North Carolina. Dept. of Public Instruction.

Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) online

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Directors have increased the physical equipment. Beginning in
1S92 with dormitory capacity for less than one hundred and fifty
boarders, with only fifteen recitation rooms in the college building,
including the chapel, the President's office, and the physician's
office; with a teaching force of fifteen, including assistants, and with
an enrollment of two hundred and twenty-three students, the col-
lege has steadily developed until at the end of its tenth year it has
dormitory accommodations for more than three hundred boarders,
twenty-five recitation rooms and offices in the college building and
fourteen rooms in a Practice and Observation School building, a
teaching force and executive corps of thirty-six, and an enrollment of
about four hundred and fifty regular students, besides more than
three hundred pupils in the Practice and Observation School. In-
stead of ten acres of land the college now owns one hundred and
thirty acres, and instead of five buildings owned and rented it now
uses eleven buildings. Instead of looking upon a bleak hill of clay
and briars its students enjoy, to some extent, looking upon growing
trees and grass and flowers, and, by the generosity of Mr. George
Foster Peabody we have the immediate prospect of a beautiful park.

In section 41 of the Constitution of 1776, adopted at Halifax (and
the principle has been endorsed in every change of the Constitution
since), the State acknowledges its obligation to provide educational
facilities for the "instruction of youth" "at low prices," and the sec-
tion closes with the words, "and all useful learning shall be en-
couraged in one or more universities."

Until the establishment of this college the constitutional mandate
had been only partially obeyed. The State University for young
men began its career of usefulness very soon after the adoption of
the Constitution. Thirteen years ago the Agricultural and Mechan-
ical College, also for young men, was established under State au-
spices and by the aid of the State and the general government.

But it took the State more than a century to come to a practical
realization of the fact that "youth" means young women as well
as young men. From one-half to nine-tenths of the money used to
employ instructors in colleges for young men is paid by State and
Federal appropriations, or by the income from college endowment
funds. It was largely in response to the just sentiment that, if the

416 Biennial, Report of the

State proposes to pay for nearly all the expense of a young man s
higher education, it ought to do at least as much for his sister, that
the State Normal and Industrial College was estblished. It is not
a college exclusively for people who feel unabie to go elsewhere,
any more than are those institutions for young men where the
faculties are paid by State appropriations, or by income from endow-
ment funds.

The State desires this institution to be good enough for any of its
citizens, and the expenses low enough for all.

The purpose for which the institution was created is clearly
stated in section 5 of the act establishing it. It is as follows:

(Section 5. The object of this institution shall be (i) to give to
young women such education as shall fit them for teaching; (2) to
give instruction to young women in drawing, telegraphy, type-
writing, stenography and such other industrial arts as may be suit-
able to their sex and conducive to their support and usefulness.
Tuition shall be free to those who signify their intention to teach,
upon such conditions as may be prescribed by the Board of Direc-

It is the general purpose of the institution to give such education
as will add to the efficiency of the average woman's work, whatever
may be her field of labor. To that end there are three distinct de-
partments in the course of study:

The Normal Department.

The Domestic Science Department.

The Commercial Department.

Charter Requirements and Course of Study.

The regular courses of study heretofore have embraced four
years. In order that an institution like this should do its best work
it must connect immediately with the public school system of the
State. To pass the entrance examinations for the freshman class
students must be thorough in the studies included in the public
school course. In order that this institution may grow into a
strong college, conferring the usual Baccalaureate degrees, an addi-
tional year has been added to the four-year course, and hereafter
the course will embrace five years. The college does not wish t<?
confer a degree until it is satisfied that its requirements for this
degree are equivalent in every essential particular to the require-
ments for degrees conferred by the State University and the best
colleges in North Carolina. It does not aspire to do university work,
but it proposes to develop into a strong college, giving it the right to
confer such degrees as are conferred by the best colleges in the

View in Peabody Park at the State Normal and Industrial College.

Superintendent oe Public Instruction. 417

Work Outside the College.

The work of those actively connected with the State Normal and
Industrial College has not been confined to class rooms or college
grounds. Members of its faculty have conducted Teachers' Insti-
tutes in many of the counties of the State, and have participated
actively in many of the local, State, Southern and National educa-
tional meetings held since 1892. Its representatives have been ac-
tive in the agitation for local taxation for public education for the
past ten years. They have been promoters of the movement for
rural school libraries and have aided in the agitation for road im-
provement locally and throughout the State. Members of its faculty
have served on various committees which have appeared before the
State Legislature to secure improvement in public school laws, and
have also served on the Commission for the selection of text-books
for the State.

The State Normal Magazine, a self-supporting publication, has
been the work of the facu'ty and students of this college. The best
educational journal ever published in the South, and now one of
the leading educational journals of the country, was established and
managed by our Professor of Pedagogy in connection with his work
here. Several text-books that have received generous recognition
throughout the country have been published by members of our
faculty. The Audubon Society and the Association of North Caro-
lina women for the betterment of the public school houses of the
State are two State organizations which have resulted from th©
work of the faculty and students of the State Normal and Indus-
trial College.

This college has given some prestige to North Carolina's name
beyond the borders of the State and has had the good fortune to
interest influential people in the educational development of the
State which it serves.


For the past ten years the average number of students in the
college has been about four hundred and twenty-five. This number
will not materially change until more dormitory room shall have
been provided. The total matriculation for the past ten years has
been about 2,500. Of the 1,900 who have left the college, 68 have
died, leaving about 1.800, teaching more than 100,000 children.
Sixteen hundred of these have reported to me during the past few
months, and more than 66 2-3 per cent of them have taught school.
I have asked each student to give the unmber of pupils taught by her.
The aggregate number reported is in round numbers 130,000. It is
natural to suppose that some of these children have been taught at


MS Biennial Report oe the

different times by two or more representatives of the college. De-
ducting, therefore, 30,000 for duplicates, this would mean that
100,000 children have been taught by students trained at this col-
lege. That is nearly one-tenth of our total white population, in-
cluding men, women and children.

Of the first 1,000 teachers sent into the State by this college,
more than 700 taught in the public schools, most of them in the
country public schools. The others have taught in colleges public
and private high schools, and seminaries. Of the first 1,500 students
from whom I had reports only 907 were under pledge to teach, but
more than 1,000 had taught.

If the college continues to grow it is probable that it will always
have a thousand representatives regularly teaching in the State,
thus reaching from 25,000 to 40,000 children each year. Many of
our students have not come to the college intending to prepare to
teach. A large number have come to take the work in the commer-
cial department, a considerable number for domestic science work,
and a still larger number probably for the general culture resulting
from pursuing the college course of study offered. Of the 1,600
who have reported, I find that more than 80 are filling positions
in business offices as stenographers and bookkeepers, and 21 as
trained nurses. More than thirty per cent of the women teachers
in the graded schools of the State are former students of the State
Normal and Industrial College. Its former students have been
employed in every orphanage, and in a large number of high
schools and seminaries and colleges.

Representatives of the college are working in 23 of the States of
the Union and the District of Columbia. In nearly every leading
city from Greensboro to Boston representatives of the State Normal
and Industrial College can be found working as teachers, students,
stenographers, bookkeepers, or trained nurses.

Spirit of Democracy.

Whatever success has attended the State Normal and Industrial
College during the past ten years has been due largely to the repre-
sentative character and spirit of the young women who have been
its students. They have come from all of the ninety-seven counties.
Among them can be found the names of one hundred or more grad-
uates of leading "female colleges" and seminaries, and a much larger
number who received their previous training entirely in the public
schools of the rural districts. In fact, we have had every type of
respectable woman in North Carolina from the one who has en-
joyed the privileges which money and social position can give, to
the girl who was never on a railroad train until she boarded it for
Greensboro to become a student in the State college for women.

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 419

As is the case with all people, some have not been so studious
as they might have been, but one-third of these young women have
remained in the college at their own expense, without help from
parents, and this one-third, with those who are naturally studious
and ambitious, have formed a serious-minded nucleus, and have
exerted a strong influence in favor of industry and the steady per-
formance of duty. The wholesome fact that the college has not
depended upon the revenue derived from any class of its students
has not only tended to aid the college in its discipline, but has also
imbued all the students with the spirit of democracy. Nowhere
have I known the spirit of fair play to prevail to a greater degree
than among these young women. The State is always the gainer
when its teachers can be trained in an atmosphere of equality which
recognizes the worth of honest toil and faithful service regardless
of class distinctions of all kinds. The distinguishing characteristic
of Americanism is its theory, and I am glad to say its usual prac-
tice, of giving to every man, woman and child a fair chance in
life. No board of directors and no faculty or college president can
force this spirit. They can only adopt systems and policies that
will tend to its development.

An illustration of the democratic spirit to which I refer can be
found in the history of the selection of marshals. These marshals
are elected and x-ecommended to the President by the two literary
societies and upon his recommendation are appointed by the Board
of Directors to serve for one year. A half dozen of these marshals
and two of the chief marshals during the past five years have been
students who worked their way through the college by washing
dishes and caring for the college dining room. In fact I think that
every corps of marshals since the system of student work in the
dining room was inaugurated has had one or more representatives of
that class of students. This is just as it should be and I only men-
tion it to illustrate that the spirit of democracy here is not merely
a theory but a practice.

The Real Worth of a College.

The worth of a strong college to a student is not as some suppose,
the mere fact that it gives the opportunity to a student to perform
systematic literary tasks assigned by teachers, or that it gives op-
portunity to work in laboratories and libraries. These are neces-
sary and important, but the student's greatest advantage at college
is the spiritual and mental atmosphere of the place. It is intan-
gible, but you can feel it. It can not be measured, but its effect is
everywhere manifest.

The love of truth for truth's sake; the belief in equality before
the law; the belief in fair play and the willingness to applaud an

420 Biennial Repokt of the

honest victor in every contest, whether on the athletic field or in the
class room or in social life; the feeling of common responsibility;
the habit of tolerance towards those with whom one does not en-
tirely agree; the giving up of small rights for the sake of greater
rights that are essential; the recognition of authority and the dig-
nified voluntary submission to it even when the reason for the policy
adopted by the authority is not apparent; the spirit of overlooking
the blunders of others and of helping those who are weak; the con-
tempt for idlers and shirkers; the love of one's fellow-workers even
though they be one's rivals; patience in toil; self-reliance; faith in
human progress; confidence in right; and belief in God — these are
the characteristics of the atmosphere of a great and useful college.
The young man or young woman who by association with faculty
and fellow-students becomes imbued with these principles gains
what never can be secured in the same degree in the best homes or
small schools, or anywhere else except in a college.


This sketch would not be complete without some reference to the
special benefactors of the institution.

Within the past two years Mr. George Foster Peabody, of New
York, donated $11,000 to the State Normal and Industrial College.
Five thousand dollars of this is to be used for developing the Pea-
body Park, named for the great philanthropist, George Peabody,
who, in 1867, gave to the public schools of the South $3,000,000.

The Students' Building is a gift to the college which means more
than any single donation of money. It represents the affection and
loyalty of its daughters and those whom they have been able to
interest in their alma mater. The gift of $1,500 from Mr. and Mrs.
T. B. Bailey, who lost their only children while students at this col-
lege, was made as a subscription to the Students' Building. Mr.
and Mrs. Bailey have' also established a permanent scholarship to be
known as "The Sarah and Evelyn Bailey Scholarship."

These gifts, except the last mentioned, were donations to the
college direct. Several other donations have been of peculiar help
to the college in another direction and never was aid given more
opportunely. Mr. and Mrs. J. C. Buxton, in 1893, established the
"Jarvis Buxton Loan Fund" of $100, in memory of their little son.
Soon after this Mr. and Mrs. Josephus Daniels established the
"Adelaide Worth Daniels Loan Fund" of $100, in memory of their
little daughter. These funds, while small, have aided in the educa-
tion of several students. In 1896, General and Mrs. Julian S. Carr
established the "Lida Carr Fellowship Fund," the income from
which is $200 a year. This has made it possible for from two to
four people to remain in the college each year since that time who

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 421

could uot otherwise have done so. Much help along this line has
been provided by the two literary societies, by the faculty, by the
Alumnae Association, and by the Woman's Education Club.

Charles Broadway Rouss, of New York, gave one hundred dollars
to be used as a loan fund to the daughter of a Confederate soldier.

Mr. and Mrs. V. Everit Macy of New York, gave last spring $1,U00,
to be used as a loan fund.

By means of all these agencies- a very large number of young
women have been enabled to prepare themselves for their life work.
It is hoped that the institution may have, in the future, many gifts
to be invested in loans to worthy young women, who have good
brain power, character, and ambition, but who are unable to pay
their expenses while taking the college course.

FrruRE Development.

And what about the future of the college? I am not a prophet.
I prefer history to prophecy, and I prefer the work of the present
as a preparation for the future to either. It would be a mistake,
however, for this State not to look ahead of it and prepare for what
may be reasonably expected.

Within the next ten years there will develop somewhere in the
southeastern section of this Union, and most probably along the
Atlantic slope, and in the Piedmont section of it, a great college for
women known the world over, just as Wellesley, Smith, Vassar, and
Bryn Mawr in New England, New York, and Pennsylvania. In
my judgment there is only one thing in the way of North Carolina's
furnishing that college. In spite of its illiteracy, as shown by the
United States Census Reports, North Carolina is the most hopeful
Southern State to-day. It has made an honest inventory of its edu-
cational possessions and needs, and is determined to improve the
one and supply the other. If North Carolina does not shut her eyes
to the situation, she will see the wide open door, enter in, and take
possession. Our smaller neighbor South Carolina, spent on her
college for women, before she opened its doors, thirty thousand dol-
lars more than the State of North Carolina has spent on her college
for women, for all purposes, in ten years. How long will North Caro-
lina turn away from these doors annually as many of her daughters
as she admits, simply for the lack of dormitory capacity?

Ideas fob which the College Stands.

The State Normal and Industrial College stands for a public
school system that will educate all the people. It teaches its stu-
dents and urges them to teach others the doctrine of universal edu-
cation. The authorities of the institution regard the college as a
part of the public school system of the State, and believe that it

422 Biennial Report of the

has a duty to discharge, not only to those who study within its walls,
but to that great body of people who, for one reason or another, will
not enter this or any other school or college. The greatest amount
of educational opportunity to the greatest number of people, is its
motto and its aim. Without reservation, members of its faculty
stand for local taxation for public schools, and for every movement
which tends to secure to the State effective teaching for every child,
preparing him for productive labor and intelligent citizenship.

The institution undertakes to emphasize in every legitimate way
that any system of education which refuses to recognize the equal
educational rights of women with those of men is unjust, unwise
and permanently hurtful.

I respectfully submit that there is no part of North Carolina's pub-
lic educational system from which she can expect more in propor-
tion to what she has expended than she may reasonably hope to
reap from the work of this college. It is the only college in North
Carolina for women of the white race' which has an appropriation
from the State, and no woman's college in the South has a large
endowment fund.

One-third of North Carolina's population is composed of women
and girls of the white race, and the opportunities given to this class
of our population will determine North Carolina's destiny. The
chief factors of any civilization are its homes and its primary schools.
Homes and primary schools are made by women rather than by
men. No State which will once educate its mothers need have any
fear about future illiteracy. An educated man may be the father of
illiterate children, but the children of educated women are never
illiterate. Three-fourths of all the educated women in North Caro-
lina spend a part of each day educating their own children or the
children of others, whereas, three-fourths of the educated men in tne
State spend a very short time daily with their own children, to say
nothing of educating them.

Money invested in the education of a man is a good investment, but
the dividend which it yields is frequently confined to one generation
and is of the material kind. It strengthens his judgment, gives him
foresight, and makes him a more productive laborer in any field of
activity. It does the same thing for a woman, but her field of activ-
ity is usually in company with children, and, therefore, the money in-
vested in the education of a woman yields a better educational divi-
dend than that invested in the education of a man. Therefore, the
State, for the sake of its present and future educational interest,
ought to decree that for every dollar spent by the government, State
or Federal, in the training of men, at least another dollar ought to be
invested in the work of educating womankind.

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 423

If it be claimed that woman is weaker than man, then so much the
more reason for giving ner at least an equal educational opportunity
with him. If it be admitted, as it must be, that she is by nature the
chief educator of children, her proper training is the strategic point
in the universal education of any race. If equality in culture be de-
sirable, and if congeniality between husbands and wives after middle
life be important, then a woman should have more educational oppor-
tunities in youth than a man; for a man's business relations bring
him in contact with every element of society, and if he have fair
native ability he will continue to grow intellectually during the ac-
tive period of his life, whereas, the confinements of home and the
duties of motherhood allow little opportunity to a woman for any
culture except that which comes from association with little children.
This experience which comes from living with innocent children
is a source of culture by no means to be despised, but how much bet-
ter would it be for the mother and the father and the children if the
mother's education in her youth could always be such as will enable
her in after life to secure that inspiration and solace and power
which come from familiarity with the great books of the world.

College Yeae 1901-1902.

The past year — 1901-1902 — has been one of the most successful in
the history of the college.

It will be remembered as the year which witnessed the completion
©f the Curry building, and the moving of the Practice and Observa-
tion School from the dormitories into that building, and the conse-
quent great strengthening of the Pedagogic work; the enlargement
and better equipment of the laundry and power-house; the beginning
of the erection of the students' building; the development of the Pea-
body Park; the gift of a thousand-dollar loan fund from Mr. and Mrs.
V. Everit Macy, of New York, and the offer of the General Education
Board to give $15,000 to the college within the next three years to aid
in maintaining a Manual Training Department, and to establish
scholarships and loan funds.

The college has lost during the past year, first, our Professor of
Pedagogy, Mr. P. P. Claxton, and then our Professor of English, Mr.
J. Y. Joyner, both of whom gave most valuable service to the college
for nearly nine years. It would have been a serious loss for them to
have left even at the end of the year, but when it is considered that
one was Dean of the college and the other the head of the Pedagogic
Department, and that it was necessary for them to give up their work
in the middle of the year, it will be easily understood that the work
of the other members of the faculty, and especially the work of the
President of the college, have been largely increased temporarily.

Prof. J. I. Foust was called from the Superintendency of the Golds-
boro Graded Schools to the Chair of Pedagogy.

424 Biennial, Report of the

Professor Joyner's work as head of the English Department has

Online LibraryNorth Carolina. Dept. of Public InstructionBiennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) → online text (page 42 of 46)