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Soutli branches of the Chicago River, where he
carried on a considerable trade with the Indians.
About 1796 he is said to liave Sold out to a French
trader named Le Mai, and joined a countryman
of his, named Glamorgan, at Peoria, where he died
soon after. Glamorgan, who was the reputed
owner of a large Spanish land-grant in the vicin-
ity of St. Louis, is said to have been associated
with Point de Saible in trade among tlie Peorias,
before the latter came to Cliicago.

POLO, a city in Ogle County, at intersection
of the Illinois Central and the Chicago, Burling-
ton vS: Northern Railways. 23 miles south of Free-
port and 12 miles north of Dixon. The
surrounding region is devoted to agriculture and
stock-raising, and Polo is a shipping point for
large quantities of cattle and hogs. Agricultural
implements (including harvesters) and buggies
are manufactured liere. The city has banks and
two weekly newspapers, seven churches, a graded
public and high school, and a public library.
Population (1880), 1,819; (1890), 1.728.

POXTIAC, an Ottawa chief, born on the
Ottawa River, in Canada, about 1720. While yet
a young man he became the principal Chief of
the allied Ottawas, Ojibways and Pottawatomies.
He was always a firm ally of the French, to
who.se interests he was devotedly attached,
defending them at Detroit against an attack of
the Northern tribes, and (it is generally believed)
leading the Ottawas in the defeat of Braddock.
He reluctantly acquiesced in the issue of the
French and Indian War, although at first strongly
disposed to dispute the progre.ss of Major Rogers,
the British officer sent to take possession of the
western forts. In 1762 he dispatched emissaries
to a large number of tribes, whom he desired to
unite in a league for the extermination of the
English. His proposals were favorably ;



and thus was organi/.tMl wh:it is commonly
spoken of as the "Con.spiracy of I'ontiac." He
himself undertook to lead an assault upon Detroit.
The garrison, however, was apprised of his inten-
tion, and made preparations accordingly. Pontiao
thereupon laid siege to the fort, but was unable
to prevent the ingress of provisions, the Canadian
settlers furnishing supplies to both besieged and
besiegers with absolute impartiality. Finally a
Iwat-load of ammunition and supplies was landed
at Detroit from Lake Erie, and tlie English made
an unsuccessful soriie on Jul}- 31, 17G3. After a
desultory warfare, lasting for nearly three
months, the Indians withdrew into Indiana,
where Pontiac tried in vain to organize another
movement. Although Detroit had not been
taken, the Indians captured Forts Sandusky, St.
Joseph, Miami. Ouiatanon, LeBooif and Venango,
besides the posts of Mackinaw and Presque Isle.
Tlie garrisons at all these points were massacred
and innumerable outrages perpetrated elsewhere.
Additional British troops were sent west, and
the Indians finally brought under control.
Pontiac was present at Oswego when a treaty was
signed with Sir William Johnson, but remained
implacable. His end was tragic. Broken in
heart, but still proud in spirit and relentless in
purpo.se, he applied to the former (and la.st)
French Governor of Illinois, the younger St.
Ange, who was then at St. Louis, for co-operation
and support in another raid against the British.
Being refused aid or countenance, according to a
story long popularly received, he returned to the
vicinity of Cahokia, where, in 1709, he was mur-
dered by a Kaskaskia Indian in consideration of
a barrel of liquor. N. JIatson, autlior of several
volumes bearing on early history in Illinois, cit-
ing Col. Joseph N. Bourassa, an educated half-
breed of Kansas, as authority for his statement,
asserts that the Indian killed at Cahokia was an
impostor, and that the true Pontiao was assassi-
nated by Kineboo. tlie Head Chief of the Illinois,
in a council held on the Des Plaines River, near
the pre.sent site of Joliet. So well convinced, it
is said, was Pierre Chouteau, the St. Louis Indian
trader, of the truth of this last story, that he
caused a monument, which he had erected over
the grave of the false Pontiac, to be removed.
Out of the murder of Pontiac, whether occurring
at Cahokia or Joliet, it is generally agreed,
resulted the extermination of the Illinois and the
tragedy of "Starved Rock." (See Starved Ruck. )
PONTIAC, an incorporated city, the county-
seat of Livingston County. It stands on the bank
of the Vermilion River, and is also a point of



428



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



intersection of the Chicago & Alton, tlie Wabash
and the Illinois Central Railroads. It is 33 miles
nortli-northeast from Bloomington and 93 miles
south-southwest of Chicago. The surrounding
region is devoted to agriculture, stock-raising and
coal- mining. Pontiac has two national banks,
and three weekly newspapers (one issuing a daily
edition), besides numerous churches and good
schools. Various kinds of manufacturing are
conducted, among the principal establishments
being flouring mills, shoe factories, a straw paper
factory and a foundry. The State Reformatory
for Juvenile Offenders is located here. Popula-
tion (1880), 3,243; (1890), 2,784

POOL, Orval, merchant and banker, was born
in Union County, Ky., near Shawneetcwn, III,
Feb. 17, 1809, but lived in ShawneetOwn from seven
years of age; in boyhood learned the saddler's
trade, but, in 1843, engaged in the dry-goods
bvisiness, J. McKee Peeples and Thomas S. Ridg-
way becoming his partners in 1846. In 1850 he
retired from the dry-goods trade and became an
extensive dealer in produce, pork and tobacco.
In 1871 he established the Gallatin County
National Bank, of which he was the first Presi-
dent. Died, June 30, 1871.

POOLE, William Frederick, bibliographer,
librarian and historical writer, was born at
Salem, Mass., Dec. 24, 1821, graduated from Yale
College in 1849, and, at the close of his sophomore
year, was appointed assistant librarian of his col-
lege society, which owned a library of 10,000 vol-
umes. Here he prepared and published the first
edition of his now famous "Index to Periodical
Literature.'" A second and enlarged addition
was published in 1853, and secured for its author
wide fame, in both America and Europe. In 1853
he was made Librarian of the Boston Mercantile
Library, and, from 1856 to 1869, had charge of the
Boston Athenaeum, then one of the largest li-
braries in the United States, which lie relinquished
to engage in expert library work. He organized
libraries in several New England cities and
towns, at the United States Naval Academy, and
the Cincinnati Public Library, finally becoming
Librarian of the latter institution. In October,
1873, he assumed charge of the Chicago Public
Library, then being organized, and, in 1887,
became Librarian of the Newberry Library,
organizing this institution and remaining at its
head until his death, which occurred, March 1,
1894. The degree of LL.D. was conferred on him
by the Northwestern University in 1883. Dr.
Poole took a prominent part in the organization
of library associations, and was one of the Vice-



Presidents of the International Conference of
Librarians, held in London in 1871. His advice
was much sought in relation to library architec-
ture and management. He wrote much on topics
connected with his profession and on historical
subjects, frequently contributing to "The North
American Review." In 1874-75 he edited a liter-
ary paper at Chicago, called "The Owl," and was
later a constant contributor to "Tlie Dial." He
was President of the American Historical Society
and member of State Historical Societies and of
other kindred associations.

POPE, Nathaniel, first Territorial Secretary of
Illinois, Delegate in Congress and jurist, was born
at Louisville, Ky., in 1774; graduated with high
honor from Transylvania University, at Lexing-
ton, Ky., read law with his brother, Senator Jolm
Pope, and, in 1804, emigrated to New Orleans,
later living, for a time, at Ste. Genevieve, Mo. In
1808 he became a resident of Kaska.skia and, the
next year, was appointed the first Territorial
Secretary of Illinois. His native judgment was
strong and profound and his intellect quick and
far-reaching, while both were thoroughly trained
and disciplined by study. In 1816 he was elected
a Territorial Delegate to Congress, and proved
himself, not only devoted to the interests of his
constituents, but also a shrewd tactician. He was
largely instrumental in securing the passage of
the act autliorizing tlie formation of a State
government, and it was mainly through his
efl^orts that the northern boundary of Illinois was
fixed at lat. 43° 30' north, instead of the southern
bend of Lake Michigan. Upon the admission of
Illinois into the Union, he was made United
States Judge of the District, which then embraced
the entire State. This office he filled with dig-
nity, impartiality and acceptability until his
death, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Lu-
cretia Yeatman, in St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 33, 1850.
Pope County was named in his honor. — Gen. John
(Pope), son of the preceding, was born in Louis-
ville, Ky . , March 16. 1833 ; graduated at the United
States Military Academy, 1843. and appointed
brevet Second Lieutenant of Topograpliical
Engineers; served in Florida (1843-44), on the
northeast boundary survey, and in the Mexican
War (1846-47), being promoted First Lieutenant
for bravery at Monterey and Captain at Buena
Vista. In 1849 he conducted an exploring expe-
dition in Minnesota, was in charge of topograph-
ical engineering service in New Mexico (1851-53),
and of the survey of a route for the Union Pacific
Railway (1853-59), meanwhile experimenting on
the feasibility of artesian wo^lls on the "Staked



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



429



Plains" in Northwestern Texas. lie was a zeal-
ous friend of Abraham Lineohi in the jiohlical
campaign of 1800, and was court-martialed for
criticising the policy of President Buchanan, in a
paper read before a literary society in Cincinnati,
tlie proceedings being finally dropped on the
recommendation of the (then) Secretary of War,
Joseph Holt. In 1861 he was one of the oflicers
detailed by the War Department to comluct Mr.
Lincoln to the capital, and, in May following,
was made Brigadier-General of Volunteers and
assigned to command in Missouri, wliere he per-
formed valuably service in protecting railroad
communications and driving out guerrillas, gain-
ing an important victory over Sterling Price at
Blackwater, in December of that year; in 1863
had command of the land forces co-operating
with Admiral Foote, in the e.xpe



Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 90 of 207)