city of the State
and the county-seat of Peoria County, is 160 miles
southwest of Chicago, and at the foot of an expan-
sion of tlie IlUnois River known as Peoria Lake.
The site of the town occupies an elevated plateau,
having a water frontage of fom- miles and extend-
ing back to a bluff, which rises 200 feet above the
river level and about 120 feet above the highest
point of the main site. It was settled in 1778 or
'79, although, as generally believed, the French
missionaries had a station there in 1711. There
was certainly a settlement there as early as 172.5,
when Renault received a grant of lands at Pimi-
teoui, facing the lake then bearing the same
name as tlie village. From that date until 1812,
the place was continuously occupied as a French
village, and is said to have been the most impor-
tant point for trading in the Mississippi Valley.
The original village was situated about a mile and



a half above the foot of the lake ; but later, the pres-
ent site was occupied, at first receiving the name
of "LaVille de Maillet, " f rom a French Canadian
who resided in Peoria, from 1765 to 1801 (tlie time
of his death), and who commanded a company of
volunteers in the Revolutionary War. The popu-
lation of the old town removed to the new site,
and the present name was given to the i)lace by
American settlers, from the Peoria Indians, who
were the occupants of the country when it was
first discovered, l)ut who had followed their cog-
nate tribes of the Illinois family to Cahokia and
Kaskaskia, about a century before American
occupation of this region. In 1812 the town is
estimated to have contained about seventy dwell-
ings, with a population of between 200 and
300, made up largely of French traders,
hunters and voyageurs, with a considerable
admixture of half-breeds and Indians, and a few
Americans. Among the latter were Thomas
Forsyth, Indian Agent and confidential adviser
of Governor Edwards ; Michael La Croix, son-in-
law of Julian Dubuque, founder of the city of
Dubuque; Antoine Le Claire, founder of Daven-
port, and for whom Le Claire, Iowa, is named;
William Arundel, afterwards Recorder of St.
Clair Couutj-, and Isaac Darnielle, the second law-
yer in Illinois. — In November, 1812, about half
the town was burned, by order of Capt. Thomas
E. Craig, who had been directed, by Governor
Edwards, to proceed up the river in boats with
materials to build a fort at Peoria. At the same
time, the Governor himself was at the head of a
force marching against Black Partridge's vil-
lage, which he destroyed. Edwards had no com-
munication with Craig, who appears to have
acted solely on his own responsibility. That the
latter's action was utterly unjustifiable, there can
now be little doubt. He alleged, by way of
excuse, that his boats had been fired upon from
the shore, at night, bj' Indians or others, who
were harbored Viy the citizens. The testimony
of the French, however, is to the effect that it
was an improvoked and cowardly assault, insti-
gated by wine which the soldiers had stolen from
the cellars of the inhabitants. Tlie bulk of those
who remained after the fire were taken by Craig
to a point lielow Alton and put ashore. This
occurred in the beginning of winter, and the
people, being left in a destitute condition, were
subjected to great suffering. A Congressional
investigation followed, and the French, having
satisfactorily established the fact that they were
not hostile, were restored to their possessions. — In
1813 a fort, designed for permanent occupancy,



HISTORICAL KNCVCLOI'EDIA OF ILLINOIS.



■was erected ami naiiie^ miles broad at the widest part.

PEORIA, ATLA^VTA & DECATUR BAIL-
ROAD. (See Terre Haute & Peoria Railroad.)

PEORIA, DECATUR & EVANSVILLE BAIL-
WAT. The total length of this line, extending
from Peoria, 111., to Evansville, Ind., is 330.87
miles, all owned by the company, of which 273
miles are in Illinois. It extends from Pekin,
southeast to Grayville, on the Wabash River — is
single track, unballasted, and of standard gauge.
Between Pekin and Peoria the company uses the
tracks of the Peoria & Pekin Union Railway, of
which it is one-fourth owner. Between Hervey
City and Midland Junction it has trackage privi
leges over the line owned jointly by the Peoria,
Decatur & Evansville and the Terre Haute &
Peoria Companies (7.5 miles). Between Midland
Junction and Decatur (2.4 miles) the tracks of
the Illinois Central are used, the two lines having
terminal facilities at Decatur in common. The
rails are of fifty-two and sixty-pound steel. —
(History.) Tlie mainline of tlie Peoria, Decatur
& Evansville Railway is the result of the consoli-
dation of several lines built under separate char-
ters. (1) The Pekin, Lincoln & Decatur Railroad,
chartered in 1867, built in 1809-71, and operated
tlie latter year, was leased to the Toledo, Wabash
& Western Railway, but sold to representatives
of the bond-liolders, on account of default on
interest, in 1876, and reorganized as the Pekin,
Lincoln & Decatur Railway. (3) The Decatur,
Sullivan & Mattoon Railroad, (projected from
Decatur to Mattoon), was incorporated in 1871,
completed from Mattoon to Hervey City, in 1872,
and, the same year, consolidated with the Chi-
cago & Great Southern; in January, 1874, the
Decatur line passed into the hands of a receiver,
and, in 1877, having been sold under foreclosure,
was reorganized as the Decatur, Mattoon & South-
ern Railroad. In 1879 it was placed in the liands
I if trustees, but the Pekin, Lincoln & Decatur
Railway having acquired a controlling interest
(luring the same year, the two lines were con-



solidated under the name of the Peoria, Decatur
& Evansville Railway Company. (3) The Gray-
ville & Mattoon Railroad, chartered in 1857, was
consolidated in 1872 with the Mount Vernon &
Grayville Railroad (projected), the new corpo-
ration taking the name of the Chicago & Illinois
Southern (already mentioned). In 1872 the latter
corpoxation was consolidated with the Decatur,
Sullivan & Mattoon Railroad, under the name of
tlie Chicago & Illinois Southern Railway. Both
consolidations, however, were set aside by decree
of the United States District Court, in 1876, and
the partially graded road and franchises of tlie
Grayville & Mattoon lines sold, under foreclosure,
to the contractors for the construction ; 20 miles
of the line from Olney to Newton, were completed
during tlie month of September of that year, and
the entire line, from Grayville to Mattoon, in
1878. In 1880 this line was sold, under decree of
foreclosure, to the Peoria, Decatur & Evansville
Railway Company, which had already acquired
the Decatur & Mattoon Division— thus placing
the entire line, from Peoria to Grayville, in the
hands of one corporation. A line under the name
of the Evansville & Peoria Railroad, chartered in
Indiana in 1880, was consolidated, the same year,
with the Illinois corporation under the name of
the latter, and completed from Grayville to
Evansville in 1882. (4) The Chicago & Ohio
River Railroad — chartered, in 1869, as the Dan-
ville, Olney & Ohio River Railroad — was con-
structed, as a narrow-gauge line, from Kansas to
West Liberty, in 1878-81 ; in the latter year was
changed to standard gauge and completed, in
1883, from Sidell to Olney (86 miles). The same
year it went into the liands of a receiver, was sold
under foreclosure, in February, 1886, and reorgan-
ized, in May following, as the Chicago & Ohio
River Railroad ; was consolidated with the Peoria,
Decatur & Evansville Railway, in 1893, and used
as the Chicago Division of that line. The property
and franchises of the entire line passed into the
hands of receivers in 1894, and are still (1898)
under their management.

PEORIA, PEKIJf & JACKSONVILLE BAIL-
ROAD. (See Chicago. Peoria d- St. Louis Rail-
road of Illinois. )

PEORIA & BUREAU VALLEY RAILROAD, a
short line, 46,7 iriiles in length, operated by the
Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway Com-
pany, extending from Peoria to Bureau Junction,
111. It was incorporated, Feb. 12. 1853, com-
pleted the following year, and leased to the Rock
Island in perpetuity, April 14, 1854, the annual
rental being .S125.000. The par value of the



HISTORICAL EXC'YCLOI'KDIA OF ILLINOIS.



421



capital stock is §1,500,000. Annual dividen.ls of
H per cent are guaranteeil, i>ayable siMui-aniiu
ally. (See Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific
Ha a way.)

PEORIA & EASTERN RAILROAD. Of this
line the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St.
Louis Railroad Company is the lessee. Its total
length is 350^4 miles. 132 of which lie in Illinois
—123 being owned by the Company. That por-
tion within this State extends east from Pekin to
the Indiana State line, in addition to which the
Company has trackage facilities over tlie line of
the Peoria & Pekin Union Railway (9 miles) to
Peoria. The gauge is standard. The track is
.single, laid with sixty and sixty-sevenpound
steel rails and ballasted almost wholly with
Kravel. The capital stock is .$10,000,000. In 189.5
it had a bonded debt of §13,603,000 and a floating
debt of .51,261,130, making a total capitalization
of §24,864,130.— (History.) The original of this
corporation was the Danville, Urbana, Blooming-
ton & Pekin Railroad, which was consolidated,
in July, 1869, with the Indianapolis, Crawfords-
ville & Danville Railroad — the new corporation
taking the name of the Indianapolis, Blooming-
ton & Western — and was opened to Pekin the
same year. In 1874 it passed into the hands of a
receiver, was sold under foreclosure in 1879, and
reorganized as the Indiana, Bloomington &
Western Railway Company. The next change
occurred in 1881, when it was consolidated with
an Ohio corporation (the Oliio, Indiana & Pacific
Railroad), again undergoing a slight change of
name in its reorganization as the Indiana, Bloom-
ington & Western Railroad Company. In 1886
it again got into financial straits, was placed in
charge of a receiver and sold to a reorganization
committee, and, in January, 1887, took the name
of the Ohio. Indiana & Western Railway Com-
pany. The final reorganization, under its present
name, took place in February, 1890. when it was
leased to the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago &
St. Louis Railway, by which it is operated.
(See Clci-claml, Cinciiniati, Chicago & St. Louis
Railway.)

PEORIA & HANNIBAL RAILROAD. (See
Chicago. Burlington d- Quincy Railroad.)

PEORIA & OQUAWKA RAILROAD. (See
Chicago, Burlington d- Quinci/ Railroad.)

PEORIA & PEKIN UNION RAILWAY. A line
connecting the cities of Peoria and Pekin, whicli
are only 8' miles apart. It was chartered in 1880,
and acquired, by purchase, the tracks of the Peoria,
Pekin & Jacksonville and the Peoria & Spring-
field Riiilroads, between the two cities named in



its title, giving it control of two lint's, « hirh are
used by nearly all tlic niilro;i.ls cnti'ring lioth
cities from the east side of the Illinois River. The
mileage, including both divisions, is 18.14 miles,
second tracks and sidings increasing the total to
nearly 60 miles. The track is of standard gauge,
about two-thirds being laid with steel rails. The
total cost of construction was §4,350,987. Its
total capitalization (1898) was §4.177,763, includ-
ing §1,000,000 in stock, and a funded debt of
§2,904,000. The capital stock is held in equal
amounts (each 2, .500 shares) by the Wabash, the
Peoria, Decatur & Evansville, the Chicago,
Peoria & St. Louis and the Peoria & Eastern com-
panies, with 1,000 shares by the Lake Erie &
Western. Terminal charges and annual rentals
are also paid bj- the Terre Haute & Peoria and
the Iowa Central Railways.

PEORIA & SPRINGFIELD RAILROAD. (See
Chicago, Peoria cfr St. Loui.f Railroad of Illinois.)

PEOTONE, a village of Will County, on the
Illinois Central Railroad, 41 miles south-southwest
from Chicago; has some manufactures, a bank
and a newspaper. The surrounding country is
agricultural. Population (1880), 624; (1890), 717.

PERCY, a village of Randolph County, at the
intersection of the Wabash, Chesapeake & West-
ern and the Mobile & Ohio Railways. Population
(1.890), 360.

PERROT, Nicholas, a French explorer, wno
visited tlie valley of the Fox River (of Wisconsin)
and the country around the great lakes, at various
times between 1670 and 1690. He was present,
as a guide and interpreter, at the celebrated con-
ference held at Sault Ste. Marie, in 1671, which
was attended by fifteen Frenchmen and repre-
sentatives from seventeen Indian tribes, and at
which theSieur de Lusson took formal possession
of Lakes Huron and Superior, with the surround-
ing region and "all the countiy southward to the
.sea," in the name of Louis XIV. of France.
Perrot was the first to discover leail in the West.
and, for several years, was Commandant in the
Green Bay district. As a chronicler he was
intelligent, interesting and accurate. His writ-
ings were not published until 1864. but have
always been highly prized as authority.

PERRY, a town of Pike County; has a bank
and a new.spaper. Population (1880), 770; (1890),
705.

PERRY COUNTY, lies in the southwest quarter
of the State, with an area of 440 stjuare miles and ,
a population (1890) of 17,529. It was organizeil
as a county in 1827, and named for Com. Oliver
H. Perry. The general surface is rolling.



423



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



although flat prairies occupy a considerable por-
tion, interspersed with "post-oak flats." Limestone
is found in the southern, and sandstone in the
nortliern, sections, but the chief mineral wealth
of the county is coal, which is abundant, and, at
several points, easily mined, some of it being of
a superior quality. Salt is manufactured, to some
extent, and the chief agricultural output is
wheat. Pinckneyville, the county-seat, has a
central position and a population of about 1,300.
Duquoir is the largest city. Beaucoup Creek is
the principal stream, and the county is crossed
by several lines of railroad.

PERU, a city in La Salle County, at the head
of navigation on the Illinois River, which is here
spanned by a handsome bridge. It is distant 100
miles southwest from Chicago, and the same dis-
tance north-northeast from Springfield. It is
connected by street cars with La Salle, one mile
distant, which is the terminus of the Illinois &
Michigan Canal. It is situated in a rich coal-
mining region, is an important trade center, and
has several manufacturing establisliments, includ-
ing zinc smelting works, plow, scale and patent-
pump factories, foundries and machine shops,
flour and sawmills, clock factory, etc. Consider-
able ice is cut here every winter for the Southern
market. Two National banks, with a combined
capital of 6200,000, are located at Peru, and
two daily and weekly papers are published.
Population (1870), 3,650; (1880), 4,682; (1890),
5,.-)50.

PESOTUM, a village in Cliampaign County, on
the Illinois Central Raih-oad, 5 miles south of
Tolono. Population (1890), 575.

PETERSBURG, a city of Menard County, and
the county-seat, situated on the bank of the San-
gamon River, at the intersection of the Jackson-
ville Division of the Chicago c^ Alton with tlie
Chicago, Peoria & St. Louis Railway. It is 33
miles northwest of Springfield and 28 miles nortli-
east of Jacksonville. It lias banks, two weekly
papers and seven cliurches. The manufactures
include woolen goods, brick and drain-tile, bed-



Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 88 of 207)