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reorganizing the city's health service, and, in
1867, was appointed a member of the new Board
of Health and Sanitary Inspector, serving until.
1876. The latter year he was chosen President of
the American Public Health Association, and,
in 1877, a member of the newly created State
Board of Healtli of Illinois, and elected its first
President. Later, he became Secretary, and con-
tinued in that office during his connection with
the Board. In 1878-79 he devoted much attention
to the yellow-fever epidemic, and was instru-
mental in tlie formation of the Sanitary Council
of the Mississijipi, and in securing the adoption
of a system of river inspection by the National
Board of Health. He was a member of many
scientific bodies, and the author of numerous
monographs and printed addresses, chiefly in the
domain of sanitary science and preventive med-
icine. Among them may be noticed "Intra-
mural Interments and Their Influence on Health
and Epidemics," ''Sanitary Problems of Chi-
cago," "Prevention of Asiatic Cholera in North



America," and a series of reports as Secretary of
the State Board of Health. Died, at Lebanon,
Pa., March 24, 1894.

RAUM, ((Jen.) Green Berry, soldier and author,
was born at Golconda, Pope County, 111., Dec. 'S.
1829, studied law and was admitted to the bar in
1853, but, three years later, removed with his
family to Kansas. His Free-State proclivities
rendering him obnoxious to the pro-slavery party
there, he returned to Illinois in 1857, settling at
Harrisburg, Saline County. Early in the Civil
War he was commissioned a Major in the Fifty-
sixth Illinois Volunteers, was subsequently pro-
moted to a Lieutenant-Colonelcy, and, later,
advanced to a Brigadier-Generalship, resigning
his commission at the close of the war (May 6,
1865). He was with Rosecrans in the Mississippi
campaign of 1862, took a conspicuous part in the
battle of Corinth, participated in the siege of
Vicksburg and was wounded at Missionary Ridge.
He also rendered valuable service during the
Atlanta campaign, keeping lines of communi-
cation open, re-enforcing Resaca and repulsing an
attack by General Hood. He was with Sherman
in the "March to the Sea," and with Hancock, in
the Shenandoah Valley, when the war closed. In
1866 General Raum became President of the pro-
jected Cairo & Vincennes Railroad, an enterprise
of which he had been an active promoter. He
was elected to Congress in 1866 from the South-
ern Illinois District (then the Thirteenth), serv-
ing one term, and the same year presided over the
Republican State Convention, as he did again in
1876 and in 1880 — was also a delegate to the
National Conventions at Cincinnati and Chicago
the last two years just mentioned. From August
2, 1876, to May 31, 1883, General Raum served as
Commissioner of Internal Revenue at Washing-
ton, in that time having superintended the col-
lection of .$800,000,000 of revenue, and the
disbursement of §30,000.000. After retiring from
the Commissionership, he resumed the practice
of law in Washington. In 1889 he was appointed
Commissioner of Pensions, remaining to the
close of President Harrison's administration,
when he removed to Chicago and again engaged
in practice. During the various political cam-
])aigns of the past thirty years, his services have
been in frequent request as a campaign speaker,
and he has canvassed a number of States in the
interest of the Republican party. Besides his
ofticial reports, he is author of "The Existing
Conflict Between Republican Government and
Southern Oligarchy" (Washington, 1884), and a
number of magazine articles.



442



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



RAUM, John, pioneer and early legislator, was
born in Hummelstown, Pa., July 14, 1793, and
died at Golconda, 111., March 14, 1869. Having
received a liberal education in liis native State,
the subject of tliis sketch settled at Shawneetown.
111., in 1823. but removed to Golconda, Pope
County, in 1826. He had previously served three
years in the War of 1813, as First Lieutenant of
the Sixteenth Infantry, and, while a resident of
Illinois, served in the Black Hawk War of 1833 as
Brigade Major. He was also elected Senator
from the District composed of Pope and Johnson
Counties in the Eighth General Assembly (1833),
as successor to Samuel Alexander, who liad
resigned. The following year he was appointed
Clerk of the Circuit Court of Pope County, and
was also elected Clerk of the County Court the
same year, holding both offices for many years,
and retaining the County Clerkship up to his
death, a period of thirty-five years. He was
married March 32, 1827, to Juliet C. Field, and
was father of Brig. -Gen. Green B. Raum, and
Maj. John M. Raum, both of w4iom served in the
volunteer army from Illinois during the Civil
War.

RAWLINS, John Aaron, soldier. Secretary of
War, was born at East Galena, Feb. 13, 1S31, the
son of a small farmer, who was also a charcoal-
burner. The son, after irregular attendance on
the district scliools and a year passed at Mount
Morris Academy, began the study of law. He
was admitted to the bar at Galena in 18.54, and at
once began practice. In 1857 he was elected City
Attorney of Galena, and nominated on the Doug-
las electoral ticket in 1860. At the outbreak of
the Civil War lie favored, and publicly advocated,
coercive measures, and it is said that it was
partly through his influence that General Grant
early tendered his services to the Government.
He served on the staff of the latter from the time
General Grant was given command of a brigade
until the close of the war, mo.st of the time being
its chief, and rising in rank, step by step, until,
in 1863, he became a Brigadier-General, and, in
1865, a Major-General. His long service on the
staff of General Grant indicates the estimation
in wliich he was held by his chief. Promptl3- on
the assumption of the Presidency by General
Grant, in March, 1869, he was appointed Secre-
tary of War, but consumption had already
obtained a hold upon his constitution, and he sur-
vived only six months, dying in office, Sept. 6,
1869.

RAY, Charles H., journalist, was born at Nor-
wich, Chenango County, N. Y., March 12, 1821;



came west in 1843, studied medicine and began
practice at Muscatine, Iowa, afterwards locating
in Tazewell County, 111., also being associated,
for a time, with the publication of a temperance
paper at Springfield. In 1847 he removed to
Galena, soon after becoming editor of "The
Galena Jeffersonian," a Democratic paper, with
which he remained until 1854. He took strong
ground against the Kansas-Nebraska Bill, and, at
tlie session of the Legislature of 1855, served as
Secretary of the Senate, also acting as corre-
spondent of "The New York Tribune"; a few
months later became associated with Joseph.
Medill and John C. Vaughan in tlie purchase and
management of "Tlie Chicago Tribune," Dr. Ray
assuming the position of editor-in-chief. Dr.
Ray was one of the most trenchant and powerful
writers ever connected with the Illinois press,
and his articles exerted a wide influence during
the period of tlie organization of the Republican
party, in which he was an influential factor. He
was a member of the Convention of Anti-Neb-
raska editors lield at Decatur, Feb. 22, 1856, and
served as Chairman of the Committee on Reso-
lutions. (See Anti-\ebraska Editorial Conven-
tion.) At the State Republican Convention held
at Bloomington, in May following, he was
appointed a member of the State Central Com-
mittee for that year ; was also Canal Trustee by
appointment of Governor Bissell, serving from
1857 to 1861. In November, 1863, he severed his
connection with "The Tribune" and engaged in
oil speculations in Canada which proved finan-
cially disastrous. In 1865 he returned to the paper
as an editorial writer, remaining only for a short
time. In 1868 he assumed the management of
"The Chicago Evening Post," with which lie
remained identified until his death. Sept. 23,
1870.

RAT, Lyman Beecher, ex Lieutenant-Gov-
ernor, was born in Crittenden County, Vt.,
August 17, 1831 ; removed to Illinois in 1853, and
has since been engaged in mercantile business in
this State. After filling several local offices he
was elected to represent Grundy County in the
lower house of the Twenty-eighth Gteneral
Assembly (1872). and, ten years later, was chosen
State Senator, .serving from 1883 to 1887, and
being one of the recognized party leaders on the
floor. In 1888, he was elected Lieutenant-Gov-
ernor on the Republican ticket, his term expiring
in 1893. His home is at Morris, Grxmdy County.

RAY, William H., Congressman, was born in
Dutchess County. N. Y., Dec. 14, 1812: grew to
manhood in his native State, receiving a limited



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



U:i



education: in 1834 removed to Rusbville, 111.,
engaging in business as a merchant and, later, as
a banker ; was a member of tlie first State Board
of Equalization (18G7-69). and, in 1872, was
elected to Congress as a Republican, representing
his District from 1873 to 1875. Died. Jan. 2.'i.
18,S1.

RAYMOND, a village of Montgomery County,
on the St. Louis Division of tlie Wabasli Railway,
5 miles southwest of Decatur ; has some manufac-
tures and a weekly paper. Considerable coal is
mined here and grain and fruit grown in the sur
rounding country. Popuhition (188(1), 543;
(1890). 841.

RAYMOND, (Rev.) Miner, D.D., clergyman
and educator, was born in New York City,
August 29, 1811, being descended from a family
of Huguenots (known by the name of "Rai-
monde"),who were expelled from France on
account of their religion. In his youtli he
learned the trade of a shoemaker with his father,
at Rensselaerville, N. Y. He united with the
Methodist Episcopal Cliurch at the age of 17,
later taking a course in the Wesleyan Academy
at Wilbraham. Mass., where he afterwards
became a teacher. In 1838 he joined the New
England Conference and. three years later, began
pastoral work at Worcester, sul)sequently occu-
pying pulpits in Boston anil We.stlield. In 1848,
on the resignation of Dr. Robert Allyn (after-
wards President of McKendree College and of the
Southern Illinois Normal University at Carbon-
dale), Dr. Ray 111! md succeeded to the principalship
of the Academy at Wilbraliiim, remaining there
until 1864, when he was elected to the chair of
systematic theology in the Garrett Biblical Insti-
tute at Evanston. 111., his connection with the
latter institution continuing until 189.'), when he
resigned. For some three years of this period he
served as pastor of the First Methodist Cliurch
at Evanston. His death occurred, Nov. 25, 1897.

REAYIS, Logan I'riah, journalist, was born
in the Sangamon Bottom, Ma.son Count.v, 111..
March 26, 1831; in 185.") entered the office of "The
Beardstown Gazette. " later purchased an interest
in the paper and continued its publication under
the name of "The Central Illinoian." until 1H57,
when he sold out and went to Nebraska. Return-
ing, in 1860, he repurcdiase 1 his old paper and
conducted it imtil 1866. when he sold out for the
last time. The remainder of his life was devoted
chiefly to advocating the removal of the National
Capital to St. Louis, which he did by lectures and
the publication of pamphlets and books on the
subject; also published a "Life of Horace



Greeley," another of General Ilaruey. and two
or three other volumes. Died in St. Louis,
April 25, 1889.

RECTOR, the name of a prominent and influ-
ential family who lived at Kaskaskia in Terri-
torial days. According to Governor Reynolds,
who has left the most detailed account of them in
his "Pioneer History of Illinois," they consisted
of nine brothers and four daughters, all of whom
were born in Fauquier County, Va., some of
them emigrating to Ohio, while others came to
Illinois, arriving at Kaskaskia in 1806. Reynolds
describes them as passionate and impulsive, but
possessed of a high standard of integrity and a
chivalrous and patriotic .spirit. — William, the
oldest brother, and regarded as the head of the
family, became a Deputy Surveyor soon after
coming to Illinois, and took part in the Indian
campaigns between 1812 and 1814. In 1816 he
was appointed Surveyor-General of Illinois, Mis-
souri and Arkansas, and afterwards removed to
St. Louis.— Steplien, another of the brothers,
was a Lieutenant in Captain Moore's Company
of Rangers in the War of 1812, while Cliarles
commanded one of the two regiments organized
by Governor Edwards, in 1812, for the expedition
against the Indians at the head of Peoria Lake.
— Nelson, still another brother, served in the
same expedition on the staff of Governor
Edwards. Stephen, already mentioned, was a
member of the exjjedition sent to strengthen
Prairie du Chien in 1814, and showed great cour-
age in a fight with the Indians at Rock Island.
During the same year Nelson Rector and Captain
Samuel Whiteside joined Col. Zachary Taylor
(afterwards President) in an exjiedition on the
Upper Mississippi, in which they came in conflict
with the British and Indians at Rock Island, in
which Captain Rector again displayed the cour-
age so characteristic of his family. On the 1st of
March, 1814, while in charge of a surveying party
on Saline Creek, in Gallatin County, according to
Reynolds, Nelson was ambushed by the Indians
and, though severely wounded, was carried away
by his horse, and recovered. — Elias, another mem-
ber of the family, was Governor Edwards' first
Adjutant-General, .serving a few months in 1809,
when he gave place to Robert Morrison, but was
reappointed in 1810. serving for more than three
years.— Thomas, one of the younger members,
had a duel with Joshua Barton on "Bloody
Island." .sometime between 1812 and 1814, in
which he killed his antagonist. (See Duels.) A
portion of this historic family drifted into Arkan-
sas, where they became prominent, one of their



444



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



descendants serving as Governor of that State
during tlie Civil War period.

RED BUD, a city in Randolph County, on the
Mobile & Ohio Railroad, some 37 miles south-
southeast of St. Louis, and 21 miles south of
Belleville. The place has a carriage factory and
two flouring mills, a bank, four churches, a
graded school and a weekly newspaper. Popu-
lation (1880), 1,338; (1890), 1,176.

REEVES, Owen T., lawyer and jurist, was
born in Ross County, Oliio, Dec. 18, 1839 ; gradu-
ated at the Ohio Wesleyan University, at Dela-
ware, in 1850, afterwards serving as a tutor in
that institution and as Principal of a High
School at Chillicothe. In 18.54 he came to Bloom-
ington, 111., and, as a member of the School
Board, assisted in reorganizing the school system
of that city ; also has served continuously, for
over 40 years, as one of the Trustees of the Illi-
nois Wesleyan University, being a part of the
time President of the Board. In the meantime, he
had begun the practice of law, served as City
Attorney and member of the Board of Supervis-
ors. July 1, 1863, he enlisted in the Seventieth
Illinois Volunteers (a 100-days" emergency regi-
ment), was elected Colonel and mustered out,
with his command, in October, 1863. Colonel
Reeves was subsequently connected with the
construction of the Lafayette, Bloomington &
Mississippi Railroad (now a part of the Illinois
Central), and was also one of the founders of the
Law Department of the Wesleyan University.
In 1877 he was elected to the Circuit bencli, serv-
ing continuously, by repeated re-elections, until
1891 — during the latter part of his incumbency
being upon the Appellate bench.

REEVES, Walter, Member of Congress and
lawyer, was born near Brownsville, Pa., Sept. 25,
1848 ; removed to Illinois at 8 years of age and
was reared on a farm; later became a teacher
and lawyer, following his profession at Streator ;
in 1894 he was nominated by the Republicans of
the Eleventh District for Congress, as successor to
the Hon. Thomas J. Henderson, and was elected,
receiving a majority over three competitors.
Mr. Reeves was re-elected in 1896, and again in
1898.

REFORMATORY, ILLINOIS STATE, a prison
for the incarceration of male offenders under 21
years of age, who are believed to be suscejitible of
reformation. It is the successor of the ''State
Reform School," which was created by act of
the Legislature of 1867, but not opened for the
admission of inmates until 1871. It is located at
Pontiac. The number of inmates, in 1873, was 165,



which was increased to 334 in 1890. The results,
while moderately successful, were not altogether
satisfactory. The appropriations made for con-
struction, maintenance, etc., were not upon a
scale adequate to accomplish what was desired,
and, in 1891, a radical change was effected.
Previous to that date the limit, as to age, was 16
years. The law establishing the present reforma-
tory provides for a system of indeterminate sen-
tences, and a release upon parole, of inmates
who, in the opinion of the Board of Managers,
may be safely granted conditional liberation.
Tlie inmates are divided into two classes. (1)
those between the ages of 10 and 16, and(2) those
between 16 and 21. The Board of Managers is
composed of five members, not more than three of
whom shall be of the same party, their term of
office to be for ten years. The course of treat-
ment is educational (intellectually, morally and
industrially), schools being conducted, trades
taught, and the inmates constantly impressed
with the conviction that, only through genuine
and immistakable evidence of improvement, can
they regain their freedom. The reformatory
influence of the institution may be best inferred
from the results of one year's operation. Of 146
inmates paroled, 15 violated their parole and
became fvigitives, 6 were returned to the
Reformatory, 1 died, and 134 remained in
employment and regularly reporting. Among
the industries carried on are painting and glaz-
ing, masonry and plastering, gardening, knit-
ting, chair-caning, broom-making, carpentering,
tailoring and blacksmithing. The grounds of the
Reformatory contain a vein of excellent coal,
which it is proposed to mine, utilizing the clay,
thus obtained, in the manufactme of brick,
which can be employed in the construction of
additional needed buildings. The average num-
ber of inmates is about 800, and the crimes for
which they are sentenced range, in gravity, from
simple assault, or petit larceny, to the most seri-
ous offenses known to the criminal code, with
the exception of homicide. Tlie number of
inmates, at the beginning of the year 1895, was
813. An institution of a similar character, for
the confinement of juvenile female offenders, was
established under an act of the Legislature
passed at the session of 1893, and located at Gen-
eva, Kane County. (See Home for Juvenile
Female Offenders.)

RELIGIOUS DENOMINATIONS, The State
constitution contains the familiar guarants' of
absolute freedom of conscience. The chief
denominations have grown in like ratio with the



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



population, as may be seen from figurps piven
below. The earliest Christian services held were
conducted by Catholic missionaries, who attested
the sincerity of their convictions (in many
instances) by the sacrifice of their lives, either
through violence or exposure. The aborigines,
however, were not easily Christianized ; and.
shortly after the cession of Illinois by France to
Great Britain, the Catholic missions, being gener-
ally withdrawn, ceased to exert much influence
upon the red men, although the French, who
remained in the ceded territory, continued to
adhere to their ancient faith. (See Early Mis-
siotiaries. ) One of the first Protestant sects to
hold service in Illinois, was the Methodist Epis-
copal: Rev. Joseph Lillard coming to Illinois in
1793, and Rev. Hosea Riggs settling in the
American Bottom in 1796. (For history of
Methodism in Illinois, see Methodist Episcopal
Church.) The pioneer Protestant preacher,
however, was a Baptist — Elder James Smith—
who came to New Design in 1787. Revs. David
Badgley and Joseph Chance followed him in
1796, and the first denominational association
%vas formed in 1807. ( As to inception and growth
of this denomination in Illinois, see also Bap-
tists.) In 181-4 the Massachusetts Missionary
Society sent two missionaries to Illinois — Revs.
Samuel J. Mills and Daniel Smith. Two years
later (1816), the First Presbyterian Church was
organized at Sliaron, by Rev. James McGready,
of Kentucky. (See also Presbyterians. ) The
Congregationalists began to arrive with the tide
of immigration that set in from the Eastern
States, early in the "30's. Four churches were
organized in 1833, and the subsequent growth of
the denomination in the State, if gradual, has
been steady. (See Congregationalists.) About
the same time came the Disciples of Christ (some-
times called, from their founder, "Campbellites").
They encouraged free discussion, were liberal and
warm hearted, and did not require belief in any
particular creed as a condition of membership.
Tlie sect grew rapidly in numerical .strength.
(See Disci}3les of Christ.) The Protestant Episco-
palians obtained their first foothold in Illinois, in
1830, when Rev. Philander Cliase (afterward con-
secrated Bishop) immigrated to the State from
the East. (See Protestant Episcopal Church.)
The Lutherans in Illinois are chiefly of German
or Scandinavian birth or descent, as may be
inferred from the fact that. o>it of sixty-four
churches in Chicago under care of the Missouri
Synod, only four use the English language. They
are the only Protestant sect maintaining (when-



ever possible) a system of parochial schools. (See
Lutherans. ) There are twenty-six other religious
bodies in the State, exclusive of the Jews, who
have twelve synagogues and nine rabbis. Ac-
cording to the census statistics of 1890, these
twenty-six sects, with their numerical strength,
number of buildings, ministers, etc., are as fol-
lows: Anti-Mission Baptists, 2,800 members, 78
churches and 63 ministers: Church of God, 1,200
members, 39 churches, 34 ministers; Dunkards,
121,000 members, 155 churches, 83 ministers;
Friends ("Quakers'") 2,655 members, 25 churches;
Free Methodists, 1,805 members, 38 churches, 84
ministers; Free-WiU Baptists, 4.694 members. 107
churches, 73 ministers: Evangelical Association,
15,904 members, 143 churches, 152 ministers;
Cumberland Presbyterians, 11,804 members. 198
churches. 149 ministers: Metliodist Episcopal
(South) 3.927 members, 34 churches, 33 minis-
ters : Moravians, 720 members, 3 churches, 3
ministers; New Jerusalem Church (Swedenborgi-
ans), 662 members, 14 churches, 8 ministers:
Primitive Jlethodist, 230 members, 2 churches, 2
ministers: Protestant Methodist, 5,000 members,
91 churches, 106 ministers ; Reformed Church in
United States, 4,100 members, 34 churches, 19
ministers; Reformed Church of America, 3,200
members, 24 churches, 23 ministers; Reformed
Episcopalians, 2,1.50 members, 13 churches, 11
ministers; Reformed Presbyterians, 1,400 mem-
bers, 7 churches, 6 ministers; Salvation Army,
1,980 members: Second Adventists, 4,500 mem-
bers, 64 churches, 35 ministers; Seventh Day
Baptists, 330 members, 7 churches, 11 ministers;
Universalists, 3,160 members. 45 churches, 37
ministers; Unitarians, 1,225 members, 19
churches, 14 ministers; United Evangelical.
30,000 members, 129 churches, 108 ministers;
United Brethren, 16,500 members, 275 churches,
260 ministers ; United Presbyterians, 11,250 mem-
bers, 203 churches, 199 ministers; Wesleyan
Methodists, 1,100 members, 16 churches, 33 min-
isters. (See various Churches under their proper
names; also Roman Catholic Church.)

RE>'D, William Patrick, soldier, capitalist,
and coal-operator, was born in County Leitrim,
Ireland, Feb. 10. 1840. brought to Lowell, Mass.,
in boyhood, and graduated from the high school
there at 17; taught for a time near New York
City and later in Maryland, where he began a
course of classical study. The Civil War coming
on, he enlisted in the Fourteenth Regiment New
York Volunteers, serving most of the time as a
non-commissioned officer, and participating in the
battles of the second Bull Run, Malvern Hill,



446



HISTORICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ILLINOIS.



Antietam, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville.
After the war he came to Chicago and secured
employment in a railway surveyor's ofBce, later
acting as foreman of the Northwestern freight
depot, and finally embarking in the coal business,
which was conducted with such success that he



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