North Carolina. Dept. of Public Instruction.

Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) online

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the State in this special school. Indeed, I think that when we are
trying to introduce the teaching of the principles of agriculture into
the public schools of the State, it would be a wise step in that direc-
tion to have a teacher of agriculture at this college for at least a part
of every year."

All expenses of a teacher attending this May School, including
board, laundry, and fees for the use of text-books, etc., last year, for
four weeks, amounted to about $20. The additional cost to the col-
lege of maintaining this special school has been nothing so far, but

Superintendent of Public Instruction. XXXV

it will amount to something if teachers should attend in large num-
bers. I should say that two thousand dollars additional would en-
able us to care easily for the instruction of four hundred additional
teachers during the May School.

Very respectfully, Charles D. McIveb,


The N. C. College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts,

West Raleigh, N. C, December 23, 1902.

Hon. J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent.

Dear Sir: — I think very highly of your proposed plan for provid-
ing the State with additional facilities for normal training. It is evi-
dent to all that the present facilities are quite Inadequate. Some
years ago, in furtherance of this idea, both a Norma] Department
and a Summer School for Teachers were established at the State
University during my administration. They have already accom-
plished much good, especially in training teachers for city schools.

Recently I have organized in connection with this college a Sum-
mer School for Teachers, and I am now planning to organize a per-
manent Normal Department, whose chief work shall be the training
of rural teachers. Instruction will be given in all subjects taught
in the public schools, and especially in agriculture, nature study,
manual training and child study.

The greatest need of our school system is competent rural teachers.
This college could be made a fine source of supply for rural teachers.
The cheapness of education here (board, furnished room, etc., only
$10 a month), the enforced economy, uniformity, and simplicity of
living among all the students, the practical character of the in-
struction, dealing not only with books but with manual training
and rural science in all phases, the large equipment for such in-
struction, the already well established rural patronage and popu-
larity of the college, mark it as an ideal institution for the training
of rural teachers.

Lack of funds is the chief obstacle in the way. But only a small
sum is needed. The Summer School will require about $1,000, and
the permanent Normal Department $3,000 to $4,000 annually. By
this small expenditure the State would enable its rural teachers to
attend our Summer Normal at a total expense for board, lodging,
books and traveling not to exceed $20; or to attend a regular nine
months session of the Normal Department for $100. Your plan will
provide the State, practically, with three well-equipped normal
schools, at an expense of a few thousand dollars, besides furnishing
industrial training in agriculture, nature study and manual work. It
seems to me most admirable in every way and eminently practical.
Yours truly, Geo. T. Winston,


xxxvi Biennial Report of the


The necessity and Another question vitally affecting the suc-

cZpeteT super- CeSS 0r faihire ° f an 7 Scll ° o1 S J stem is SU P er "
vision requiring vision. I need not tarry to discuss the necess-
entire time and „ ...

thought of com- "y oi competent supervision to the success 01
petentman. an y S y S t era f schools. The evidence of the

most successful systems in other States, aud of the most
successful county, town and district systems in our own State,
is too conclusive to admit of argument. You can not make
a success of any great business like this business of teaching
without a man at the head — a man of mind and heart and
soul, a gentleman, a man of common sense and tact and en-
ergy and consecrated purpose. As the world goes, you can
not command such men for long without paying them a living-
salary. For such men are in great demand for any work.
The County Superintendent is the head of the county school
system. It can not rise higher than its head. He is the
legal guardian of the educational interests of the county ; he
must pass upon the qualifications of teachers, and ought to
advise about their selection ; he must be the chief adviser
of the County Board of Education in the selection of commit-
teeman, in the making of districts, in the distribution of
funds, in the government and regulation of schools, and in the
entire administration of school affairs ; he must pass upon all
expenditures, have the oversight of the payment of thousands
of dollars, and look after collection of all funds to which the
schools are legally entitled ; he must be the chief moulder
of educational sentiment, and the chief agitator of educa-
tional movements. He must be the chief friend and coun-
sellor of teachers, committeemen and patrons, the organizer,
director and supervisor, the very life and inspiration of the
schools. Surely such a work is difficult enough and delicate
enough, such a responsibility great enough and sacred enough
to require the entire time, thought and energy of the most
competent man, the entire consecration of his every faculty

Superintendent of Public Instruction, xxxvii

of head and heart and body, the utilization of every means of
better fitting himself for his work.

Progress in conn- The counties having the most successful
comp^ent^Jer- schools have found it wise and economical to-
intendents for all employ trained and skillful men to devote all
their time and thought and attention to the
supervision of their schools. In such counties, almost with-
out exception, education is advancing along all lines and its
future is assured. Some towns, cities and rural communi-
ties find it economy to pay as much as ten or fifteen per cent
of their entire school fund for competent supervision.
Superintendents The average salary of County Superinten-

compeiied on ac- dents { n North Carolina is $355.55. Some

count of small

salaries to devote counties do not allow their superintendents to

other work than y ^^ tne schools. It is still true in North Caro-

to school work i^ na t ] iat many superintendents are paid so

mere clerks to x

Boirds of Educa- small a salary that they are compelled to make

^examination 63 a living at some other business and give but a
of teachers miserable fraction of their time and thought to

the serious and sacred business of directing and supervising
the school system of an entire county. It is still true in North
Carolina that some superintendents of all the teachers and
schools of an entire county are not even teachers themselves.
Such superintendents, however much they may desire to have
it otherwise, however intensely interested they may be in their
work, however much their hearts may burn with zeal and di-
vine love for the little children of their county, can never hope
to be much more than mere clerks to County Boards of Edu-
cation and mere machines for the examination of teachers.
Marked improve- X rejoice to be able to report marked im-

ment in character provement in the character and ability of
and ability of , « .

County superin- County Superintendents during the past ni-

tendents. teen years j n ap p ea rance, in general intel-

ligence and ability, in earnestness of purpose and devotion to
the work in hand, I make bold to say that the body of men re-
cently assembled in Raleigh in a State Conference of County

xxxviii Biennial, Report of the

Superintendents need not fear comparison with any body
of men that have met for any purpose in this State this year.
The spirit that I find in many of these men is an inspiration
and a hope to me. Some of them on small salaries at great
sacrifice are giving their lives for love of the work.
Hope bom of the We must make it possible to have a com-

Educ-xtional Re- ~ . , .

naissance cannot petent man as bounty Superintendent m every

5ltTsS«rn- th " coimt y in ^ ortn Carolina. We must make
tendent in every it possible for every superintendent in every
entire time to county to give all his time and thought to
the work. His work. Until we have at least one such

man in every county, devoting all his time to his work, bring-
ing about organization, co-operation and unity in the system,
visiting his schools and acquainting himself with their work
and their needs, counselling, stimulating, encouraging and
supervising his teachers, upholding the standard of qualifica-
tion for their work, going in and out among his people,
preaching in season and out, in public and private, the
everlasting gospel of universal education, going out into the
byways and hedges and sending others out into them and
compelling the little ones to come in to the educational feast
spread for them there in the little public school house, until,
I say, we make it possible to have some such man engaged in
some such work in every county in North Carolina, it will
be impossible for our State to come into the full fruition of
its glorious' hope born of this educational Renaissance.
How shall this be The larger counties are able to command

accomplished in ,-. . „ i <- n .i • . •

the sma ler coun. +he services ol good men tor all their time m
ties? this work, and many of them are doing it.

The smaller counties do not feel able to do this. Even if
they succeed in getting good men, they do not feel able to pay
them for all their time. I think this is a mistaken policy even
for the smaller counties. They can afford to shorten their
school term, if necessary, in order to get a good man for all
his time at the head of their schools'. If by taking enough
of their school fund to do this, a sufficiency were not left


Superintendent of Public Instruction. XXXIX

for a four months school term, the deficit might be made up
out of the special appropriation for a four months term. I
feel sure that, in the long run, this would be economy to the
State, for such counties would be brought much more quickly
to the point of self-support through the efforts of such a su-
perintendent. In order to render possible the employment of
a good man as superintendent for all his time in every county,
the minimum salary of County Superintendents ought to
be fixed at not less than $500 a year.


This is a crucial period in the educational
iVtiTilrtlon- life of the State. Unless we shall be able to
al life of the organize and direct wisely, toward the accom-

plishment of some definite and permanent re-
sults, the splendid educational enthusiasm with which the
State is thrilling, the promise of the new day at whose hopeful
dawning we seem standing may prove but a tragic delusion.
When it is remembered how difficult for one man is the task
of supervising the educational work and organizing the educa-
tional forces of a single county, it will be readily understood
how much more difficult — how almost impossible for one man,
is the supervision of the educational work and the organiza-
tion and direction of the educational forces of an entire State
of ninety-seven counties. The necessity and the wisdom of
providing reasonable assistance to the State Superintendent
for this work ought to be apparent to every thoughtful man.
Deputy state I recommend, therefore, that provision be made

Superiutendents f t ^ appointment by the Governor, or the

necessary to aid *• L J

State Superinten- election by the State Board of Education, upon

tfon and direction recommendation of the State Superintendent

of the educational f PuDlic Instruction, of five Deputy State
forces of ninety- '

seven counties Superintendents, or State Supervisors of Ed-
ucation, to serve for two or four years, at a salary of $1,250
a year and expenses, not to exceed five hundred dollars a year.

XL Biennial Report of the

These Deputy Superintendents' should, of course, be under
the direction of the State Superintendent, and subject to re-
moval for cause upon his recommendation. They should be
teachers of standing in their profession, men of professional
training and experience, and of known ability to conduct edu-
cational meetings for teachers, County Superintendents and
others, to administer school affairs, and to arouse the people
upon great educational questions by public speech.

Aid in securing With tlie assistance of five such men, the

co-operation, uni- efficiency of the work of the State Superin-

ty and uniformity , -. -. -. , ' ... ., T , , ,

in the county sys- tendent could be multiplied. It would be

f n e r n r a d i n 2 U t ild " like S ivin S him arms t0 rea ch out over the vast

State system of territory of ninety-seven counties and bring
public schools. -,, ,, - ;, , . ,

all the parts of the great educational work of a

great State, now in a condition of comparative disconnection
and chaos, into co-operation, unity and uniformity. At pre&'ent
there are ninety-seven more or less separate and independent
county systems' of education that need to be organized into
one great State system of public schools for the education of
all the children of all the people, composed of ninety-seven
comity systems, modified in minor respects to suit local needs,
but working harmoniously in a common system toward the
accomplishment of a common purpose, bound together by the
common bond of a common interest and a common aim, by the
cohesive power of a common policy and of certain great com-
mon fundamental principles.

Impossibility of Tllis is m J ideal > m J ll0 P e > but the impossi-

accompiishing bilitv of its accomplishment in any reasonable

this without rea- . . - ,

sonabie assist- time by one weak man without assistance un-
der present conditions staggers me and almost
discourages me. The State Superintendent will do the best
he can, whether the Legislature sees fit to give him the nec-
essary assistance or not. He does not ask it for himself. He
asks' it for his people and the sacred cause that he represents.
For the little children of his State he would be willing to
work for a bare living, if necessary. He prefers an increase

Superintendent of Public Instruction. xli

in the means of efficiency for his office to any increase in per-
sonal gain for himself.

Expense of Depu- These Deputy State Superintendents could
dents^n^how De provided at an expense of not more than ten
provided. thousand dollars' to the State. While a special

appropriation for this purpose would be preferable, still, if
absolutely necessary, this amount could be taken out of the
"First Hundred Thousand Dollars" appropriated out of the
State Treasury and distributed per capita for public schools.
Under such a distribution of this hundred thousand dollars,
the richest and most populous counties that really need it
least, get most of it, and the taking away of ten thousand
dollars for the purpose indicated would scarcely lie percepti-
bly felt by the public schools of the State. This amount
taken for this purpose would not shorten the school term one
day. In any event, I firmly believe that the good that would
come from such an expenditure for such a purpose, should it
be found necessary to take it out of this fund, would far ex-
ceed the benefit that would result from the use of ten thousand
dollars for public schools in any other way that I can think of.

In conclusion, let me sum up some of the
Summary of bene- n ,. ,. ,

fits from assist- benefits that I believe could be secured through
Super°inSent 8 the assistance of such Deputy State Superin-
tendents as I have described, and outline some
of the duties that might lie assigned them, and some of the
work that they could help to do :

1. A more thorough organization of County Superintend-
ents, teachers and all other educational forces, and a wiser di-
rection of these toward a common purpose.

2. Unity and uniformity in the educational system of the
State, and correlation among all the parts thereof.

3. Fuller and more accurate information about the educa-
tional condition and needs of the State from personal study
and observation of these.

4. A more uniform standard for teachers through uniform
examinations and a uniform system of grading.

XLII Biewnial Report of the

5. Aid to County Superintendents through Superintend-
ents' Institutes and conferences' held in convenient places
from time to time ; aid to them also by personal visits, advice,
stimulation and suggestion, and by help in supervision.

6. Preparation of courses of study and reading for Super-
intendents and teachers, and aid in pursuing these success-

7. Assistance in grading the work of the public schools and
in preparing and putting into successful operation in them
graded courses of study.

8. Assistance in conducting teachers' meetings', summer
schools, institutes and other educational meetings.

9. Aid and stimulation to County Boards of Education by
personal visits, conferences and suggestions.

10. Aid in the execution of the law, in the collection of
fines and forfeitures belonging to the school fund.

11. Aid in the equitable distribution of State school funds
among the counties, especially of the "Second Hundred Thou-
sand Dollars," to bring all schools' to the constitutional limit
of four months.

12. Aid in the continual agitation of educational questions
and the cultivation of educational sentiment.

I appreciate the force of the objection to the additional
expense of these Deputy Superintendents. I honestly be-
lieve, however, that they will save to the State in dollars and
Objections to ex- cents more than their total salaries', by looking
Superintendents more closely after the leaks in fines and forfei-
thein n tures, by helping to avoid needless expense and

correct possible extravagance, here and there, in the admin-
istration of county school affairs, by preventing possible abuses
in the distribution of the Second Hundred Thousand Dollars.
I believe that much more than the amount of their salaries
and expenses would be added to the school fund by local tax-
ation, secured largely by their efforts. But aside from the
possibility of their saving their salaries 'and expenses to the
State, if the enlargement of the educational work of the State

Superintendent of Public Instruction. xliii

and the increasing needs and demands of that work require
additional assistance to carry on the work successfully, what
can he the objection to providing such assistance at reasonable
cost ? Every thoughtful, broad-minded man will admit that
there can be no more important work in the State than its edu-
cational work. When the work in other departments in-
creases sufficiently to require additional assistance, it is gen-
erally allowed. When the insurance business of the State in-
creased sufficiently to demand it, a separate Department of
Insurance was very properly established, with an Insurance
Commissioner and clerks enough to do the work. When the
department of taxation had assumed sufficient proportions
to justify it, the Corporation Commission was properly es-
tablished at considerable expense. To meet the increased
demands of a growing State, the last Legislature established
four new judicial districts, with four new Judges and Solici-
tors, costing perhaps twice as much as these Deputy Superin-
tendents asked for by the Department of Education would
cost. If it is wise and proper to make larger appropriations'
to meet growing needs of the work in other departments,
would it be unreasonable to make a small appropriation for
necessary assistance in the Department of Education?


Adequate means How shall we secure adequate means for
essentilis^f a * supplying these essentials of a successful school
successful school Sys t em % We have been struggling for more

system can not be J i -i i •

supplied by the than a quarter of a century to build up in
conSy \llLT North Carolina a system of public schools
schools. adequate in equipment, in teachers and in

length of term for the education of all our children by the
levying of a general State and county tax. Since 1874 we
have raised the general State and county tax for school pur-
poses from 8 1-3 cents to 18 cents on the one hundred dollars
worth of property. Three-fourths of all State and county

XLIV Biennial Report of the

poll tax is devoted to the public schools. We have increased
the total school fund from $297,090.85 in 1874, to $1,269,-
714.30 in 1902. A large part of the entire taxes' of the State
is devoted to the public schools. The constitutional limitation
of taxation has been reached in nearly every county in the
State. If any further amount for schools is to be raised it
must be by special taxation or the constitutional limitation
must be changed by constitutional amendment. Withal we
have succeeded in increasing our school term but a few weeks.
A special appropriation of $200,000 was found necessary to
bring the school term to four months. Until recently we
have succeeded in improving our school houses and school
equipment in the rural districts but little. ISFobody will deny
that the schools in the majority of these rural districts in
equipment, in teachers, in length of term ; in a word, in the
very essentials of a successful school system are still sadly
inadeq-uate for the stupendous work of educating properly
all the chidren. This experience of the past forces us to the
conclusion that we must seek some means other than a general
State and county tax for supplying the money absolutely
necessary for making these rural schools adequate to their

Local taxation Sixty-nine per cent of all the money raised

the only hope of f public schools in these United States is

providing the l

necessary means, raised by local taxation. In all States that
have systems of public schools well equipped and adequate
to the work of educating all their people, a large per cent of
the public school funds is raised by local taxation. In some
of these States as much as ninety-five per cent is raised by
local taxation. In our own State the only communities that
have succeeded in providing a system of schools running for
eight or ten months in the year supplied with excellent
houses and equipment and the best teachers are the cities,
the larger towns and the rural districts that have supple-
mented their general State and county tax by local taxation.
The experience of other States and of these communities in

Superintendent of Public Instruction. xia

our own State force us to the conclusion that the only hope
of providing the money necessary for making our rural schools
equal to the demands' of the age and adequate to the education
of eighty-two per cent of our population is to be found in rea-
sonable local taxation.

The principle of This principle of local taxation is rapidly

rapidly gaining gaining ground in the State. All the cities,
ground. anc [ most of the towns and villages, have

adopted it. Reports for the year ending June 30, 1902,
showed thirty-eight towns and cities and eight rural communi-
ties having local taxation. Reports from fifty-seven counties
since July 1, 1902, show that since that date fourteen rural
districts have adopted local taxation by vote, and that elec-
tions are now pending in twenty-four more districts. In
Guilford County alone eight rural districts have recently
adopted local taxation. One hundred and sixty-one thousand
three hundred and sixty-three dollars was raised by local taxa-
tion last year for public schools in this State.
., .. ... x To illustrate the feasibilitv of the adoption

Feasibility and J r

advantages of of local tax by rural districts, the increase of
the school fund that would result therefrom
and the lightness of the burden of the increased tax upon the
average tax-payer, I desire to call attention to the following
statistics' carefully collected for Guilford County. Guilford
is the first county in the State to undertake to work out the
problem of local taxation for all its rural districts. So far
eight districts have voted upon the question and adopted the
local tax. One entire township will soon vote upon it. The
tax books of the county show that a special tax of thirty cents'
on the one hundred dollars worth of property and ninety
cents on the poll will increase the annual school fund of
the county nearly one hundred per cent, and this means of

Online LibraryNorth Carolina. Dept. of Public InstructionBiennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) → online text (page 4 of 46)