North Carolina. Dept. of Public Instruction.

Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) online

. (page 44 of 46)
Online LibraryNorth Carolina. Dept. of Public InstructionBiennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) → online text (page 44 of 46)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

and work are now given to male students only in the Mechanical De-
partment, the Department of Agriculture and Chemistry, and the
Department of Agricultural Industries. Elementary instruction in
English is given in the English Department. In the Mechanical De-
partment the boys are taught carpentry, blacksmithing, tinning,
brick-laying, brick-making, plastering, shoe-making, harness-making,
heating and ventilating, repairing and plumbing.

In the Department of Agriculture and Agricultural Industries stu-
dents are taught dairying, horticulture, stock-raising and the general
work of the farm. We have at present nearly 100 acres of land un-
der cultivation, and have recently leased 300 acres in order to in-
crease our scope for work in practical farming. The industrial
departments award certificates of proficiency to persons who have
been pursuing the work of any trade at the expiration of two years.
We are also offering this year short courses during the winter
months, which will consist exclusively of practical instruction de-
signed for farmers' sons, who can not afford to spend eight months
of the year in school. The value and character of the work done by
this institution can be more fully appreciated when the demand for
our graduates is considered. There is no other institution in the


State having a larger per cent of its graduates profitably employed.
There is not an idler or a non-producer among our graduates. They
are all engaged in honest labor, earning from $30 to $150 per montn.
From a large and extensive correspondence with the students who
have attended this institution, but who have been unable to complete
any of its courses, we have found them active, industrious citizens
in their respective communities.

At the time of our re-organization last year we were $14,500 in
debt. This indebtedness was largely produced by our failure to
secure a continuance of our special appropriation in 1899, which we
had somewhat anticipated and by the purchase of a $50,000 farm.
The improvements suggested by experience and the rigid observance
of economy have enabled us to reduce this indebtedness to $1,000
which we owe on our farm note. If we can secure a continuance of
our present appropriation we shall soon be able to settle this indebt-
edness, after which we would desire to establish other industries,
such as painting, tailoring, etc., for which there is quite a demand.

The immediate effect of the re-organization upon our attendance
was a loss of about one-half of our students. This year our attend-
ance is 116. Most of these are boarding students, and since our
lodging accommodations are quite limited we have every available
room full. The attendance this year is rapidly increasing and about
equals our attendance when we were receiving both male and female
students. Our graduating class is composed of 15 students. This is
more than double the size of any of its predecessors. Our Freshman
Class numbers 68 students, which is also larger than any of its pre-
decessors. With our boarding accommodations full in this the sec-
ond year since our re-organization, it is easy to be seen that this is
the last session that we will be able, with our present accommoda-
tions, to accommodate all deserving applicants.

It would add greatly to the popularity of our work and also extend
the usefulness of our school if male teachers were prepared at this
institution, where they could receive the advantages of industrial
education better than any other place in the State. Teachers for the
rural schools trained here could receive instruction in agriculture,
which would enable them to place the rural schools of the State in
closer relation with the vocation of the great bulk of our people.

We would, therefore, heartily recommend the establishment of
such a department at this institution.

Very respectfully yours, Jas. B. Dudley,


436 Biennial, Report of the


Oxford, N. C, December 31. 1902.
Hon. J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Dear Sir: — I have the honor to submit the following brief report
of the educational work of the Oxford Orphan Asylum:

The purpose of the school work of the Oxford Orplian Asylum is to
enable homeless, orphan children to secure a good English education.
Bach child receives instruction in school at least half of each day
during the school term of ten months. We have eight grades and
nine teachers, who also have cottage or domestic duties. Hours are
so arranged that the school and industrial duties do not conflict.
The smallest children who are incapable of working in the indus-
trial departments of the institution attend school at both morning
and afternoon sessions. The text-books used in highest grade, the
eighth, are Milne's Standard Arithmetic, Milne's Elementary Alge-
bra, Maury's Physical Geography, Metcalf's English Grammar,
Lockwood's Lessons in English, Smiley and Storke's Beginners'
Latin Book and either Merchant of Venice or other parallel reading.

Practical instruction is given to the girls in domestic duties, in-
cluding sewing, cooking, laundering, hospital and cottage work.
We have boys in training on farm, in dairy, shoe shop, printing office,
wood-working shop, at engine and in the Oxford Furniture Factory.
All of the boys have some training in cottage work also.

W. J. Hicks. Superintendent.


Hon. J. Y. Joyner, Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Dear Sir: — Below I submit a brief report of the educational work
of the Colored Orphan Asylum:

Length of school term, 8 months.

Number teachers, 3.

Hours for recitation, from 9 a. m. to 2 p. m.

Number pupils: Males, 55; females, 53. Total, 108.

Branches taught: Spelling, reading, writing, history, arithmetic,
language, geography and sewing.

The phonetic method is used in teaching primary children to read.
Proves satisfactory in every way. Plain sewing is made a specialty
in class work, such as mending, darning; stitches taught are running,
hemming, stitching, backstitching, hemstitching, and the simpler
forms of fancy stitches.

Other industries, such as cooking, washing, ironing, general house
work, and practical farming are by no means neglected.

Respectfully submitted, R. Shepard,


Superintendent of Public Instruction. 437

Plans for Public School Rouses, with Explanations,

Specifications, Bills of A^aterial and

Estimates of Cost.


To suggest better plans for school houses, to prevent waste
of money on improperly constructed houses, when properly
constructed houses can be erected in many cases at the same
or slightly increased cost, to make it easy and inexpensive
for school officers to secure these better plans, I have had pre-
pared by Messrs. Barrett & Thomson, well-known architects,
the subjoined plans for one, two, three, four and six-room
school houses. Accompanying the plans will be found full
printed specifications and carefully prepared bills of material
for each house, together with cuts and floor plans' of the same.
If larger working plans for these buildings are desired, blue
prints can be procured at small cost from Messrs. Barrett &
Thomson, Raleigh, N. C.

These plans have been prepared in accordance with modern
principles' of ventilation, light and sanitation. Full explana-
tions of each plan by the architects will be found in this
pamphlet. It will be seen that the plans have been so ar-
ranged that larger houses can be evolved from the one-room
house if the enlargement of the district or increased popula-
tion and attendance should later require the enlargement of
the school house. It will be observed also that the estimates'
are based upon the cost of material in the smaller towns
throughout the State. In many rural districts the same ma-
terial can be obtained at much less' cost. (See under cost,
last page. ) Any number of these pamphlets can be procured
free of cost by application to the State Superintendent.

I am sending out, also, with this pamphlet, a valuable bul-
letin of the North Carolina Board of Health, on Hygiene of
Schools, prepared by Dr. R. H. Lewis, Secretary of that
Board. Very truly, J. Y. JOYNER,

Superintendent Public Instruction.

438 Biennial Report oe the

It is not economy, but instead impractical and unbusiness-
like, to build cheap, unsanitary school houses, in which the
children are not surrounded by the very best conditions of

The building should be substantially and warmly built,
with solid brick foundation, double walls and floor. With-
out warm floors, feet are sure to be cold, and this keeps the
children from studying and progressing as they should.

The working plans show a 9-inch brick wall, with proper
footings for the foundation of each building.

The extra coat of the material required for this wall
above the usual brick piers will be more than balanced by the
saving in fuel and the comfort to the scholars.

If piers are used, the spaces' between same should be tightly
boarded up.

All school rooms should be well lighted, heated and venti-
lated. When the room is bright and attractive and the air
pure, the scholars are always bright and attentive, and the
teachers can do better work. With a poorly lighted room and
bad air, the scholars are dull, inattentive and irritable.

Each building should be provided with an entrance vesti-
bule, as a protection against cold draughts in the school rooms.
The school rooms should each have an ample coat room, with
a door from vestibule or hall, and also one from the school
room, so that the teacher can have perfect control of the
room at all times. It would be hard to imagine a more un-
sanitary condition in a school room than would be caused by
the steam and gases arising from the drying of a lot of damp
and not always cleanly outer garments. This should be
avoided by placing all coats and wraps in the separate coat

A lunch closet, with lock and key, should be provided in
each coat room.

The accompanying plans' have been prepared especially to
meet the growing demand for better and more attractive

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 439

school buildings for the country districts of the State of North

The first point to be considered in the erection of the build-
ing is the site. This should be naturally as attractive as can
be found without going outside the prescribed limits. A
knoll or rising ground, sloping in all directions, is preferable.
If such a site can not be had, the grounds around the build-
ing should be properly drained.

The earth taken from the excavation for foundation should
be graded under and around the building in such manner as
to carry the surface water away from the walls. The size of
the building will be governed by the present or probable needs
of the district in which it is to be built.

Where a one-room building is required, build Room A,
Plan No. 1. with accompanying coat room, vestibule and
porch., shown by heavy black lines. When a second room is
required, build Eoom B, with coat room, vestibule and porch,
shown in light outline. If strict economy must be practiced,
leave off the tower, the small gable ventilator on the main
roof, and the porches shown on the Perspective E"o. 1.
Where Eoom A is first built, and there is a probability of
Eoom B beino' added later, the smoke and vent flue for B
should be built at the time of building Eoom A.

The three-room building, Plan and Perspective ISTo. 2, is in-
tended for use only where three rooms are required, and
where no addition is to be made. An attractive feature of
this plan is the sliding partition between two of the rooms.
This partition can be run up overhead and the two rooms
thrown together for school exercises or entertainments'. This
feature can also be carried out in the larger buildings, if de-

In order to meet the demand for a building suitable for
erection in a fast-growing community, or small town, or
where two or more districts may be consolidated, Plans Nos.
3, 4 and 5 have been prepared.


Biennial Report of the


WM_tlG.H N. C

Perspectivb Plan No 1.


Plan No. 1.

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 441

Plan No. 3 shows' two rooms of the series. When more
room is required, add the hall and Rooms C and D, Plan
"No. 4. This will make a complete four-room building on
one floor. See Perspective No. 4. If more room is required,
add the stairway and rooms E and F, second floor plan No.
5, and later rooms G and H, on same plan.

If a four-room, two-story building is desired, build A and
C, E and F. Plans No. 4 and 5, shown by heavy black lines,
and later add rooms B and D on the first, and G and H on the
second floor, shown in light outline.

When additions are to be made, the smoke and vent fines
should be built at first, as suggested with Plan No. 1.

By beginning with two rooms, Plan No. 3, and adding to
from time to time, a complete two, four, six or eight-room
building can be had without in any way interfering with the
rooms' already built.

In the same manner the plan can be developed from one to
eight rooms by first building room A and adding B, C and J)
on the first floor, next E and F together, and later G and H.
This development will give a one, two, three or four-room
building on the first floor, and six, seven or eight by adding
rooms on second floor. By building rooms A and C on first
floor, E and F on the second, and later adding B, D, G and
H, this development will give a two-room one-story, a four-
room two-story, and five, six, seven and eight rooms as re-

Only a slight change in the construction will be required in
making the various additions, and comparatively no ma-
terials lost.

Perspective No. 3 shows the appearance of rooms A and B,
Plan No. 3 used as a two-room building and ready for addi-

Perspective No. 5. shows rhe four-room two-story building
with rooms B and D in the rear.

The class rooms shown are planned to seat from 50 to 56


Biennial Report of the

r* *-*•-•■ ■ ■ * -.

vv ;. -


Perspective Plan No. 2.

Plan No. 2.

Superintendent oe Public Instruction.


scholars, using standard school desks of the following dimen-
sions :


° 6


- T.

V <v


w .



SJ[1 S s






-d o

^ SO

- -
it -


5 _h






17 in.
16 in.





Normal ._

29 in.
27', in.

24 in.

16 in.
lti in.

24 in.
24 in.

42 in.

42 in.

28 in.
27 in.

High School

16 to 20

Grammar ______ _ .


15 in.

14 in.

■'■' in.

38 in.

26 in.

12 to 18

First Intermediate __


14 in.

14 in.

22 in.

38 in.

21 in.

10 to 15

Second Intermediate


13 in.

12 in.

20 in.

36 in.

22 in.

8 to 12

Primary .-_ _


12 in.

20% in.

12 in.

20 in.

36 in.

21 in.

5 to 8

The ceilings in school rooms should be at least 13 feet clear
between the ceiling and finished floor. This will give ap-
proximately 200 cubic feet of air and 16-| feet of floor space
to each scholar.

The light, according to the best authorities, should come
from the rear and left side, or left side of the scholar only,
and the glass surface should equal from one-sixth to one-
fifth of the floor area of the room.

The windows should be set three or three and one-half feet
above the floor, and the window head should come within 12
inches of the ceiling. The school room windows should have
a 24-inch transom sash hinged at the bottom to swing in. In
opening a transom hinged in this manner the outside air is
deflected upward against the ceiling and distributed uniform-
ly through the room instead of striking the children in a
solid stream as' when an ordinary window is opened. The
sash below the transom bar should be hung with cord and

The blank walls' on one or more sides of the school rooms
should be fitted with slate or good composition black boards
with chalk trough at base. The boards • should be from 3
to 4 1-2 feet hidi, and set from 2 feet 1 inch to 2 feet 4 inches


Biennial Report of the

above floor for primary scholars, and 2 feet 6 inches above
floor for intermediate scholars.

The best and most economical means of heating and venti-
lating small buildings where a complete system of heating
and ventilation can not be installed, is by means of a venti-
lating stove in each school room. Cuts ~No. 1 and 2 show an
outside and inside view of one of these heaters.

Perspective Plan No. 3.

The heater is so constructed that the fresh air from the
outside is warmed and carried into the room where it is dis-
tributed evenly into all its parts, making one even temperature
throughout. The air is' warmed as it passes between the in-
side castings and the casing and escapes into the room through
a sliding register on top. The fresh air is taken from the
outside through a duct which brings' the air under the heater.
It is not necessary to place the heater in the centre of the
room ; any out-of-the-way place will do. Seats can be placed
within two feet of the stove. Cut No. 3 shows the position
of the stove, fresh air duct and vent flues. The flues should
be built as shown on the plans with two-inch brick partitions
between them. The smoke flue should be 8 inches by 12
inches and the vent flue 12 inches by 12 inches, with vent

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 445


Plan No. 3.


Biennial, Report of the

SCt«X*. VtCMit.


Perspective Plan No. 4


Superintendent of Public Instruction. 447

register near floor line. As soon as a fire is lighted in the
heater the smoke will pass into the smoke flue (S), thereby
heating the brick partition between the flues. The radiant
heat of same rarifies the air in the ventilating flue (V) which
causes the air in same to rise upward. The air is* replaced
by the foul air in the bottom of the room through the venti-
lating register (V R), which in turn is carried upward and
outward. The heater being supplied with fresh air from
outside heats it moderately and sends 1 it into the room. The
ventilating flue being heated by the smoke flue exhausts the
foul air, thereby causing a constant change of air in the

The temperature in the school room should be kept as even
as possible between 68 and 70 degrees.

One of the best heaters on the market for this work is the
Gr< -ins School Room Ventilating Stove, manufactured by
John Grossius Sons, Cincinnati, Ohio. The stoves cost, at
the present time, $32.50 f. o. b., Cincinnati, and can be had
for burning wood or coal.

Following will be found a complete specification with bill
of material for each building :

The working drawings referred to will consist of:

Floor plans.

Foundation and roof plan.

Four elevations and miscellaneous details clearly showing
the construction.

Copies of these drawings may be had by addressing the
architects, Barrett & Thomson,

Raleigh, K C.


These specifications are intended to embrace all materials
and labor necessary for the construction and completion,
ready for occupancy of a .... room frame school building

for the School, District of County,

North Carolina.


Biennial Report of the

Perspective Plan No. 5.


Second Floor Plan No 5.

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 449

The drawings furnished consist of:

First floor plan.

Second floor plan.

Foundation and roof plans.

Four elevations and miscellaneous details.

All materials' must be strictly as herein specified. All
sizes and dimensions must be strictly adhered to, and the con-
struction must be carried on in a workmanlike and substantial
manner to the entire satisfaction, approval and acceptance
of the County Superintendent or County Board of Educa-

Upon completion of the work the contractor must remove
all rubbish and surplus building materials from the premises
and thoroughly clean up the building.

The County Superintendent reserves the right to reject
any workmanship or materials he may deem not in strict ac-
cordance with the plans and these specifications, and any such
rejected materials must be replaced at the expense of the con-

The contractor will assume all risks and bear any loss oc-
casioned by neglect, accident, fire or any other cause until the
building has been completed and accepted by the County

The Superintendent reserves the right to make any addi-
tions or alterations at any time during the progress of the
work, and if changes are made the value of same shall be
added to or deducted from the contract price.

All bids for the erection of this building shall be made
with the understanding that the right is reserved by the Su-
perintendent to reject any or all bids or

to accept other than the lowest.


Excavate for all walls, piers and chimney butts to the
depth shown on section, or to such depth as may be found


Biennial Report of the

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 451

necessary for satisfactory foundation. Fill in around walls
and piers and grade surplus earth around the building.


Build foundation walls, piers and chimney butts to the
dimensions and carried to the heights shown on drawings of
strictly hard burned brick laid up in lime mortar.

T"P= T - tv

NO 3.

All walls, piers' and chimney butts to have footing courses
stepped out on either side of walls as shown on section. Lay
all brick with flushed solid joints, plumb and to line so that
sills rest on walls and piers without blocking. Mortar joints,
on exposed work, shall be neatly struck.

452 Biennial, Report of the

chimneys and vent flues.

Build flues in the positions' shown of hard burned brick.
Smoke flues shall be 9 x 12 inches, with sheet-iron thimble
in wall for stove pipe. Vent flues shall be 12 x 12 inches
with 12 x 12-inch opening for vent register, 12 inches above
floor line. Carry up flues straight and full size for their
entire height carefully pargeted on inside. Wythes between
flues shall be two inches thick, properly bonded.


All lath for plastering must be good, sound pine lath, laid
3-8 inch apart, breaking joints every 18 inches and over all
openings. All angles must be made solid by the carpenter
before lathing. Plaster the walls' and ceilings not otherwise
specified with two coats of mortar (doubled or lap work).

The rough mortar shall be made of lime putty, clean, sharp
sand, and a sufficient quantity of best cattle or goat's hair,
well beat apart and thoroughly mixed. The brown coat shall
be lime putty and clean, sharp sand, in proper proportions.

Finish all plastered walls' and ceilings with a good sand
finish of lime putty plaster and white or light sand floated to
true and even surface. Lime for plastering shall be run
through a proper slaking box, strained and mixed for at least
ten days before applying to walls. Hair shall not be added
until mortar is ready for use. Lay all plastering in best
manner, well up to grounds, with angles straight and true.

Plastering on outside walls shall extend to the floor be-
hind wainscoting and base. Do all patching after carpenters
and leave plastering whole and sound at the completion of
the building.


The side walls and ceilings' of all coat rooms shall be ceiled
with f x 3-inch double-beaded ceiling, closely driven up and
blind nailed.


All framing timber not otherwise specified shall be mer-

Superintendent of Public Instruction. 453

chantable long-leaf pine. Sills and first-floor joists shall be
heart timbers. Sizes as follows :

Girders', 6 x 12 inches, on edge.

Sills, 6 x 12 inches, on edge.

First-floor joists, 2 x 12.

Second-floor joists, 2 x 14.

Ceiling joists, 2x6.

Studding, 2 x 6.

All joists and studding spaced 16 inches on centers.

Rafters', 2 x 5, 2 feet on centers, with 1-| x 8-inch king post

Online LibraryNorth Carolina. Dept. of Public InstructionBiennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) → online text (page 44 of 46)