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.surface of the county is rolling, and the region
contains excellent farming land, which is well
watered by the Illinois River and numerous
creeks. Population (l«iS()), 16,249; (1890), 16,ai3.

SCHWATK.V, Frederick, Arctic explorer, was
born at Galena, 111 , Sept. 29, 1849; graduated
from the United States Military Academy in 1871,
and was commissioned Second Lieutenant in the
Third Cavalry, serving on tlie frontier until 1877,
meantime studying law and medicine, being
admitted to the bar in lS7o, and graduating in
medicine in 1876. Having his interest excited by
reports of traces of Sir John Franklin's expedi-
tion, found by the Esquimaux, he obtained leave
of absence in 1878, and, with Wm. H. Gilder as
second in command, sailed from New York in the
"Eothen," June 19, for King William's Land.
The party returned, Sept. 22,, having found
and buried the skeletons of many of Franklin's
party, besides discovering relics which tended to
clear up the mystery of their fate. During this
period he made a sledge journey of 3,251 miles.
Again, in 1883, he headed an exploring expedition
up the Yukon River. After a brief return to
army dutj' he tendered his resignation in 188.^,
and the next year led a special expedition to
Alaska, under tlie au.spices of "The New York
Times," later making a voyage of discovery
among the Aleutian Islands. In 1889 he con-
ducted an expedition to Northern Mexico, where
he found many interesting relics of Aztec civili-
zation and of tlie cliff and cave-dwellers. He
received the Roquette Arctic Medal from the
Geographical Society of Paris, and a medal from
the Imperial Geographical Society of Russia ; also
published several volumes relating to his re-
searches, under the titles. "Along Alaska's
Great River"; "The Franklin Search Under
Lieutenant Scliwatka" ; "Nimrod of the North" ;
and "Children of the Cold." Cied. at Portland,
Ore., Nov. 2. 1892.

SCOTT, James W., journalist, was born in
"H^alworth County, Wis., June 26, 1849, the son
of a printer, editor and publisher. While a boy
he accompanied liis father to Galena, where the
latter established a newspaper, and where he
learned the printer's trade. After graduating
from the Galena high school, he entered Beloit

College, but left at the end of his .sophomore year.
Going to New York, he became interested in flori-
culture, at the same time contributing short
articles to horticultural periodicals. Later he
was a compositor in Washington. His first news-
paper venture was the publication of a weeklj-
newspaper in Maryland in 1872. Returning to
Illinois, conjointly with his father he started
"The Industrial Press" at Galena, but, in 1875,
removed to Chicago. There he purchased "The
Daily National Hotel Rejiorter, " from which he
withdrew a few years later. In May, 1881, in
conjunction with others, he organized The Chi-
cago Herald Company, in which he ultimately
secured a controlling interest. His journalistic
and executive capability soon brought additional
responsibilities. He was chosen President of the
American Newspaper Publishers' Association, of
the Chicago Press Club, and of the United Press
— the latter being an organization for the collec-
tion and dissemination of telegraphic news to
journals throughout the United States and Can-
ada. He was also conspicuouslj- connected with
the preliminary organization of the World's
Columbian Exposition, and Chairman of the
Press Committee. In 1893 he started an evening
papei at Chicago, which he named "The Post."
Early in 189.5 lit purchased "The Chicago Times,"
intending to consolidate it with "The Herald,"
but before the final consummation of his plans,
he died suddenly, while on a business visit in
New York, April 14, 1895.

SCOTT, John M., lawyer and jurist, was born
in St. Clair County, 111., August 1, 1824; his
father being of Scotch-Irish descent and his
mother a Virginian. His attendance upon dis-
trict schools was supplemented by private tuition,
and his early education was the best that the
comparatively new country afforded. He read
law at Belleville, was admitted to the bar in
1848, removed to McLean County, which con-
tinued to be his home for nearly fifty years. He
served as County School Commissioner from 1849
to 1852, and, in the latter year, waselected County
Judge. In 1856 he was an unsuccessful Repub-
lican candidate for the State Senate, frequently
speaking from the same platform with Abraham
Lincoln. In 1862 he was elected Judge of the
Circuit Court of the Eighth Judicial Circuit, to
succeed David Davis on the elevation of the
latter to the bench of the United States Supreme
Court, and was re-elected in 1867. In 1870, a
new judicial election being rendered necessarj-
by the adoption of the new Constitution, Judge
Scott was chosen Justice of the Supreme Court



for a term of nine years ; was re-elected in 1879,
but declined a renomination in 1888. The latter
years of his life were devoted to his private
affairs. Died, at Bloomington, Jan. 21, 1898.
Shortly before his death Judge Scott published a
volume containing a History of the Illinois
Supreme Court, including brief sketches of the
early occupants of the Supreme Court bench and
early lawyers of the State.

SCOTT, Matthew Thompson, agricultvtrist
and real-estate operator, was born at Lexington,
Ky., Feb. 34, 1828; graduated at Centre College
in 1846, then spent several years looking after his
father's landed interests in Ohio, when he came
to Illinois and invested largely in lands for him-
self and others. He laid out the town of Chenoa
in 1856 ; lived in Springfield in 1870-73, when he
removed to Bloomington, where he organized the
McLean County Coal Company, remaining as its
head until his death; was also the founder of
"The Bloomington Bulletin," in 1878. Died, at
Bloomington, May 21, 1891.

SCOTT, Owen, journalist and ex Congressman,
was born in Jackson Tovvnship, Effingham
County, 111., July 6, 1848, reared on a farm, and,
after receiving a thorough common-school edu-
cation, became a teacher, and was, for eight
years, Superintendent of Schools for his native
county. In January, 1874, he was admitted to
the bar, but abandoned practice, ten years later,
to engage in newspaper work. His first publi-
cation was "The Effingham Democrat, " which he
left to become proprietor and manager of "Tlie
Bloomington Bulletin." He was also publisher
of "The Illinois Freemason," a monthly periodi-
cal. Before removing to Bloomington he filled
the offices of City Attorney and Mayor of Effing-
ham, and also served as Deputy Collector of
Internal Revenue. In 1890 he was elected as a
Democrat from the Fourteenth Illinois District
to the Fifty-second Congress. In 1893 he was a
candidate for re-election, but was defeated by his
Republican opponent, Benjamin F. Funk. Dur-
ing tlie past few years, Mr. Scott has been editor
of "The Bloomington Leader."

SCOTT COUNTY, lies in the western part of
the State adjoining the Illinois River, and has an
area of 248 square miles. The region was origi-
nally owned by the Kickapoo Indians, who
ceded it to the Government by the treaty of
Edwardsville, July 30, 1819. Six months later
(in January, 1820) a party of Kentuckians settled
near Lynnville (now in Morgan County), their
names being Thomas Stevens, James Scott,
Alfred Miller, Thomas Allen, John Scott and

Adam Miller. Allen erected the first house in the
county, John Scott the second and Adam Miller
the third. About the same time came Stephen
M. Umpstead, whose wife was the first white
woman in the county. Other pioneers were
Jedediah Webster, Stephen Pierce, Joseph Dens-
more, Jesse Roberts, and Samuel Bogard. The
comitry was rough and the conveniences of civi-
lization few and remote. Settlers took their corn
to Edwardsville to be ground, and went to Alton
for their mail. Turbulence early showed itself,
and, in 1822, a band of "Regulators" was organized
from the best citizens, who meted out a rough
and ready sort of justice, until 1830, occasionally
shooting a desperado at his cabin door. Scott
County was cut off from Morgan and organized
in 1839. It contains good farming land, much of
it being originally timbered, and it is well
watered by the Illinois River and numerous
small streams. Winchester is the county-seat.
Population of the county (1880), 10,741; (1890),

SCRIPPS, John L., journalist, was born near
Cape Girardeau, Mo., Feb. 18, 1818; was taken to
RushviUe, III, in childhood, and educated at
McKendree College; studied law and came to
Chicago in 1847, witli the intention of practicing,
but, a year or so later, bought a tliird interest in
"The Chicago Tribune," which had been estab-
lished during the previous year. In 1853 lie
withdrew from "The Tribune," and, in conjunc-
tion with William Bross (afterwards Lieuten-
ant-Governor), established "The Daily Demo-
cratic Press," which was consolidated with "The
Tribune" in July, 18.58, under the name of "The
Press and Tribune," Mr. Scripps remaining one
of the editors of the new concern. In 1861 he
was appointed, by Mr. Lincoln, Postmaster of the
city of Cliicago, serving until 1865, when, having
sold his interest in "The Tribune," he engaged in
the banking business as a member of the firm of
Scripps, Preston & Kean. His health, however,
soon showed signs of failure, and he died, Sept.
31, 1866, at Minneapolis, Minn., whither he liad
gone in hopes of restoration. Mr. Scripps was a
finished and able writer who did much to elevate
the standard of Chicago journalism.

SCRO(itiS, George, journalist, was born at
Wilmington, Clinton, County, Ohio, Oct. 7, 1843
— tlie son of Dr. John W. Scroggs, who came to
Champaign County, 111., in 1851, and, in 18.58,
took charge of "The Central Illinois Gazette. ' In
18611-67 Dr. Scroggs was active in securing the
location of the State University at Champaign,
afterwards serving as a member of the first Board



of Trustees of that institution. The son, at the
age of 15, became an apprentice in his father's
printing office, continuing until 1862, wlien lie
enlisted as a private in the One Hundred and
Twenty-tifth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, being
promoted through the positions of Sergeant-JIa jor
and Second Lieutenant, and finally serving on
the staffs of Gen. Jetf. C. Davis and Gen. James
D. Morgan, but declining a commission as Adju-
tant of the Sixtieth Illinois. He participated in
the battles of Perryville, Chickamauga, Mission
Ridge and the march with Sherman to the sea, in
the latter being severely wounded at Bentonville,
N. C. He remained in the service until July,
1865, when he ^resigned ; then entered the Uni-
Tersity at Champaign, later studied law, mean-
while writing for "The Champaign CJazette and
Union," of which he finally became sole propri-
etor. In 1877 he was appointed an Aid-de-Camp
on the staff of Governor CuUom, and, the follow-
ing year, was elected to the Thirty-first General
Assembly, but, before the close of the session
(1879), received the appointment of United States
Consul to Hamburg. Germany. He was com-
pelled to surrender this jjosition, a year later, on
account of ill-health, and, returning home, died,
Oct. 15, 1880.

SEATONVILLE, a village in Hall Township,
Bureau County. Population (1890), 536.

SECRETARIES OF STATE. The following is
a list of the Secretaries of State of Illinois from
its admission into the Union down to the present
time (1899), with the date and duration of the
term of each incumbent: Elias Kent Kane,
1818-32; Samuel D. Lockwood, 1822-23; Daviil
BlackweU. 1823-24; Morris Birkbeck, October,
1824 to January, 1825 (failed of confirmation by
the Senate); George Forquer, 1835-28; Alexander
Pope Field, 1828-40; Stephen A. Douglas, 1840-41
(served three months— resigned to take a seat on
the Supreme bench); Lyman Trumbull. 1841-43;
Thompson Campbell, 1843-46; Horace S. Cooley,
1846-50; David L. Gregg, 1850-53; Alexander
Starne, 18.53-57; Ozias M. Hatch, 1857-65; Sharon
Tyndale. 1865-69; Edward Rummel, 1869-73;
George H. Harlow, 1873-81 ; Henry D. Dement,
1881-89; Isaac N. Pearson. 1889-93; William H.
Hinrichsen, 1893-97; James A. Rose, 1897—.
Nathaniel Pope and Josejih Phillips were the only
Secretaries of Illinois during the Territorial
period, the former serving from 1809 to 1816, and
the latter from 1816 to 1818. Under the first Con-
stitution (1818) the office of the Secretary of
State was filled by appointment by the Governor,
by and with the advice and consent of the

Senate, but without limitation as to term of
office. By the Constitution of 1848, and again by
that of 1870, that officer was made elective by
the people at the same time as the (Jovernor, for
a term of four years.

in the War of the Rebellion there sprang up, at
various points in the Northwest, organizations of
persons disaffected toward the National (iovern-
ment. They were most numerous in Ohio, Indi-
ana, Illinois, Kentucky and Missouri. At first
they were known by such titles as "Circles of
Honor," "Mutual Protective Associations," etc.
But they had kindred aims and their members
were soon united in one organization, styled
"Knights of the Golden Circle." Its
having been partially disclosed, this body (
to — or, it would be more correct to say,
changed its name — being soon succeeded (1863)
by an organization of similar character, called
the "American Knights." These societies, as
first formed, were rather political than military.
The "American Knights" had more forcible
aims, but this, in turn, was also exposed, and the
order was re-organized under the name of "Sons
of Liberty." The last named order started in
Indiana, and, owing to its more perfect organi-
zation, rapidly spread over the Northwest,
acquiring much more strength and influence than
its predecessors had done. The ultimate author-
ity of the organization was vested in a Supreme
Council, whose officers were a "supreme com-
mander," "secretary of state," and "treasurer."
Each State represented formed a division, under a
"deputy grand commander. ' " States were divided
into military districts, under "major-generals."
County lodges were termed "temples." The
order was virtually an officered army, and its
aims were aggressive. It had its commander-in-
chief, its brigades and its regiments. Three
degrees were recognized, and the oaths of secrecy
taken at each initiation surpassed, in binding
force, either the oath of allegiance or an oath
taken in a court of justice. The maintenance of
slavery, and forcible opposition to a coercive
policy by the Government in dealing with seces-
sion, were the pivotal doctrines of the order. Its
methods and purposes were to discourage enlist-
ments and resist a draft; to aid and protect
deserters ; to disseminate treasonable literature ;
to aid the Confederates in destroying Government
pi-operty. Clement L. Vallandigham, the expat-
riated traitor, was at its head, and, in 18(i4,
claimed that it had a numerical strength of 400,-
000, of whom 65,000 were in Illinois. Many overt



acts were committed, but the organization, hav-
ing been exposed and defeated in its objects, dis-
banded in 1865. (See Camp Douglas Conspiracij. )
SELHY, Paul, editor, was born in Pickaway
County, Ohio. July 20, 1825; removed with his
parents, in 1837, to Van Buren County. Iowa, but,
at the age of 19, went to Southern Illinois, where
he spent four years teaching, chieflj' in Madison
County. In 1848 he entered the preparatory
department of Illinois College at Jacksonville,
but left the institution during his junior year to
assume the editorship of ''The Morgan Journal,"
at Jacksonville, with which he remained until
the fall of 1808, covering the period of the
organization of the Republican party, in which
"The Journal" took an active part. He was a
member of the Anti-Nebraska (afterwards known
as Republican) State Convention, which met at
Springfield, in October. 18.54 (the first ever held in
the State), and, on Feb. 22, 1856, attended and
presided over a conference of Anti-Nebraska
editors of the State at Decatur, called to devise a
line of policj' for the newly organizing Repub-
lican party. (See An ti- Nebraska Editorial
Convention.) This body appointed the first
Republican State Central Committee and desig-
nated the date of the Bloomiugton Convention
of May 29, following, which put in nomination
the first Republican State ticket ever named in
Illinois, which ticket was elected in the following
November. (See Bloomington Convention.) In
1859 he prepared a pamphlet giving a history of
the celebrated Canal scrip fraud, which was
widely circulated. (See Canal Scrij) Fraud.)
Going South in the fall of 1859, he was engaged
in teaching in the State of Louisiana until the
last of June, 1861. Just two weeks before the
fall of Fort Sumter he was denounced to his
Soutliern neighbors as an "abolitionist" and
falsely charged with having been connected with
the "underground railroad," in letters from
secession sympathizers in tlie North, whose per-
sonal and political enmity he had incurred while
conducting a Republican paper in Illinois, some
of whom referred to Jefferson Davis, Senator
Slidell, of Louisiana, and other Southern leaders
as vouchers for their characters. He at once
invited an investigation by the Board of Trus-
tees of the institution, of which he was the
Principal, when that body — although composed,
for the most part, of Southern men — on the basis
of testimonials from prominent citizens of Jack-
sonville, and other evidence, adopted resolutions
declaring the charges prompted by personal hos-
tility, and delivered the letters of his accusers into

his hands. Returning North with his family in
July, 1861, he spent some nine months in the com-
missary and transportation branches of the ser-
vice at Cairo and at Paducah, Ky. In July, 1862,
he became associate editor of "The Illinois State
Journal" at Springfield, remaining mitil Novem-
ber, 1865. The next six months were spent as
Assistant Deputy Collector in the Custom House
at New Orleans, but, returning North in June,
1866, he soon after became identified with the
Chicago press, serving, first upon the staff of "The
Evening Journal" and, later, on "The Repub-
lican." In May, 1868, he assumed' the editorship
of "The Quincy Whig, ' ultimately becoming
part proprietor of that paper, but, in January,
1874, resumed his old place on "The State Jour-
nal," four years later becoming one of its propri-
etors. In 1880 he was appointed by President
Hayes Postmaster of Springfield, was reappointed
by Arthur in 1884, but resigned in 1886. Mean-
while he had sold his interest in "The Journal,"
but the following year organized a new company
for its purchase, when he resumed his former
position as editor. In 1889 he dispo.sed of his
holding in "The Journal," finally removing to
Chicago, where he has been employed in literary
work. In all he has been engaged in editorial
work over thirty-five years, of which eighteen
were spent upon "The State Journal." In 1860
Mr. Selby was complimented by his Alma Mater
with the honorary degree of A. M. He has been
twice married, first to Miss Erra Post, of Spring-
field, who died in November, 1865, leaving two
daughters, and, in 1870, to Mrs. Mary J. Hitch-
cock, of Quincy, by whom he had two children,
both of whom died in infancy.

SEMPLE, James, United States Senator, was
born in Green County, Ky., Jan. 5, 1798, of Scotch
descent ; after learning the tanner's trade, studied
law and emigrated to Illinois in 1818, removing
to Missouri four years later, where he was ad-
mitted to the bar. Returning to Illinois in 1828,
he began practice at Edwardsville, but later
became a citizen of Alton. During the Black
Hawk War he served as Brigadier-General. He
was thrice elected to the lower house of the
Legislature (1832, "34 and "36), and was Speaker
daring the last two terms. In 1833 he was
elected Attorney-General by the Legislature, but
served only until the following year, and, in
1837, was appointed Minister to Granada, South
America. In 1843 he was appointed, and after-
wards elected. United States Senator to fill the
unexpired term of Samuel McRoberts, at the
expiration of his term (1847) retiring to private



life. He laid out the town of Elsali. in Jersey
County, just south of wliich he owneii a large
estate on the Mississippi bluffs, where he died,
Dec. 30, 1866.

SENECA (formerly Crotty), a village of La
Salle County, situated on the Illinois River, the
Illinois & Micliigan Canal and the Chicago. Rock
Island & Pacific and the Cleveland, Cincinnati,
Chicago & St. Louis Railways. 13 miles east of
Ottawa. It has a graded school, several churches,
a bank, some manufactui'e.s. grain warehouses
and one newspaper. Pi)pulation (1H8(I), 738;
(1890), 1.190.

SE>'>', (Dr.) Nicholas, physican and surgeon,
■was born in the Canton of St. thiul, Swit»:erland,
Oct. 31, 1844; was brought to America at 8 years
of agfe, his parents settling at Washington, Wis.
He received a grammar school education at Fond
du Lac, and, in 1864, began tlie study of medi-
cine, gi-aduating at the Chicago iledical College
in 1868. After some eigl\teeu months spent as
resident physician in tlie Cook County Hospital,
he began practice at Ashford, Wis., but removed
to Milwaukee in 1874, where he became attending
l)liysician of the Milwaukee Hospital. In 1877 he
visited Europe, graduated tlie following year from
the University of Munich, ami, on his return,
became Professor of the Principles of Surgery
and Surgical Pathology in Rush Medical College
in Chicago— also has held the chair of the Prac-
tice of Surgery in the same institution. Dr.
Senn has achieved great success and won an
international reputation in tlie treatment of
difficult cases of abdominal surgery. He is the
author of a numter of volumes on different
branches of surgery which are recognized as
standard authorities. A few years ago he i)ur-
chased the extensive library of tlie late Dr. Will-
iam Baum, Professor of Surgery in the University
of (iottingen, which he presented to the New-
berry Library of Chicago. In 1893, Dr. Senn was
appointed Surgeon-(Jeneral of the Illinois
National Guard, and lias also been President of
the Association of Military Surgeons of the
National Guard of the United States, besides
being identified with various other medical
bodies. Soon after the beginning of the Spanisli-
American War. he was appointed, by President
McKinley, a Surgeon of Volunteers with the rank
of Colonel, and rendered most efficient aid in the
military branch of the service at Camp Chicka-
mauga and in the Santiago campaign.

SEXTOX, (Col.) JaDies A., Commander-in-
Chief of Grand Army of the Republic, was liorn
in the city of Chicago, Jan. 5, 1844; in April,

1861. being then only a little over 17, enli.sted as a
private soldier under the first call for troops
issued by President Lincoln: at the close of his
term was appointed a Sergeant, witli authority to
recruit a company which afterwards was attached
to the Fifty-first Volunteer Infantry. Later, he
was transferred to the Sixty-seventh with the
rank of Lieutenant, and, a few montlis after, to
the Seventy-second with a commission as Captain
of Company D, which he liad recruited. As com-
mander of his regiment, then constituting a part
of the Seventeenth Army Corps, he participated
in the battles of Columbia, Duck Creek, Spring
Hill, Franklin and Nashville, and in the Nash-
ville campaign. Both at Nashville and Franklin
he was wounded, and again, at Spanish Fort, by a
piece of shell which broke his leg. His regiment
took part in seven battles and eleven skirmishes,
and, while it went out 967 strong in officers and
men, it returned with only 332, all told, although
it liad been recruited by 234 men. He was known
as ''The boy Captain," being only 18 years old
wlien he received his first commission, and 21
when, after participating in the Mobile cam-
paign, he was mustered out witli the rank of
Lieutenant-Colonel. After the close of the war
he engaged in planting in the South, purchasing
a plantation in Lowndes County, Ala,, but, in
1867, returned to Chicago, where he became a
member of the firm of Cribben, Sexton & Co.,
stove manufacturers, from which he retired in
1898. In 1884 he served as Presidential Elector
on the Republican ticket for tlie Fourth District,

Online LibraryNewton BatemanHistorical encyclopedia of Illinois → online text (page 99 of 207)