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North Carolina. Dept. of Public Instruction.

Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) online

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W$t JLihx arp

of tfje

Umbertfttp of J&ortf) Carolina


Collection of J&ortfj Caralimana
Cn&otoeb bp

Wo j |p

0t tfie Clas* ot 1889



This book may be kept out one month unless a recall
notice is sent to you. It must be brought to the North
Carolina Collection (in Wilson Library) for renewal.


out on

Form No. A-369



Superintendent of Public Instruction



SCHOLASTIC YEARS 1900-1901 AND 1901-1902.


Edwards & Broughton, State Printers,



State of North Carolina,
Department of Public Instruction,

Raleigh, K C, Dec. 1, 1902.

To His Excellency, Charles B. Aycock,

Governor of North Carolina.
Dear Sir: — In accordance with section 2540 of The Code,
I have the honor to submit my Biennial Report for the scho-
lastic years 1900-1901, and 1901-1902.

Superintendent Public Instruction.




BORN JUNE 10, 1840.

It has seemed to me eminently proper that this bien-
nial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction
of North Carolina should begin with a brief expression
of the universal sorrow at the untimely loss of my hon-
ored and honorable predecessor, Gen. Thomas Fentress
Toon, who wiserj directed this work during the first
thirteen months of the period covered by this report,
and with a brief recognition of his devoted and distin-
guished services.

the election of August 1900, by an overwhelming

11 v. his people called him to the leadership of the

educational forces of his State. He assumed the duties

of his office in January 1901. As leader of the forces

of light and knowledge in the battle against the forces

of darkness and ignorance, he manifested the same
patriotic zeal, the same dauntless courage, and the same
noble devotion to duty that had won for him the love
and everlasting gratitude of his people long years before
on the field of blood and carnage.

He had but passed the summit of the hill of life and
begun the descent on the other side, where the shadows
longer grow ; he had but commenced his useful career
in his new field of service, when, lo! the shadow feared
of man fell athwart his pathway and eclipsed his life
ere it had reached its zenith.

His public services are a part of the deathless history
of his State and the record thereof is written upon the
imperishable tablets of his people's hearts.

No further tribute to him is needful from me. In
conclusion, let it suffice to record here the resolutions
adopted by the State Council relative to his death and
services :

"Resolved, That in the death of General Thomas
Fentress Toon, late Superintendent of Public Instruc-
tion, we, his associates in the Executive Department of
the State Government, have lost a wise and faithful
counsellor and friend, and the State one of her most
careful and efficient officers. Brave in war and loyal
in peace; his heroic spirit is at rest and North Carolina
mourns the loss of a noble son. That we tender to the
relatives of the deceased our deepest sympathy in their
great affliction.

"That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family,
and also spread upon the minutes of the Council of




State Superintendent of Public Instruction



To His Excellency, Governor Charles B. Aycock:

In such an age as this, and in snch a land
Universal Educa- ,,

tion and Democ- as ours, it is scarcely necessary lor me to

JpS'tsthat^rect waste words in an ? argument for education—
the destiny of the the power and the necessity of it, the right
of every child to have a chance to get it, and the
duty of every State and every community to give him this
chance. Every age has its' spirit, properly called spirit, some-
thing born in heaven and sent to earth to direct the destiny of
that age. The finite power of puny man can not avail against
the infinite power of such a force. The spirit of this age, as
all men must feel, is universal education. Born in heaven,
too, and sent to earth with this spirit of universal education,
was' its twin spirit that men name Democracy, whose irrevoca-
ble law is equality of opportunity.
„ .„. . ,, It is no accident that these twin spirits

United they

stand, divided should find their favorite abode and set

up their choicest kingdom in this new

world of ours. They must reign together or reign not at

oil. United they stand, divided they fall. The little State

that dares to raise its little arm against the unalterable de-

cree of these divine twin spirits is doomed in the outset to

failure and destined in the end to ruin.

I have an abiding faith in the wisdom and
Faith in the obe- . 1 . ,,

dience of onr peo- the justice of my people that drives out all

of e th°e t age. 8Pirit fear' of their final failure to obey the spirit

of the a<re and the fiat of the civilized world.

iv Biennial Report of the

The people of ISTorth Carolina have already decreed in their
minds and hearts that the children of North Carolina — all
the children shall be educated.

. , The power, the necessity, the blessings of

cation to create universal education, I need not tarry to dis-

W 63,1 til

cuss at length. The power of education to
create wealth, is read of all men in the history of the nations.
Call the roll of the nations of the past and present, and, al-
most without exception, the wealth, the material prosperity,
the influence of each nation will be found in direct proportion
to its education, its culture, its general intelligence. Witnes's,
in the present,, Africa and America, India and England,
Spain and Scotland. The richest of these in material
resources are the poorest in wealth; the poorest of these
in material resources are the richest in wealth; the
poorest in wealth are the most ignorant; the richest are
the most intelligent. In the face of such evidence it
becomes a self-evident truth that needs no argument, that
s«.mehow, in the providence of God, education and material
prosperity travel hand in hand, linked together by the un-
breakable bond of cause and effect. There is but one power
mightier than matter, but one power that can transform dull,
dead matter that men call material resources into living
forms of usefulness and value called wealth, and that power
is developed mind.

Men can, and will make money, but money
The power of '

proper education can not and will not make men. The power

of proper education to make men is as self-
evident as its power to make money — its power to transform
poor, fallen man through the development of his God-like
faculties into the likeness of his Maker again, is a truth
so plainly written in the record of the ages' that he who runs
may read it. It were as reasonable to expect the plants of
the field to grow to their fullest development and bear
their richest fruit unsur rounded by the proper conditions
of growth and development as to expect these little human

Superintendent of Public Instruction. v

plants that men call children to grow to their fullest develop-
ment and hear their richest fruit nnsurrounded hy the proper
conditions of growth and development, to he found for them
only in that mysterious process that men call education.
The greatest un- The greatest undeveloped resources, then,

developed resour- f t j^ g g tate are her undeveloped intellectual

ces of the State

are her nndevel- and moral resources. Greater than her tower-

anfmoJai Sour- ing mountains, her rushing rivers and her fer-

ces tile fields, her smiling seas, her balmy climate

and her starry skies, ay ! greater than all of these combined

are the minds and hearts of her little children. Upon the

development of these must depend the development of all

other resources. In these must rest the pillars' of government

and society and lie locked the weal or woe of the State. Out

of these must come the issues of life or death for the future.

The safety and the blessings of proper educa-

The safety and . '

the biessiDgs of tion, arid the danger and the curse 01 ignorance
education and the t j nation, the State, the community, the

danger and the J 7

curse of igno- human family and the individual are as self-
evident as observation and experience and hu-
man history can make them. Who does not know that light
is better than darkness, and that it is sweet to dwell in the
light : who does mot know that virtue dwells in the light, that
vice lurks in the darkness ? Knowledge is light, ignorance is'
darkness. Who does not know that freedom is better than
bondage, that power is better than weakness? Knowledge
is freedom, ignorance is bondage; knowledge is power, igno-
rance is weakness. Who does not know, for is it not written
all over the face of human history in letters of fire, that
life and liberty and property and government and society and
all things that men hold dearest and best are not safe in the
hands of ignorance ?
The right of every I can not think that it ought to be necessary

chance through m sncn an a £' e > m sucn a ianc ^ m the face of

education to make sucn axiomatic truths, to discuss at length with
the most possible

of himself and any intelligent, right-thinking, right-feeling

vi Biennial Report of the

the duty of state man, the right of every child to have a chance
to givTS^Ws to make the most possible of himself through
chailce - the development of his God-given faculties by

education, and the duty of the State and of the community
tc give him this chance by providing adequate means for his
education. It is the divine right of every child to have
this chance, a right as inherent as his right to breathe
God's fr.ee air and enjoy God's glad sunshine. It is
the civic, moral and religious duty of every State, every com-
munity, every individual, to help to give to every child this
chance, a duty as binding as the duty of self -protection, as
the duty of service to God and humanity. The duty of the
community to give it follows logically from the right of the
child to have it. ISTo child is responsible for coming into the
world, nor for his environment when he gets here. Every
child has a right to have a chance to develop the power
through education to break the iron bonds of the hardest
environment by which he finds himself surrounded. The
State, the community, the individual that dares to deny this
right to the least of these little ones, that the Master himself
while on earth took into his loving arms and blessed and com-
mitted to his followers as a sacred charge, shall answer some-
time, somewhere for this neglect of duty.
These fundamer.- I am persuaded that a vast majority of our

tal truths as toed- . ,,. , . , „ #1

ucation admitted intelligent white people, so far as the children
by the white race, f |] ie { r mvn race are concerned, have accepted

so far as their ' r

own children are these truths as to the power, the necessity, the

concerned, but ln i- i , • ,i i -r ,i

the application of blessings oi education, the danger and the

them to the negro clTrse f ignorance, the right of the child to have

race denied by . r

some. an education, and the duty of the community to

provide it. But there are those who deny these truths in their

application to the negro race, who are unwilling for the white

race that pays the greatest part of the taxes to assume the

burden of the education of the negro. The recognition of

the right to withhold from the negro his just and needed part

of the public school fund because he fails to pay his part of

Superintendent of Public Instruction. yii

the public school tax would strike at the very foundation of
the entire public school system. By the same reasoning, why
should not the taxes of the rich, because they pay more taxes,
be used for the education of the children of the rich only, and
the taxes of the poor be used for the education of the children
of the poor only ? The weaker and more helpless the race,
the louder the call to the strong to help. The humbler and
more hopeless the child, the more binding the duty to elevate.
Duty may begin at home, duty may begin with our own race,
but it does not end there. So long as there dwells among us
a weaker, a child-race, placed here in the providence of God
through no desire of their own and without their consent,
our stronger race owes this race a duty which it dare not fail
to discharge, if it would escape the retribution of neglected
duty, the penalty of violated law. We must do justice to
this weaker race. In the light of the manifest meaning of
the golden rule, of the manifest teachings of the Man of
Gallilee, I can see it in no other way. I shall declare it as
I believe it.
Mistakes in the We have made many and grievous mistakes

education of the . } education of the negro. We may ex-
negro and how to .

correct them. pect to make more. We can correct these mis-
takes not by decreasing the quantity of his education, but
rather by improving the quality of it — not by destroying the
means of his education, but rather by directing it in proper
channels. We have too often flung him the part of the
money that the Constitution required us to give, and then
left him without direction to waste it at his will. All too
often has his education been the tragedy of the blind leading
the blind. What wonder if they have fallen into the ditch
together \ All too often has it been but a weak imitation of
ours, the merest smattering of things absolutely useless to
him, the flimsiest veneering of real culture. What wonder it
his head has often been filled with false notions and the re-
sults' have been unsatisfactory to him and discouraging to us ?

viii Biennial, Report of the

Miseducation a Miseducation is a bad thins; for any race.

bad thing for any # ° d

race Education We nave had much of it with our own race,

probiem^hat ° W we ^ ave ^ad more °f it with the negro race.

must be worked We shall continue to have much of it with
out experiment-
ally, both races until our schools are made adequate

in houses and teachers and supervision and length of term,
in character of instruction and course of study, to the de-
mands of the age ; until our education of each race is vitally
connected with the life that the race must lead and wisely
adapted to the sphere that the race and the individual must
fill. This is a mighty problem that we can not hope to solve
for either race in a day, or a year, or a generation. We
must work it out experimentally. We can work it out only
through the long, slow years, only through the exercise of
infinite patience and wisdom and justice and courage and
mercy and love.

Fundamental In the working out of it for the negro race

not\)e i^noredln there are certain fundamental truths that we

working out the must not forget, and dare not ignore. Among
problem of negro .

education. these are:

The evidence of i. That all over the face of nature and of the

all nature that

education is good universe it has been written in no unmistak-

things anTmust am<e language that education of the right sort

be good for man, { 3 a o^od thing for the plants of the field, for

the highest crea- "r

tion. the beasts of the forest, for all created things.

It needs must be a good thing, then, for man, God's highest

creation, fashioned in his own image, endowed Avith his own

faculties, with infinite capacity for good or evil.

The law of God 2. That this unalterable law of God can not

color of skin and ^ e changed by the color of a man's skin or by

racial differences racial differences or natural endowments.

Manifest differ- 3 That differences in natural endowments

ences in racial

traits and endow- and racial traits are manifest and require an

adaptation of adaptation of the character and methods of

character and education to these. Have we not srrosslv vio-

methods of educa- # .

tion to them. lated this law and sadly erred in trying to

Superintendent of Public Instruction. ix

force upon the negro race, but one generation removed from
bondage and ten generations from savagery, with essentially
different racial traits' and endowments, the same sort of educa-
tion that our own race, with its different endowments and its
thousand years of freedom and education, has been preparing
itself for?

. . ^^t. That there is danger in ignorance, wheth-

Danger in igno- . .

ranee whether or it be wrapped in a white skin or a black one.

whiter a black Nearly one-third of the population of North
8tnn Carolina are negroes. Who can estimate the

danger that lurks in such a mass of ignorance, if these
negroes are left uneducated? The rapidity with which any'
race will lapse into a state of savagery and brutality through
ignorance depends upon the years and generations of educa-
tion and civilization that lie behind that race, and upon its
native and inherited strength. If this be true, does it not
follow that the decline of the negro race into a state of sav-
agery and brutality through ignorance would be more
rapid than that of the white race, and that there is even more
danger in black ignorance than there is in white ignorance.
Ignorance in chains is dangerous enough, but it is safer than
ignorance in liberty. It is my deliberate conviction that in
r. few generations, without education, the great mass of the
negro race would sink to a state of animal brutality.
Turn such a wild horde loose among our people, en-
dowed with the rights of freedom without the knowledge to
use it, controlled by the passions of animals without the power
to restrain them that comes alone from proper education,
and our only safety will lie in extermination. With the
negro it must be elevation through proper education or ex-

5. That education is a growth and not a

Education a °

growth, not a creation ; that it can develop to the fullest what

God has created, but can never supply what

He has not created ; that there is but one creative power in the

x Biennial Report of the

imivers'e; that it takes long centuries for the seeds that
He had planted in the minds and hearts of races' to grow to
their fullest development ; that from the mustard seed an
oak can never grow, hut that by surrounding even such a
seed by the proper conditions and giving it the proper culti-
vation, it may be made to grow into something beautiful and
useful, while even the seed of the oak will perish or produce
at best but a gnarled and stunted growth unsurrounded by
these conditions. We must not expect too much of one gen-
eration of education for the negro. We must seek earnestly
to find the seeds of usefulness planted in the race, and then
'patiently and bravely set to work to provide the sort of edu-
cation best adapted to their development.

. ., 6. That the education that fails to fit for

Education should

fit for greater j e r usefulness and happiness in the sphere

happiness in the of life which one must fill is miscalled educa-

sphere that must f - ■ indeed miseducation. In the South,
be filled.

the sphere which the negro must fill is indus-
trial and agricultural, and, therefore, his education must be
largely industrial and agricultural. He must be educated to
work and not away from work. By directing his education
into these channels, we may be able to save him from idleness
and the vices that follow in its train, and to make of him a po-
tent factor in the industrial and agricultural development of
the State, and a happier, more prosperous and useful citizen.
It must be remembered, however, that an ability to read and
write, and a reasonable degree of intelligence is absolutely
necessary to the effectiveness of even this sort of education.
Our safety in tak- 7. That it is absolutely impossible for any
ing charge of edu- t rema i n [ n tn i s o T eat republic in the

cation of the ne- D

gro and directing twentieth century uneducated. It is not, there-
with our^ivniza- f ore, a question of whether the negro shall be

tion instead of educated or not, but rather of who shall do it
leaving its direc-
tion to others not and how it shall be done. If we fail to direct his

onr^oSaiw^ 1 * education, those from other sections some of
toms -' whom are not in sympathy with our civiliza-

Superintendent of Public Instruction. xi

tion because they do not understand our social structure,
who are ignorant of the nature and needs of the negro, and
may have false notions of his relation to the white race in the
South, will take charge of it. Our safety, then, lies in tak-
ing charge of it ourselves, and directing it along lines that
shall be helpful to him and to us, and in harmony with our
civilization and society and with his nature.

S. That to take away from a weaker race

An injustice that " . .

would outrage by constitutional amendment the right oi sui-
tLe civiSTd 06 ° f f rage on account of unfitness to exercise it, and

world, to deprive t j ien v i r t na llv deprive that race by constitu-
te negro of the l
right of suffrage tional amendment of the means o± ever ac-

! z:z«Hm* «»w»g fii »^ for the exercise of this ri s ht >

of opportunity to WO uld do violence to the conscience of the civ-
acquire fitness „ . . .
through educa- ilized world, and would be an act oi injustice

tlon " unworthy of a great and generous race.

The great, gener- Xo man can see the end of this vexatious

raLlu g Non a h 0n ™ce problem, but I have an abiding faith that

Carolina will un- this great, just and generous Anglo-Saxon race

out the vexatious that dwells on ^NTorth Carolina soil, will under-

Ipiritofequity t* take with m&1ll J C °™^ to work out this prob-

both races. l ern in a spirit of equity to both races, and will

in the future as in the past command the admiration of the
world by its magnanimous treatment of a weaker race.
We must face the The question will not down until it is set-

saSiUsi tied > and settied H g ht We can not brush {t

and leave results as i c l e — we can not postpone it till to-morrow —
with the Ruler .,,.,.., , -rx,- ,

of the races. we must deal with it in the present. We must

face our duty and do it as we see it to-day, and leave the
result in the hands of the God of the nations and the Euler
of the races.

Negro must not Above all things, we must not allow the

standTwa^ of ™g*> to stand in the way of the education of
the education of orir 0TVT1 children. We must not permit the

white children or . , n . , , . , __

to be used by ene- enemies of public education to use him to re-

xn Biennial Report of the

mies of public tarc j t } ie educational progress of the State and

education to re- .

tard its progress, sidetrack the great educational movement that

has been started.


I desire now to call your attention to the condition of pub-
lic education in North Carolina, as' revealed by facts summa-
rized from the subjoined statistical reports from the various
counties, to point out some of the educational needs, and to
make some suggestions about supplying these.

The task of the public schools is a tremend-

Statistics from

reports of County ous one. There are 676,615 children of school
SV^pSS. *&> ^M7 white and 221,958 colored.

tnre, enrollment, Fairly accurate statistics' indicate that about

attendance, etc., .

of public schools nine out of ten of these children are absolutely

in North Carolina. dependent f or education upon the public

schools. For the education of these children, the State is
spending annually $1,287,275.70, exclusive of $161,363
raised by local taxation. This report shows that, during the
year ending June 30, 1902, 311,871 white children and 149,-
279 colored children were enrolled in the public schools, and
185,598 white and 80,972 colored children were in daily at-

The following table of statistics will enable you to com-
pare the expenditures for public schools in this State with
the average expenditures for the same purposes in the United
States' :

Total amount expended for each child of school age in North

Carolina, including local taxes $2.17

Average amount for each child of school age in the United

States 9 . 50

Amount expended for each child enrolled in public schools in

North Carolina 3 . 17

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