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Men of mark in Connecticut; ideals of American life told in biographies and autobiographies of eminent living Americans (Volume 1) online

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sponsible capacity until 1889, when he was called to the presidency
of Wesleyan University, the position he now holds. In 1896 he
took a second trip abroad for further study at the German universities
and returned at the end of a year. The honorary degree of D.D. was
conferred upon him by the Northwestern University in 1894 and by
Yale University in 1901.

As the head of Wesleyan University, Dr. Eaymond has done and
is doing most valuable work for the highest good of college and
faculty and Wesleyan has advanced in every way under his adminis-
tration. He has been highly instrumental in increasing and
strengthening the material resources of the university, in preserving
and purifying the "college spirit," and in raising the standard of
scholarship. He has a strong personality and the faculty of leader-
ship to a marked degree. As a scholar and educator he is of highest
rank, for he has the gift of teaching and the mind of a true scholar.
His generous sympathies and absolute justice win the loyalty and
admiration of the student body and his executive ability and
scholarly methods make him a fitting head of the faculty. As a
student Dr. Raymond is a man of high attainment in the field of
philosophical, ethical, and theological study, and as a writer and
speaker he is clear, forcible, and interesting. As a preacher he is one
of the ablest of his denomination and his careful training, his elo-
quence, and his deeply religious nature make him a distinct "power
for good" in the university. His chief written work, "Christianity
and the Christ," which he published in 1894, embodies the views,
beliefs, and personality of a deep student, a sincere theologian, an
able writer, and a true Christian.

A life truly devoted to study has little time for social, fraternal,
or political interests and Dr. Raymond is no exception to the rule
suggested by this fact. With the exception of one year, from Sep-
tember, 1864, to July, 1865, spent in military service in the ranks



BBADFOHD PAUL BAYMOND 139

of the 48th New York Eegiment, he has spent his life in scholarly
pursuits. In politics Dr. Raymond is a conscientious Eepublican,
though he has never wished or held office. In 1873 he married Lnlu
A. Rich, by whom he has had five children and two of the five are
now living.

As a scholar and educator, as a theologian and preacher, and as
president of one of the oldest and finest New England universities. Dr.
Bradford Paul Raymond holds a high place of his own making in
the intellectual life of Connecticut. He is an admirable example
of what ambition and determination may do to defeat the ob-
stacles in the way of gaining an education and of the importance
of a strong and single purpose in life.



FRANCIS GANO BENEDICT

BENEDICT, FRANCIS GANO, Ph.D., chemist, educator and
scientific writer, instructor and associate professor of chemis-
try at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut, presi-
dent of the Middletown Scientific Association and author of "Cliemical
Lecture Experiments," was bom in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, October
3rd, 1870. His father was Washington Gano Benedict, a man of in-
domitable energy and business integrity, whose occupation in life was
the management of real estate and electric railways. Dr. Benedict's
mother was Harriet Emily Benedict, and from her came his first
great stimulus to intellectual activity.

A city-bred boy, endowed with excellent health and great mental
vigor, it was natural that Francis Benedict should seek and acquire the
highest education. His greatest interest was in the natural sciences,
in the study of which he showed marked zeal and aptitude. Out-
side of school hours, in his early youth, he had a certain amount of
manual labor to do, which inculcated valuable habits of responsibility
and industry. He prepared for college at the Boston Latin School
and the English High School in Boston, and then entered Harvard
University, where he received his A.B. degree in 1893 and his A.M.
degree in 1894. During his courses at Harvard he earned his way
by acting as instructor in chemistry in the Massachusetts College of
Pharmacy in Boston. After taking his Master's degree at Harvard,
he went abroad and studied at the University of Heidelberg, where
he was granted the degree of Ph.D. in 1895,

In 1896, soon after his return from Germany, Dr. Benedict became
instructor and, later, associate professor of chemistry at Wesleyan Uni-
versity, Middletown, and he has held the position continuously since
that time. From 1895 to 1900 he was chemist at Storrs Experiment
Station, and since 1898 has been physiological chemist of the Nutrition
Investigations of the United States Department of Agriculture. In 1899
he published his "Elementary Organic Analysis," and in 1900 his
"Chemical Lecture Experiments," and he has contributed many in-



FRANCIS GANO BENEDICT 141

teresting, original, and authentic papers to various leading scientific
journals. He has conducted some very fruitful and important investi-
gations into the nutrition of man with the respiration calorimeter. In
the lecture room, the laboratory, and through the scientific press Dr.
Benedict has done much to foster scientific research, and to conduct
that research along practical lines. He is a true scholar, an able
writer, a zealous and capable educator, and a most enthusiastic and
authoritative scientist.

Dr. Benedict is a member of the American Chemical Society, the
Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft, the American Physiological Society,
the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, the Middletown
Scientific Association, of which he is president, the University Club
of Middletown, and the college fraternity of Phi Beta Kappa. In
creed he is an Episcopalian, and in politics a Eepublican. Boating is
his most pleasurable summer diversion, and music his winter pas-
time. In 1897 Dr. Benedict married Cornelia Golay, by whom he has
had one child. He believes the most helpful influence upon his work
to have come from his private study, and the greatest incentive to suc-
cess from his college chemistry professor, Josiah P. Cooke, of Harvard,
with whom he was intimately associated during his college course. Dr.
Benedict advises men to practice "total abstinence from liquors or to-
bacco, under the age of forty years." He is still a young man, and the
scientific world may reasonably expect still greater results of his
work.



CALEB THOMAS WINCHESTER

WINCHESTEK, CALEB THOMAS, educator, lecturer and
writer, professor of English literature at Wesleyan Uni-
versity, Middletown, Connecticut, was born in Montville,
Connecticut, January 18th, 1847, and is a descendant of John Win-
chester, who was born in England in 1616, settled in what is now
Brookline, Massachusetts, and died in 1694. Professor Winchester's
father was Rev, George H. Winchester, a "plain and earnest"
minister in the Methodist Episcopal Church. His mother was Lucy
Thomas Winchester, a woman of quick intellect, refined tastes and
gentle manners, to whom he credits "everything good" in his character.
Through her. Professor Winchester is descended from Dr. Francis Le
Baron, a native of France who settled in Plymouth, Massachusetts,
about 1635 and who was, according to tradition, a French nobleman
and refugee.

From the time he was seven until he was sixteen years of age
Caleb Winchester lived on a small farm in southeastern Massachusetts,
and for the hard but profitable experience in all kinds of work where
farming is of the poorest he heartily thanks God. The labor strength-
ened his none too robust constitution and stored up health and vigor
suflficient to keep him a well man aU his later days, and, he says, "more
than that, it opened my eyes to the charm of outdoors, taught me the
ways of plants and animals and the look of land and sky. It taught
me what manual labor is and what it costs, and gave me a first-hand
knowledge of a most interesting set of opinions, customs and preju-
dices that I should otherwise never have learned." He was naturally
a student, and though the range of reading accessible in his early life
was not wide, it was good and afforded him an intimacy with history
and poetry. His education was for the most part self-earned and was
acquired at an academy in Middleborough, Massachusetts, at Wesleyan
Academy, Wilbraham, Massachusetts, and at Wesleyan University,
Middletown, Connecticut, where he was graduated in 1869. At the
beginning of the following college year he entered upon the duties of



CALEB THOMAS WINCHESTER 143

librarian of Wesleyan and he has been connected with the college
ever since.

In 1872 Professor Winchester took the chair of English litera-
ture at Wesleyan, and he has held it ever since, giving to the students
courses that are both scholarly and popular and winning a place
second to none in the field of literary appreciation and criticism. He
has been a frequent and favorite lecturer at Amherst, Princeton,
Johns Hopkins, Wells, and many other colleges and institutions of
learning and before many more general audiences. In 1880 and 1881
he studied abroad, mostly in Leipsic, and, though he took no degree
there, he has since received the honorary degree of L.H.D. from
Dickinson College. In 1892 he published his compact, stimulating,
and scholarly book "Five Short Courses of Eeading" and in 1900 he
put forth a revised edition of this valuable work. In 1899 he pub-
lished "Some Principles of Literary Criticism" which has the useful-
ness of a handbook and the merit of true literary worth as well. He
has been a constant and well known contributor to a number of the
leading magazines and journals. His last work, "The Life of John
Wesley," issued in the spring of 1906, has received high commenda-
tion from the best critics.

Professor Winchester has made teaching his vocation and lecturing
his avocation. As a teacher he is most certainly a master of the
art, for he is enthusiastic and inspiring, approachable and sympa-
thetic, thorough and earnest, with a lively interest in both subjects
and students. His courses are among the most popular in the Uni-
versity, to which many go to specialize in English literature. The
clear diction and incisive reasoning, deep humor and sharp wit, the
charm of delivery, the keen, critical ability and strong intellectuality
that have made him such a favorite on the lecture platform are all at
their best in the class room. As a critic of Shakespeare he has given
the literary world some truly original matter and his lectures on the
Lake Poets of England and the English Essayists are real works of
literature, so pure and graceful is his English, so thorough and sen-
sitive his appreciation and so charming is his literary style.

Though Professor Winchester's life is one of devotion to his pro-
fessional work, that devotion does not exclude but rather affiliates
with the other "good things in life." He is a most sincere and active
member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. In politics he is an



144 CALEB THOMAS WINCHESTER

independent voter, having been a Republican until 1884, when, with
many others, he was unable to support Mr. Blaine. His favorite out-
of-door recreation is bicycling, in which he has found benefit and
pleasure for fifteen years. Professor "Winchester is a great lover of
home life and is a man of most domestic tastes. In April, 1880, he
married Alice G. Smith.

The love of the literary life grew gradually upon Caleb Winches-
ter during his college days and determined for him a lifelong literary
career. One has only to read or listen to his words to know that
this love of literature is the dominating influence in his life and the
cause of his great success. For the benefit of others he says : "Think
less of your success and more of your work ; have some one line of work
to which you can always give your best energies and some pleasant fad
to unbend on; always spend less than you earn, but otherwise don't
pay much attention to money ; marry a good woman and make a home,
big or little, rich or poor matters not, but a home. If every one will
do that, society is safe enough."



HERBERT WILLIAM CONN

CONN, HEEBEET WILLIAM, Ph.D., biologist, educator,
lecturer, author and practical bacteriologist, professor of biol-
ogy at Wesleyan University, president and instigator of the
Society of American Bacteriologists, founder of Agricultural Bacteri-
ology, and one of the most eminent scientists of our day, was born in
Fitchburg, Worcester County, Massachusetts, January 10th, 1859. He
is descended from John Conn, who came from Ulster County, Ireland,
to the United States in 1730 and, on his mother's side, from John
Barrows, who settled in Salem in 1635. Professor Conn's father,
Eeuben Eice Conn, was a watchmaker and jeweler and a man of
marked integrity of character. His mother was Harriet Elizabeth
Conn, a woman of great moral and spiritual strength and influence.
The boy Herbert Conn was rather weak and sickly and he was brought
up in a small city with few duties to perform outside of his school
work. He was an ardent student and showed a propensity for scientific
research at a very early age. He attended a private school, Cushing
Academy, Ashburnham, Massachusetts, and then entered Boston Uni-
versity, where he received his A.B. degree in 1881 and his A.M. degree
in 1883. He entered Johns Hopkins University in 1881, where he was
granted the degree of Ph.D. in Biology in 1884. During his last year
of study at Johns Hopkins he also taught in that university and he
was acting director of the Johns Hopkins Summer Laboratory during
the summer that followed.

In 1884 Mr. Conn became instructor of biology in Wesleyan
University, Middletovm, Connecticut, and he became professor of biol-
ogy in that university in 1887 and still holds the chair. He was biol-
ogy instructor at Trinity College in 1889-1890; acting director of the
department of zoology, Martha's Vineyard Summer Institute, in 1887 ;
director of the Cold Springs Biological Laboratory 1890-1897 ; bacteri-
ologist of Storrs School Experiment Station from the time it was
founded until the present time and he has been lecturer on bacteriol-
ogy at the Connecticut Agricultural College since 1901. He was the



146 HERBERT WILLIAM CONN

first to suggest and one of the chief organizers of the Society of
American Bacteriologists, of which he was secretary for the first three
years of its existence and of which he was president in 1903. He was
the founder and has been for some time the chief exponent in America
of the growing subject of Agricultural Bacteriology, which is to-day
revolutionizing many agricultural methods and doing a work of the ut-
most importance in promoting health and economy. Some of his
most valuable, radical, and fruitful investigations have been those
concerning bacteria in milk products, of which scientific study Pro-
fessor Conn was the pioneer in America. In 1905 he was made State
Bacteriologist of Connecticut and director of the State Bacteriological
Laboratory that was organized under his supervision. He has pub-
lished about one hundred and fifty scientific papers upon this and
kindred subjects, which have brought about definite and practical
results. He was the first to prove that typhoid fever is distributed by
oysters, doing so by investigations of an epidemic at Wesleyan. He
is the author of "Evolution of To-day," published in 1886; "The
Living World," 1891; "The Method of Evolution," 1900; "The
Story of Gterm Life," 1897; "The Story of the Living Machine,"
1899; "Agricultural Bacteriology," 1901; "Bacteria in Milk and
Its Products," 1902; "Bacteria Yeasts and Molds in the Home,"
1903; "Elementary Physiology and Hygiene," and "JSTociones de
Microbiologic," and also a series of widely used school text-
books on Physiology. Several of these books have been trans-
lated into Spanish, Italian, and Hungarian. In these books his
treatment of his subjects is masterful, thorough, and modern, avoiding
all unnecessary detail and aiming at a resume of salient points and a
solution of practical problems. He writes clearly with no trace of
pedantry and with apt and illuminating illustrations. He believes
that the study of evolution is in a transition period and that the
rising generation of students will study it from a new view point, and
writes with so scientific and scholarly a caution that it is almost
prophetic, and it is safe to say that his books will have true value in
the coming as well as in the present generation. As a specialist on
the bacteriology of dairy products Professor Conn has performed some
very important and advanced experiments with most beneficial results.
He spent three years in searching for a species of bacteria which the
butter-maker might inoculate into his cream to insure a uniformly



HERBERT WILLIAM OONN 147

pure product and the adequate organism was obtained in 1893, and has
been used with the most satisfying results in creameries all over the
country. By the inoculation of "Bacillus N"o. 41" the growth of
injurious bacteria is checked and cream and butter are given their
own desirable flavor.

Professor Conn's able, thorough, and progressive work in scientific
research has placed him among the foremost biologists of to-day. His
recognized importance in scientific circles is due to his careful and
fruitful experiments, his clear and authentic writings and lectures
and his ability as an educator. In the advice he offers others we may
discover the fundamental reasons of his own great success, for he
says, "Aim to discover essentials and distinguish them from unim-
portant details. Place the emphasis of endeavor upon the essentials
that count and don't waste energies in too much attention to unim-
portant minutiae." He has truly bent all of his energies to the pur-
suit of the branch of science that is his life work and, except for a
constant interest in the Methodist Church to which he belongs, con-
scientious casting of his political vote, usually for the Republican
party, and membership in his college fraternity Beta Theta Pi, he has
no social connections. For relaxation he enjoys bicycling and moun-
tain climbing, and, when tired, light fiction. In August, 1885, Pro-
fessor Conn married Julia M. Joel, by whom he has had two children.
Their home is in Middletown, the seat of his professional duties.



ABIRAM CHAMBERLAIN

CHAMBERLAIN, ABIRAM, former governor of Connecticut
and a prominent banker in New England, was born in the
town of Colebrook, Litchfield County, Connecticut, December
7th, 1837. His ancestors on both sides were of the oldest and purest
New England stock, one of the oldest on his father's side being Jacob
Chamberlain, who was born in Newton (now Cambridge), Massa-
chusetts, in 1673. On his mother's side Mr. Chamberlain is descended
from Henry and Eulalia Burt. Mr. Chamberlain's father was Deacon
Abiram Chamberlain, a most skillful and experienced civil engineer
and surveyor. He was a man of great uprightness and stability of
character, and was widely known for his attractive personality. Mr.
Chamberlain's mother was Sophronia Ruth Burt.

After receiving a public school education, Mr. Chamberlain
studied at Williston Seminary, Easthampton, Massachusetts, where he
made a special study of civil engineering, his father's calling. In
1856 the family moved to New Britain, where Mr. Chamberlain
learned the trade of rule making and practiced civil engineering with
his father. He soon abandoned this course to become a teller in the
New Britain National Bank and this step was the turning point of his
career, for Mr. Chamberlain was destined to be identified from that
time on with finance instead of engineering. In 1867 he moved to
Meriden and became cashier of the Home National Bank. In 1881 he
became president of that bank, which position he still holds.

Though few men have had more thorough experience in banking
than Mr. Chamberlain, he has found time for many other interests, as
his many public offices have shown. He was at one time city auditor
and a member of the City Government and has represented his town
in the State Legislature. In 1901 and 1902 he was state comptroller
and in September, 1902, he was nominated for governor of the State
of Connecticut and elected by a large majority. From the time his
first address won public applause, he was in high favor, not only be-
cause of his dignity and executive ability, but for his kindness and




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ABIRAM CHAMBERLAIN 161

geniality. Soon after his election the Waterbury Trolley Strike
occurred and the decision and mastery with which Governor Chamber-
lain quelled the disturbance proved him thoroughly worthy of his
great trust.

Mr. Chamberlain has always been a promoter of everything pos-
sible for the welfare of Meriden and he is actively interested in many
of its leading institutions. He is vice-president of the Meriden
Savings Bank, director in the Meriden Hospital, Meriden Cutlery
Company, in the Edward Miller & Company, also a director of the
Stanley Works in New Britain. He is a member of the Home and
Colonial clubs of Meriden, the Hartford Club, the Union League Club
of New Haven, and the Metabetchouan Fishing and Game Club of
Canada. Mr. Chamberlain has served five years in the State Militia
and is fond of outdoor life, especially golf, baseball, and fishing. In
politics he is a Eepublican and in religious affiliation a Congrega-
tionalist.

In 1872 Mr. Chamberlain was married to Charlotte E. Koberts.
Two sons have been bom to them, both of whom are now living, Albert
Koberts and Harold Burt.

Mr. Chamberlain may be called a self-made man in the best sense
of the word — in everything that he has undertaken, he has reached
the top; although he has never sought political office, he has been
honored with the governorship of the State. In the business of bank-
ing he has attained to a position of importance and has been compli-
mented by being elected president of the Connecticut Bankers'
Association, and a vice-president, representing the State of Connecti-
cut, in the American Bankers' Association. Perhaps the best tribute
to his mental capability was the honorary degree of LL.D. conferred
upon him by Wesleyan University, in 1903.



GEORGE PAYNE MCLEAN

MCLEAN, GEOEGE PAYNE, one of the ablest and most
popular of the former governors of Connecticut, was born
in Simsbury, Hartford County, Conn., October 7th, 1857.
From Colonial days his forefathers have been counted among the
leading men of Simsbury, and he has always resided in that town, ex-
cept when he was compelled to move to Hartford to attend the High
School. His father, Dudley B. McLean, is remembered as a pros-
perous and influential farmer and as the son of the Eev. Allen
McLean, who was for fifty years the pastor of the Simsbury Con-
gregational Church. His mother, Mary Payne, was a daughter of
Solomon Payne, one of the leading men in Windham County, and
a direct descendant of Governor William Bradford and Captain John.
Mason.

Like so many of Connecticut's foremost sons, Governor McLean
spent his early days as a sturdy country boy, working on his father's
farm during the busy summer months and attending school during
the winter. To this wholesome life and especially to the careful
teachings and high example of his father and mother can doubt-
less be traced all the strong and admirable physical, mental, and
moral characteristics of the former governor. In looking back over
his successful career he gratefully acknowledges his moral and spir-
itual debt to his mother. After acquiring all the advantages offered
by the public schools of Simsbury he went to Hartford to attend
the High School. This was to be the end of his school education
and he took full advantage of his opportunity. In his junior year
he received the distinction of being chosen editor of the school paper.
He was graduated in 1877.

Having received his High School diploma, he started out in
his twentieth year to earn his own livelihood. It was doubtless his
experience on the school paper which turned his immediate thoughts
to journalism. He became a reporter on the Hartford Post at a
salary of $7 a week. Journalism is an enticing career, but many







c




GEOEGE PAYNE MCLEAN 155

school editors change their opinion of it after they become real
reporters. This may have been the case with Governor McLean, for
he did not find the occupation to his taste. However, he stuck to
it with his usual perseverance, did good work, and during two years
made himself more and more valuable to his paper. The experience
he gained here broadened his knowledge of men and affairs and has



Online LibraryNorris Galpin OsbornMen of mark in Connecticut; ideals of American life told in biographies and autobiographies of eminent living Americans (Volume 1) → online text (page 8 of 30)