North Carolina. Dept. of Public Instruction.

Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) online

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To tear out the old unsanitary floors in the basement of the main
building and replace them with cement. With the old sewer pipes
exposed in some places and the deposits of the past years from leaks
in them, there is great risk to be run, as matters now stand.

The roofs of the kitchen and laundry buildings are in a deplorable
condition, and should be renewed at once. The laundry especially
needs to be raised a story higher, to provide sleeping quarters for
servants. Some provision should also be made for a kitchen for the
Principal's family.

The city authorities have served notice upon the Board more than
once for paving around the two schools. This is an improvement
which is greatly needed at both premises.

The necessity for a lighting plant, a refrigerator, sick wards for
use in case of contagious diseases, with the necessary plumbing in
the central wing of the main building is too apparent to need argu-
ment. They are demanded by the economical, sanitary, healthful
and sensible view of the situation. The State Board of Health has
said they must be provided, as regards the sick wards, plumbing, etc.

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 397

The fence enclosing Caswell Square has already begun to give way,
an'd in many places is stayed by temporary devices. There is no
fence at all around the boys' building at the colored school. The
interior wood work of all the old buildings at both departments is
in serious need of paint, none having been applied for many years.
The institution has no vault nor safe place for storing its valuable
papers and books. A fire might cause a tremendous loss to the State.

The school owns a farm of 100 acres without a house, a barn, a
mule, or any equipment. For this reason it is practically useless to
the institution. It should be properly equipped for use, or sold and
the proceeds invested in land nearer the colored department, adjoin-
ing the present garden, where there is an abundance of labor for its
cultivation, and without cost to the school. And still there is need of
stocking it; for, by this means, not only can the colored deaf boys be
taught a very useful occupation — the one which most of them must
follow — but also much of the milk, butter, eggs, chickens, meat, fruit
and vegetables used by the school could be produced and at very
small cost. Thus a double purpose can be met and the school saved
considerable moDey.

To prevent the exposure of the girls to inclement weather and
consequent sickness, the covered ways between the buildings, con-
templated in the projected improvements, should be completed. They
are under the necessity of passing between these buildings two or
three times daily.

With the greatly increased attendance and the rise in provisions,
it will be necessary to secure a slight increase in the maintenance
fund. It will be necessary to exercise the strictest economy, but it is
thought that with an increase of $5,000.00 per annum the additional
fifty pupils already in attendance can be maintained. This will
make the special appropriation for maintenance $20,000.00, instead of
$15,000.00 as now. If this is done and the Legislature will re-enact
the law making appropriation of the $10,000.00 for the balance of
the deficit which has not yet been received (provided it is necessary
to re-enact the law) and will in addition grant the amount asked for
two years ago, viz., $11,905.00, for the purposed then named, and
above referred to, the work of the institution can be carried for-
ward with even greater success.

The industrial instruction of the students has received more at-
tention from the Board even than usual, especially among the deaf
6tudents. There have been established departments for teaching
gardening, farming, carpentering, wood work, for the boys; cook-
ing, house-keeping, dress-making, fancy work, general needle work
for the girls, and broom making and mattress-making for the blind
boys at the colored school. The results attained have already shown
the wisdom of this course.

398 Biennial Report of the


At the last three State Fairs the school has made exhibits of the
products of the handicraft departments, for which first premiums
have been awarded upon nearly every article placed in competition
with the work done by the sighted, and each year there has been
awarded a special gold medal as a token of special merit.

During the past summer, July 9, 10 and 11, 1902, the school was
honored by the presence of the American Association of Instructors
of the Blind, which met in regular biennial session as the guests of
the school. There were representatives present from a large number
of the schools for the blind in America, from Nova Scotia on the
north to Florida on the south, and Wisconsin on the west. It was
the first time the Association ever met so far south, and yet the
attendance was unusually large and representative, many of the most
distinguished men and women in the profession being prasent. Those
who have attended most of the gatherings in the past pronounced it
the best session of the body ever held. The discussions, disserta-
tions and proceedings generally were exceedingly helpful to the
officers and teachers of the school. The address of welcome was
delivered by Hon. B. R. Lacy, representing his Excellency, Governor
Aycock, who had engaged to perform this duty, but who was un-
avoidably detained at home. At the close of the sessions, the school
and the whole State was further honored by the unanimous and
enthusiastic election by the Association of the Principal of this
school as its President for the next two years.


For the past six years there has been more and more apparent the
need of the establishment of two institutions by our Commonwealth
for the care and instruction of two classes of most unfortunate and,
so far, neglected youth — the feeble-minded and the criminal young
people. If there is a "crying need" for any beneficence on the part
of the State just now, it is for the care of these two classes. Few
persons have any conception of the number of these children in our
State, especially of the former. If statistics are to be relied upon,
there are more than one thousand children in North Carolina whose
mental condition is such as to require special instruction; and the
constantly increasing number of youthful criminals calls aloud for


The biennial period just closed marks the most successful, most
prosperous, most satisfactory two years in the history of the Institu-
tion. The school, in all its departments, has done its best work; the
equipment is the best it ever possessed; the attendance has been by

Superintendent oe Public Instruction. 399

far the most gratifying. This is due, gentlemen of the Board, in no
small degree, to your vigilant, untiring, unselfish interest in its up-
building. Many times you have neglected your private business to
attend to the affairs of this school. You have watched every step of
progress with the keenest sympathy. Your encouragement and ap-
proval have accompanied every movement for the better. At times
when the burdens seemed too great to be borne, you have smiled
them away, or have stood by to lend your wisdom and strength in
the struggle. You have never wavered, nor has your interest ever
flagged. To you is due the credit for the great work done. Without
your co-operation it would never have been accomplished.

And the faithful, earnest, efficient labors of the officers and teach-
ers of the Institution have been the very best of their lives; and
they have worked with a better grace, and with less friction.

The railroads and steamboat lines in the State have shown their
wonted magnanimity and generosity in granting reduced rates, and,
in some instances, transportation, to all the household who were en-
titled to them. To them profound gratitude is expressed.

The local newspapers, and some of those in other parts of the
State, have shown very many courtesies and favors, and the school
has been favored with the regular visits of the publications of other
similar institutions in the various States, together with some from
foreign countries. These have done much for the profit and pleasure
of the school.

Conclusion .

For detailed statements of the finances, health record, the music
department, etc., reference is made to the reports of the various offi-
cers at the heads of these several departments, and for the statistics
to the subjoined lists and tables.

Most respectfully. John E. Ray,



Hon, J. Y. Joyner, State Supt. Public Instruction, Raleigh, N. C.

Dear Sir: — I beg to make a brief report of this School to you. as
the head of the public school system.

This school was created and established by the General Assembly
of 1891, and was opened for admission in 1894, removing all the white
deaf and dumb children from the Institution for the Deaf and Dumb
and the Blind at Raleigh, there being 102 in attendance at that time,
v. hich was the largest in the history of the School. Our attendance
to-day is 237, with a large number' of applications on file, though
many of them have been offered admission. If, however, all should
present themselves for admission, we could not accommodate them.

400 Biennial Report of the

The law establishing the school requires that we shall teach the
course of study laid clown for the common public schools of the
State, and fixes the age for admission at eight years. We have pre-
pared several young men for college, who have taken good stand with
the students from the leading schools for the deaf in America.

Industrial Training.

We have laid stress on industrial education, believing that the boy
or girl who has such training is thrice aimed for the battle of life.
We teach the boys wood-working, shoe-making, farming and garden-
ing, and printing and type-setting, and the girls we teach sewing,
dress-making, cutting and fitting, and practical cooking, and under a
competent teacher.

Buildings and Equipments.

Our buildings are new, conveniently arranged, and comfortable,
and reasonably well equipped.

We are giatified to know that the work of our Sciiool is regarded by
the profession very favorably, compared with the work of the leading
schools of this character on the continent. Our per capita cost is as
low as in any similar school, and is as small as can be made, consist-
ent with good work and safe management.

Corps of Teachers.

We have a corps of twenty-one teachers, many of them having had
years of successful experience, and those of less experience have had
special training for the work.

Oral Teaching.

We teach speech and speech reading to about half of our deaf chil-
dren, even though many of them are totally and congenitally deaf.
While the speech they acquire is neither perfect nor natural, it is in-
telligible and useful. The children of this department take the same
course of study that is given to those taught in the manual or '"sign"
department. The latter method has been used in American schools
for nearly a century.

Compulsory Attendance Law Needed.

There are many deaf children of school age growing up in pitiable
ignorance, because their parents will not send them to school. Some
of these children, when grown up in ignorance, will doubtless be a
menace to society, and, perhaps, a charge upon the State, or their
county. This, however, is looking at the question from an economic
standpoint, rather than a higher plane of humanity or Christian



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Superintendent of Public Instruction. 401

elevation. I have examined a large number of applications and find
many of the children to be imbeciles.

A School for the Feeble-minded Children Needed.

The State has provided nobly for her afflicted ones, who have thus
far been entirely neglected. They are the imbeciles and idiots. Many
of these children could be trained and educated to a limited degree
and the condition of all could be ameliorated. The State' would do
nobly to provide such a school for these children. There are many
such children within her borders. There are many schools for this
class in the various States, and it is hoped that our beloved State will
provide for the only aSlicted class at present unprovided for.

I am grateful to County Superintendents for the aid they have
given me. I beg you to urge upon them to furnish me with statistics
of the deaf in their respective counties, giving names and address of
parents of such children, and to urge parents and guardians to send
them to school.

I beg to express my gratitude to you, as State Superintendent, for
the kind interest manifested in our school, and her unfortunate chil-

Respectfully, E. McK. Goodwi.n,

Supt. X. C. School for the Deaf and Dumb.

November 28, 1902.


Growth of the College.

The growth of the college is surpassing all expectations. The num-
ber of students is now 450. By the middle of the session in January
it will be fully 500. This is a gain of 150 over last year. But the
number of students does not furnish an adequate test of the growing
influence and usefulness of the college, for the number of students is
kept down by lack of dormitories, of recitation rooms, of teachers,
and of teaching apparatus. Applications for admission from States
as far distant as Maine, California and Texas have been received and
refused for lack of accommodations. A month before the opening of
the session notices were twice sent to newspapers in other States that
the college could not receive boys from outside North Carolina. The
first week of the session, almost the first day, the college was full,
and notices were several times published all over the State that no
more students could be received. For lack of accommodations at
least a hundred students have been kept away from the college the
present session. The contemplated increase of numbers in January


403 Biennial Report of the

will be made possible by the completion by then of a new building,
enlarging the capacity of the college in dormitories, dining-room and
recitation rooms. This will make possible an increase of about 50
students, and will fix the capacity of the college at about 500, until
further accommodations are provided. It is easy to see that fully
1,000 students will be in the college as soon as adequate accommoda-
tions are provided.

The College Stands for Industrial Education.

The college stands for industrial education and its instruction, its
discipline, its inner life and spirit all look to that end. It does not
aim to be a literary institution, nor an institution merely for scien-
tific culture, with nominal or fashionable attachment of industrial in-
struction or manual training, but purely and honestly to be a school
for genuine, practical and thorough industrial education. This is the
secret of its rapid growth and its great popularity; for industrial edu-
cation is the kind that is most needed, most liked, and most easily
received by nine boys out of every ten; and industrial education is
especially needed at this time in North Carolina.

Skilled Work by Students.

All skilled work of the college is done by students or by professors.
Everybody is in overalls and working with his hands from two to six
hours a day. Work is part of every student's education. A future
electrical engineer is building a motor or a dynamo, wiring a build-
ing, or running the engine and dynamo to make lights for the col-
lege. A future architect is handling the plane, the saw, the chisel;
is measuring and sketching buildings, making original designs, and
testing the strength of wood, brick, cement and iron. A future me-
chanical engineer is laying out and performing work in the machine
shops, or testing boilers and engines, making designs, patterns, etc.
A future civil engineer is surveying the farm, designing a bridge, or
laying out the foundations of a new building. A future cotton mill
superintendent is setting up looms, designing cloth patterns, making
calculations as to the cost of power, planning a system of fire protec-
tion; is carding, spinning, designing, weaving and dyeing. A future
farmer is studying plants and animals with books, microscopes and
instruments; and. by practical experience in the greenhouses and
fields, is testing what he has learned theoretically. He milks and
feeds the cattle, makes butter with improved dairy machinery, judges
live stock, studies and experiments with soils and fertilizers, designs
farm buildings and lays out drains, studies, constructs and uses im-
proved farm utensils and machinery, studies and experiments with
the propagation and culture of plants, the breeding and feeding of
animals. In short, the future industrial worker is not merely study-

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 403

ing a thing in books and hearing a professor lecture about it, but is
himself actually doing the thing and testing his own skill and knowl-

The spirit of work is so strong that a majority of the students per-
form not only the required work, but, in addition, outside of college
hours, do extra work and earn considerable money thereby. During
last year almost $4,000 was earned in this way, and fully three-
fourths of the entire student body thus contributed by labor to the
payment of their college expenses.

Democratic Spirit of the College.

The spirit of the college is that of absolute democracy, with full
scope for individual development. Every artificial prop is knocked
from under a boy. He is taught self-reliance, system, economy, punc-
tuality, self-control, and the proper use of time. He is not merely
being trained for the practical business of life, but Is already, to a
large degree, actually engaged in very practical business. Every
student in college, when the clock strikes, must be in his proper place
over a dozen times each day, his tools must be in place and in order,
his room properly kept, and his own person and clothing even, sub-
ject to inspection and discipline,

While at work each student is in overalls; when not at work he is
in uniform. No rivalry exists about dress, room furniture, boarding
places, etc. The result is no foppery, snobbishness, nor dudism, and
no aristocracy except merit. Of no avail are family, wealth, friends,
or other external helps. If there is anything capable of development
in a boy it is brought out. Not only bright boys, but average boys,
and even dull boys, are developed under this system. Here are pre-
sented to every boy so many kinds of activity — brain-working and
hand-working, wood-working and metal-working, drawing and de-
signing, working with plants and animals, with electricity, with forge
and anvil, with saw and hammer, with microscope and transit, with
test-tube and retort, with boiler and engine, dynamo and motor, loom,
spindle and dye-vat — so many appeals to every possible taste, talent
and faculty, that if a boy be not defective he must be aroused to some
ambition, some proficiency, some degree of manhood.

Courses of Instruction.

The college offers full courses of instruction, extending over four
years and leading to degrees in the following lines: Agriculture
(including Agriculture, Horticulture, Veterinary Science, Biology
and Agricultural Chemistry). Engineering (including Civil Engi-
neering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Mining
Engineering), Chemistry (including Metallurgy and Dyeing), Tex-
tile Industry or Cotton Manufacturing.

404 Biennial Report of the

These courses offer a combination of practical and theoretical
work, about half of the time being devoted to book study, lectures
and recitations, and the other half to work in the shops, laboratories,
drawing-rooms, greenhouses, dairies, fields and mills. They are in-
tended to furnish both technical and liberal education. School teach-
ers holding teachers' certificates and graduates of approved high
schools and academies are admitted to these courses without entrance
examination; all other applicants must pass the required examina-

Short courses, extending through two years, and embracing nearly
all the practical work of the full courses with less theoretical instruc-
tion, are offered in the following lines: Agriculture, Textile Indus-
try, Dyeing, Building and Contracting, Mechanic Arts (including
drawing and designing, machine shop, wood-turning, pattern-making
and forge work). Persons over 20 years old are admitted to these
courses without entrance examinations.

Special courses, extending through three or four months, and in-
tended for mature persons who desire increased skill and knowledge
in special lines, are offered in: Agriculture, Carpentry, Machine
Work, Engine and Boiler Tending, Machine Drawing and Designing
and Road Building. No entrance examinations are required for ad-
mission to these courses.

Winter School of Agriculture and Dairying.
(For practical farmers and farm boys and girls.)

The instruction given in this school is entirely practical. It is in-
tended for farmers and farm boys and girls who are unable to leave
the farm long enough to obtain a complete education, but who desire
larger and better knowledge of agriculture. The school opens in
January and continues ten weeks. Tuition is free. Books, clothing,
dairy suits, board and furnished room costs about thirty dollars for
the session of ten weeks.

The subjects of instruction are dairying, stock-raising, creamery
practiCe, stock-feeding, diseases of farm animals, entomology, dairy
chemistry, soils, farm crops, farm machinery, farm economics and
book-keeping. Practical work is required in the creamery, barns,
greenhouses and work-shops. Butter-making, cheese-making, milk-
testing, handling cream separators, pasteurizing cream and milk, and
dairy bacteriology are included in each student's work. No entrance
examinations are required, but the student must be at least 18 years
old. The school is open to both men and women.

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 405

Summer School of Agriculture, Nature Study and Manual


(For Teachers Mainly.)

This school is intended mainly for teachers who desire to prepare
themselves for teaching agriculture, or nature study, or manual
training. It deals mainly with methods of instruction, although at
the same time covering much ground.

The purpose of the school is to aid in introducing agriculture into
our rural schools, for the benefit of the thousands of boys and girls
who will spend their lives in agricultural work, and also to help in-
troduce manual training into our city schools, and thus lay the foun-
dations for skilled labor by thousands of city boys and girls, whose
lives must be given to some form of manual labor. Nature study is
taught as preparation for the study of agriculture.

The course in agriculture includes such subjects as can be taught
in our rural schools by the aid of simple apparatus constructed by
the teacher at cost of a few cents. Teachers attending this Summer
School are taken over precisely the course of instruction which they
may afterwards teach in their own school, and are taught to make all
necessary apparatus. The nature study instruction is given in a sim-
ilar way. The manual training instruction includes bench-work,
lathe-work, forge-work and mechanical drawing.

The school begins the first Monday in August and lasts two weeks.
Total expenses for board, room and tuition, $10.00.

It is believed that our system of public education is incomplete
without agriculture in the rural schools and manual training in the
city schools. For both these subjects teachers are needed; and it is
one of the duties and privileges of the North Carolina College of
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts to help supply these teachers. There
are already many teachers, both men and women, in our rural schools
who have a practical knowledge of farm life and an aptitude for the
study of nature and scientific agriculture, which need only the stim-
ulus and guidance of special training for a few weeks in order to
produce successful teachers of elementary agriculture. With such
stimulus and guidance, and with a good text-book, they will help to
revolutionize agriculture in our State, by keeping on the farm our
bright boys and girls, whom they will interest in nature study and
scientific agriculture. Similarly there are already among us teachers

Online LibraryNorth Carolina. Dept. of Public InstructionBiennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) → online text (page 40 of 46)