North Carolina. Dept. of Public Instruction.

Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) online

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In method of treatment, the book is similar to the books of the
preceding class. The exercises and illustrative sentences are numer-
ous and interesting, but not so good as those of the books of the pre-
ceding class. The definitions are scarcely so clear, accurate and con-
cise as those in these books. The timely and helpful reviews are a
commendable feature of this book. This is a good book, but not so
good as Beuhler's or "The M,other Tongue."


Metcalfs English Grammar — American Book Company.

We place in Class III as our fourth choice, Metcalfs English Gram-
mar. This is a practical, sensible, teachable book, very well adapted
to our schools. In method of treatment it is a tolerably successful
combination of the inductive and the deductive. It begins with the
sentence, but passes to the smaller elements thereof before the larger
elements, of which there are but parts have been mastered. This is a
distinct weakness, we think, and somewhat illogical and unpedagog-
ical. The natural process is from whole to parts, from simple to

The exercises and illustrative sentences are well chosen and well
arranged, but are not so numerous, stimulative and interesting as
those in the books of the preceding classes. The book is strong in
analysis, but somewhat weak in constructive exercises. In unity,
continuity and fusion of parts the book is good.


In these respects all the books in the first three classes are satis-

o4z Biennial Report of the


After careful examination, we report that we can not recommend
the books in the class below. Without entering into details, we re-
port them in one class as unsuited to our work, enumerating them
about in the order of their merit. It would be a mistake to adopt
any of them.

1. Essentials of Language and Grammar, Bartlett — Silver, Burdett
& Co.

2. Whitney and Lockwood's Grammar — Ginn & Co.

3. Graded Lessons in English, Reed and Kellogg — Maynard, Merrill
& Co.

4. Higher Lessons in English, Reed and Kellogg — Maynard, Merrill
& Co.

5. Lessons in Language and Grammar, Book II, Tarbell- — Ginn & Co.

6. Elements of English Grammar, Brown and DeGarmd — Werner
Book Co.

7. A. School Grammar, Allen — D. C. Heath & Co.

8. Lessons in Grammar, Patrick — Lippincott & Co.

9. Studies in English Grammar, Welsh — Silver, Burdett & Co.

10. Harvey's Grammar — American Book Company.

11. York s Grammar, Rev. L. Branson.

J. Y. Joyneb. C. C. Weight.

J. D. Hodges. R. L. Flowers.

C. G. Vardell. W. L. Carmichael.

Jas. A. Butler. J. L. Kesler.

John C. Scarborough. J. I. Foust.

We report on this subject as follows:


The Mother Tongue, Book I. Kittiredge d- Arnold — Ginn & Co.


Hyde's Tico-Book Course in English, Book I — D. C. Heath & Co.


Tarbell's Lessons in Language and Grammar, Book I — Ginn & Co.


Metcalf's Elementary English — American Book Company.
For supplementary work in language, DeGarmo's Language Les-
sons — Werner School Book Company.

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 35

In printing, binding and mechanical qualities, all of these books
are good. Below we submit a detailed report of their merits:


Scope and Aims.— The aims of this book are clearly, concisely and
truthfully stated in the following extract from the preface: "Book
I, of The Mother Tongue, is designed to guide children to an intelli-
gent appreciation and enjoyment of good English, to help them to
speak and write correctly, and to introduce them to the study of
grammar." This we conceive to be a correct statement of the three
chief aims of a gaod first book in language and grammar. The scope
of the book is determined by its aims, and the book conforms ad-
mirably to these in subject-matter and method.

Method of Treatment — To cultivate the child's taste, foster a love
for literature, enlarge his vocabulary, stimulate his emotional and
imaginative life, many excellent and varied selections from the best
prose and poetry are provided. To help the child to learn to speak
and write correctly, the correct method of observation, imitation and
practice is followed. It is sensibly sought to lead the child to the
formation of correct habits of speaking and writing as he is led to
the formation of other habits.

In Part II of this book, more attention is given td working out the
simple essential facts and principles of grammar as an introduction
to this science. The method is mainly inductive, leading the child
to observe and conclude for himself. The sentence is made the unit
of this work, and the known and observed facts of language the
basis of definitions, rules, etc.

Selections, Exercises, etc. — The literary selections for study, mem-
ory and reproduction are tastefully chosen, well arranged and
graded, and are accompanied with excellent questions and directions
for the stimulation and guidance of teacher and student in the work.
These selections are admirably adapted in thought and sentiment to
the child and are within the sphere of his life, experience and ob-
servation. They are evidently chosen by one that has a knowledge
of child-life, and a sympathy with it. Attention is called also to the
abundance, variety, practicability and progressive arrangement of
the exercises for observation and practice in the use and forms of
words, in sentence-structure and in larger forms of composition,
narrative, description, etc. The pictures are reproductions of master-
pieces and are well adapted to picture stories. The exercises for
various kinds of simple composition are numerous and excellent.

Unity, Coherence, Continuity, Logical Development, Definiteness. —
In these the book is excellent. Finally, this is a live, practical,
usable book, well adapted in all respects to successful use in our

36 Biennial Keport of the

In subject-matter, method of treatment, etc., the books mentioned
as our second, third and fourth choice are similar to The Mother
Tongue, Book I. In merit they are inferior to it, ranking in the
order named above. We have made a careful comparative study of
these books, and rank them in the order named above. We deem it
unnecessary to set forth in detail the merits ;of each of these books.

Hyde's Two-Book Course in English, Book I, is a good book, but is
inferior to our first choice in literary selections, especially in poeti-
cal selections, in composition exercises and in general selection and
arrangement of material.

Metcalf's Elementary English lacks life at times. Some of the
selections for memory and literary study are dry and almost goody-
goody, and some of them are very local and smack too much of the
city and of New England. The questions accompanying some of the
composition exercises are too numerous and mechanical.


In many respects this is one of the best books on this subject that
we have ever examined. In unity, logical development, orderly ar-
rangement, and correlation of work, it perhaps surpasses any other
book submitted to us, but, on account of the nature of the selections
and composition exercises, we fear that it could not be used with the
greatest success, except in schools supplied with the few children's
classics, upon which their exercises are based, and by teachers who
are masters of these classics. This might render the book unsuited
to most of our schools, but we heartily recommend it for supple-
mentary work.


We can not recommend any of the other books on this subject sub-
mitted for our examination, and we do not think that they ought to
be considered. We have, therefore, placed them in one general class
and enumerated them below about in the order of their merit:

1. First Steps in English, Bartlett — Silver, Budett & Co.

2. Wheeler's Graded Studies in English — W. H. Wheeler & Co.

3. Elements of Language and Grammar — Welsh, Greenwood I.

4. Haven's Language Series, Book I.

5. Reed's Introductory Language Lessons — Maynard, Merrill & Co.

6. Lessons in Language, Patrick — Lippincott & Co.

7. Language Primer, Swinton — A. B. Co.

J. Y. Joyneh. J. L. Kesler.

R. L. Flowers. C. C. Wright.

Jas. A. Butler. John C. Scarborough.

J. I. Foust. W. L. Carmichael.

C. G. vardell. J. D. Hodges.

Superintendent oe Public Instruction. 37


As to this subject, we find no satisfactory book. Mrs. Spencer's
First Steps in North Carolina History, and Moore's History of North
Carolina are dull, dry and uninteresting. They have no illustrations,
and have not been revised for a number of years. If Moore's His-
tory should be adopted we recommend that it be set up in new type.
The print is much blurred.

As to the manuscripts submitted, viz: Creecy's Tales of a Grand-
father, Allen's History Stories of North Carolina, and Capt. S. A.
Ashe's History of North Carolina, the manuscripts of the first two
mentioned were incomplete, and we deemed it wiser to make no
recommendation as to any incomplete manuscripts, contenting our-
selves with stating that the portions of the manuscripts submitted
to us gave promise of making interesting volumes of stories when

The following motion was passed in regard to Captain Ashe's

"Moved that the sub-commission report to the Text-Book Commis-
sion that the two books on North Carolina History are not entirely
satisfactory; that the manuscript submitted by Captain Ashe is not
in good shape for examination, and that, therefore, the sub-commis-
sion recommend that the adoption of a text-book on this subject be
delayed until Captain Ashe shall have his manuscript typewritten."

An interesting, attractive and teachable history of North Carolina
is one of the greatest needs of our schools; it is in the hope of secur-
ing the writing of such a history that we recommend to your Com-
mission the course indicated in the motion above.

Respectfully submitted,

C. G. Vardell. R. L. Flowers.

J. L. Kesler. John C. Scarborough.

W. L. Carmichael. J. I. Foust.

J. Y. Joyner. J. D. Hodges.

C. C. Wright. Jas. A. Butler.


Primary Historyj — After careful consideration we are or the opin-
ion that no Primary History submitted to the sub-commission is
worthy of adoption for use in our schools.

It is very important that the first book on the subject of history
placed in the hands of the children be thoroughly interesting from
the child's standpoint. We have several books which we can com-
med for the fair and impartial manner in which the history of the

38 Biennial Report of the

country is presented; but we do not believe that the facts are pre-
sented in such a manner as to awaken and maintain the interest of
the child.

Taking Hansen's School History of the United States as a fair
representative of the Primary Histories submitted, we discover the
following objections to its adoption:

1. Style. — We find the book composed of a large collection of facts
told in a heavy, uninteresting style. The facts of history for younger
pupils should be woven into a connected story that would enlist the
sympathies of children. This has not been done in this book.

2. The book is entirely too mechanical. As an instance of this,
attention is called to page 36, where a Review Outline is given.
Notice the first and second columns.

3. Questions. — Attention is called to pages 68, 94, and many others
where the character of the questions asked is shown. It will be
found that these questions simply require the children to turn back
and seek the answers. Nothing is gained in the development of the
minds of the children by this work. Facts and dates, unless they re-
veal the real life of a people, do not Constitute history. It is our
opinion that a child could study the book from lid to lid and have no
true conception of the life and times treated of in the history.

4. The author deals with abstract political questions which can
not be understood by children just commencing the study of this
subject. See pages 180, 182, 183.

The whole question of Slavery and State's Rights is beyond the
comprehension of young children, and should be left out of a Pri-
mary History. For small children a history should be concrete and
hence biographical. By actual count it will be seen that about half
of the book is devoted to dry facts about wars, giving the names of
generals, dates of battles, number killed, etc. Special attention is
called to the fact stated above. From the standpoint of the child, in
our opinion, Hansen's Primary History is the most unreadable of any

The criticisms of Hansen's Primary stated above will apply, for the
most part, to every Primary History submitted. Some of the others
are somewhat sectional.

In our opinion, those books are not worthy of a place in our
schools. Knowing that there are better Primary Histories, we are
unwilling to recommend an inferior bolok.


We recommend as our choice among the Higher Histories submit-
ted, Our Country, published by Ginn & Co., for the following reasons:

1. It is fair and just in dealing with all sectional and political

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 39

2. The plan of the took is admirable, taking typical features as
illustrative of the life and growth of the country, and not burdening
the memory with dry and unimportant details. See table of contents
and compare this with the table of contents in Hansen's Higher

3. The style of Our Country is vigorous, fresh and inspiring as
compared with the exceedingly dry and statistical style of Hansell.
Compare the treatment of Christopher Columbus, on page 16 of Our
Country, with page 11 of Hansell; Our Country, page 53, with Han-
sen, page 77 Our Country, Battle of Gettysburg, page 382, with Han-
sell, page 395, or any other subject. This comparison of Our Coun-
try with Hansell in regard to style fairly represents its superiority
in this respect over all other books submitted on this subject.

4. Our Country treats the whole life of the people in all of its
aspects, instead of one particular phase of that life. Continuing the
comparison, Our Country weaves into an interesting and signifi-
cant narrative the leading facts of history, while Hansell simply
states the facts, and many non-essential facts, overloaded with un-
necessary and insignificant dates. The Hansell devotes a greater
proportion of its space to wars and purely political phases of the
subjects, while Our Country treats more fully the social, educa-
tional, industrial, religious phases. In Hansell the subject of Ameri-
can Literature or American writers is not mentioned, while in Our
Country an appendix is devoted to this subject. In Our Country
is also an appendix on North Carolina History.

The objections urged against Hansell largely hold good for the
other higher histories. Some of the others are more interestingly
written than Hansell, but these have sectional references, which de-
bar them from favorable consideration. We have compared Our
Country with Hansell because these are the only histories under
consideration for first choice. We recommend Our Country as our
first choice. It is the best, in our opinion, of those submitted. We
are willing to have a better book, but not one inferior to the one

The following is the list of the histories examined by us, and for
reasons stated above are considered undesirable:

HanselVs School History of the V. S. — University Pub. Go.
Hansel's Higher History of the U. S. — University Pub. Co.
A History of the U. 8., by Poivell — The MacMillan Co.
Lee's New Primary History of the U. S.- — B. F. Johnson & Co.
Lee's New School History of the U. S. — B. F. Johnson & Co.
Elementary History of the U. S., by Morris — Lippincott Co.
Primary History of the U. S., by Morris — Lippincott Co.
History of the U. S., by Morris — Lippincott Co.
History of the American Pdople, Shin — American Book Co.

40 Biennial Report of the

A Grammar School History of the U. S., Field — American Book Co.
School History of the U. S., J. Wm. Jones — University Pub. Co.

We recommend as supplementary reading on history the following

Life of Lee, by Mrs. Williamson — B. F. Johnson & Co.
Life of Jackson, by Mrs. Williamson — B. F. Johnson & Co.
History of the Negt^o Race, by Johnson, for Colored Schools —
Edwards & Broughton.

C. G. Vardell. J. Y. Joynee.

R. L. Flowers. J. D. Hodges.

J. L. Kesler. J. I. Foust.

Jas. A. Butler.


We, the undersigned, members of the Text-Book Sub-commission
for the State of North Carolina, in the discharge of the duties placed
on us by the act of the General Assembly of 1901, creating the sub-
commission, make the following report for ourselves as our choice
for books on the History of the United States to be used in the pub-
lic schools of the State:

A considerable number of Histories of the United States for use in
schools was submitted for our inspection and consideration. We
have given a careful consideration to, and have gone over each book
and series of books. As a result of our examination of these his-
tories, we make this report of our choice to the Text-Book Commis-

We recommend A School History of the United states, by Henry
E. Chambers (for primary classes, and A Higher History of the
United States, by Henry E. Chambers (for intermediate, grammar
and high school classes). These books are commonly known as
"Hansen's Histories of the United States," and are published by the
University Publishing Company.

Some of the reasons for our recommendation are as follows:

History is looked at from two standpoints — that of the story-
teller, making prominent the romance of history, and regarding it as
a story of the past; and that of the political economist, who ignores
the romances, but delights in the laws of cause and effect. The first
is for smaller pupils; the second for those of more mature years.

The School History is for the smaller pupils. The introduction is
well written in a pleasing style for the children old enough and ad-
vanced enough to take up the study of Primary History.

The chapters are well arranged and progressive, and the whole
book commends itself to our judgment as well clone, ana shows itself

Superintendent of Public Instructiox. 41

to be the work of a practical teacher, understanding not only the
subject he is presenting, but also the pupils to whom he is presenting
it. It is written from the view point of the* story-teller, fitting the
story to the capacity of his hearers with a view of adapting the style
of the story to securing the attention of the listeners and putting
them in sympathy with the story. The facts are so woven together
in a connected whole, making up the story and its parts, that the
pupils readily comprehend them in their relation to the whole story
of which they form the parts.

The chapters are not too long and are so arranged as to cover a
proper division in the treatment of a subject. The sentences are
short and clear, and the words are aptly chosen and express the
author's meaning clearly and accurately.

The blackboard forms (see page 16) and others through the
smaller book, are, we think, excellent for the purposes intended, and
these purposes are important for the progress of the child in this
study. The questions on geography, a study so necessary to the
proper understanding of history, constitute an important and excel-
lent feature of this little book.

The clear way in which questions are presented greatly commends
the book to our favorable consideration. Turn to page 99, Chap. 28,
"Why the Colonists Resisted;" also, page 178, "Slavery;" also, in
reference to the troubles which arose in 1860, pages 180, 181, 182-184;
also, paragraph 8, page 185, in reference to seizure of forts by the
Southern States. We think these are fair and impartial statements
of the truths of history. See also, as evidence of the clearness of
statement of difficult questions for the comprehension of children,
and of the fairness of the author to historical truth, on page 211,
paragraphs 6, 7, 8.

The Higher History, a complement of the School History, is writ-
ten from the second viewpoint of the writer of history. The politi-
cal economist who delights in the laws of cause ana effect. This
book has come to its present shape and excellence after years of
use in the school-rooms of our Southland, by competent and ex-
perienced teachers, Southern men and women, patriots all, who
recognized that our common country is now indeed and in truth all
of it, our country from North to South and from Bast to West. They
recognize also the necessity for frankness and honesty in dealing
with history, with children and larger and more advanced pupils. It
(the larger book) has been reviewed as the years have passed and as
the experiences of first-class teachers have shown revision in style
and matter to be necessary. The evolution of years has brought out
of the first edition of this and the smaller book a history of our
country for school, unsurpassed by any, and equaled by few histories.

The two books are so arranged and condensed that a course of

42 Bienxial Report of the

United States History, amply full for our public schools and for the
graded schools of our towns and cities, is put into two small volumns
requiring for its completion as much time as is suited to the schools.
A three-book series is too much for the schools for which we act, and
a one-bo,ok course is unsuited to these schools, because the one-book
is necessarily too high for a very large number of the pupils of the
schools who ougnt to study the history of our country, while in the
public schools, during the short time they attend the schools. The
larger number of these pupils will never attend any but the public
schools, hence we favor a two-book series. The author of Hansen's
Histories of the United States, himself a prominent teacher in a
prominent city of the South, declares, in his preface to the Higher
History, that "he has endeavored to be absolutely just." From the
careful study we have given these books, we believe that the author
has succeeded in his high endeavor, and that "he has set forth the
whole truth with balanced judgment, accurate statement and tem-
perate expression." In all matters of controversy between the two
great sections of our country growing out of the "War Between the
States," as well as in all matters leading to that great struggle, he
has eminently succeeded in his purpose to be fair and just; to write
the whole truth with balanced judgment, accurate statement and
temperate expression.

The printing, binding, paper and mechanical qualities are good.

Respectfully submitted,

John C. Scarborough.
W. L. Carmichael.
C. C. Wright.


No series of text-books submitted on this subject can be recom-
mended without qualification. Not to speak of the method of pre-
sentation, the inaccuracies and misleading statements alone would
debar most of them from favorable consideration. In many cases
the extreme statements in regard to alcohol and tobacco are so ex-
cessive as to nullify, for the most part, their good effect.

We have not considered it necessary to point out errors, except in
the best books.

The following are the books submitted:

Baldwin's Essential Lessons in Human Physiology — Werner Text-
Book Company.

Baldwin's Advanced Lessons in Human Physiology — Werner Text-
Book Company.

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 43

We recommend these as our first choice. They are clearly better,
in our opinion, than any others submitted, for the following reasons:

1. The style is more vigorous and fresh than any except Overton.

2. They are more generally accurate and have fewer objectionable
and intemperate statements than any others that equally conserve
the interest of the student.

3. They are more practical in regard to personal and public
hygiene than any others submitted. The anatomy is made sub-
servient to hygiene, and the physiology is made the basis of health.
In the Essential Lessons the knowledge that serves a good end and
the facts that we can make use of are closely interwoven into the
fiber of the book, with Chapter V, on Exercise, and the last three
Chapters on "Care of the Sick-Room," "What to do in Emergencies,"

Online LibraryNorth Carolina. Dept. of Public InstructionBiennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) → online text (page 10 of 46)