North Carolina. Dept. of Public Instruction.

Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) online

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Book Co.

We recommend the series as follows:
First Choice — No 1.

Second Choice (equal merit) — Nos. 2, 3, 4.
Third Choice— Nos. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12.

SLANT SYSTEM.

1. Smithdeal's Practical and Progressive Writing Books — B. F.
Johnson & Co.

This series is a very good one. It is very legible and easily exe-
cuted. We consider this a suitable series for use in the public
schools.

2. Harper's Copy Books — American Book Co.

3. Spencerian System of Penmanship — American Book Co.

4. Popular System of Penmanship — Christopher Sower Co.

5. Barnes's Natural Slant Penmanship — American Book Co.

We maice the following recommeudations:
First Choice — No. 1.

Second Choice (equal merit) — Nos. 2 and 3.
Third Choice (equal merit) — Nos. 4 and 5.

C. G. Vardell. Jas. A. Butler.

J. I. Foust. C. C. Wright.

J. D. Hodges. John C. Scarborough.

J. Y. Joyner. W. L. Carmichael.

R. L. Flowers. J. L. Kesler.



24 Biennial Report-of the

DRAWING.

The following t^ries of drawing books were submitted:
The Normal Drawing Course, by Silver, Burdett & Co.
Eclectic System of Industrial, Free-hand and Mechanical Drawing,
by The American Book Company.

New Short Course in Drawing, by D. C. Heath & Co.
We recommend as our first choice "The Normal Drawing Course,'
by Silver Burdett & Co.

The other two series are recommended as being of approximately
equal merit.

C. G. Vardell. J. L. Kesler.

J. I. Foust. J. D. Hodges.

W. L. Carmichael. C. C. Weight.

J. Y. Joynee. John C. Scarborough.

R. L. Flowers. Jas. A. Butler.



ARITHMETIC.

The recommendations in regard to Mathematics given below were
all unanimous, with the exception that in the first series recom-
mended Messrs. Scarborough, Carmichael and Wright recommended
that Sanford's Intermediate and Common School Arithmetics be
adopted for use between Milne's Elements of Arithmetic and Milne's
btandard Arithmetic, making a four-book series. In the opinion of
the other members of the sub-commission this would be unwise, be-
cause, in their judgment, all the work necessary to be taken is in-
cluded in the two-book series.

It was the unanimous opinion of the sub-commission that a Mental
Arithmetic be adopted as supplementary. It was the opinion of the
sub-commission, also, that with the exception mentioned above, a two-
book course was sufficient, and the arithmetics are recommended in
two-book series.

The books submitted are as follows:

1. Milne's Elements of Arithmetic — American Book Company.

Milne's Standard Arithmetic — American Book Company.

The two books form an excellent series. The methods employed in
the development of the different subjects conform to the most modern
ideas of teaching arithmetic. In the Elements of Arithmetic the de-
velopment of the idea of number is good. The inductive plan is used
to great advantage. Combinations of numbers is treated very care-
fully before beginning analysis. The explanations are all clear and
concise. The child is led by "natural, progressive steps to a thorough



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 25

understanding of the definitions, principles, processes and rules be-
fore he is required to state them." This we consider to be the test to
be applied to all arithmetics.

By this means definitions and rules signify something to the child,
for he has already grasped the ideas which they are intended to con-
vey. Too much importance can not be attached to the method which
leads a child to investigate and understand, and not to rely on follow-
ing blindly a rule which he has memorized, but does not understand.
This series is well graded. The "order and arrangement of the sub-
jects, though they are in some respects a departure from that usually
given," are excellent. Two ideas are combined — one, development of
the reasoning powers, and the other, skill in computation.

In almost every respect this series is an ideal one, and is unani-
mously recommended as our first choice.

2. Colaw & Ellwood's Primary Arithmetic — B. F. Johnson 6 Co.
Oolaw & Elwood's School Arithmetic — B. F. .Johnson & Co.

The criticism of Milne's Series would in the main apply to this
series, though we do not think that in every respect Colaw & El-
wood's equals Milne's. In the Primary Arithmetic we thinK that it
does not progress as rapidly as Milne's Elements. The School Arith-
metic has many excellent points, and the series as a whole is a good
one. Applying the same test as outlined in the criticism of Milne's
Series, we unanimously recommend this as our second choice.

3. WentworWs Elementary Arithmetic — Ginn & Co.
Wenticorth's Practical Arithmetic — Ginn & Co.

Judged by the same standards applied to the two series above, we
consider this a good series. The Elementary Arithmetic is an excel-
lent one. The excellent qualities ascribed to Milne's Elements of
Arithmetic may be applied to this. \Ve do not, however, consider the
Practical Arithmetic the equal of Milne's Standard, and as a series we
unanimously recommend this as our third choice.

The illustrations in the Primary are not good, and the mechanical
make-up of the series is much inferior to that of any of the series
recommended. The order of arrangement of subjects is considered
not equal to that of the best series.

It is believed by the undersigned that there is absolutely no place
for these books between Milne's Elements and Milne's Standard
Arithmetics; that both overlapping in the same grade of work the
uniformity of text-books would be seriously interfered with, San-
ford's being used in some schools and Milne's in others, involving
unavoidable complications.

4. Sutton & KimbrougWs Lower Arithmetic — D. C. Heath & Co.
Sutton & Kimbrough's Higher Arithmetic — D. C. Heath & Co.

This series has no features that especially commend themselves
to us.



26 Biennial Report of the

5. Brooks' Normal Rudiments of Arithmetic— Christopher Sower Co.
Brooks' Normal Standard of Arithmetic— Christopher Sower Co.
We consider the Rudiments much superior to the Standard, but as a
series not up to the best.

6. Cook <G Cropsey's Elementary Arithmetic — Silver, Burdett & Co.
Cook & Cropsey's Advanced Arithmetic— Silver, Burdett & Co.

7. YenaUe's New Elementary Arithmetic — University Pub. Co.
VenaUe's New Practical Arithmetic — University Pub. Co.

8. Hall's Elementary Arithmetic — Werner School Book Co.
Hall's Complete Arithmetic — Werner School Book Co.
Hall's Primer Arithmetic — Werner School Book Co.

9. Carr's Primary Arithmetic — B. F. Johnson & Co.
Carr's Advanced Arithmetic — B. F. Johnson & Co.
Not at all suited to our schools.

10. Noble's Essentials of Arithmetic — B. F. Johnson & Co.

The manuscript of this work was presented to the Commission
with a few advanced pages of the book, showing the style of the
page,. type, binding, etc.

The book is of a primary grade, and does not include enough for
the Common School Course. We have no higher book submitted
which we can recommend as a sequel. For this reason we do not be-
lieve its merits with this disadvantage entitle it to a place in the
recommended list, since we have other complete series.

CENTAL ARITHMETIC.

As stated in the beginning of this report, the sub-commission recom-
mends that a Mental Arithmetic be adopted as supplementary. Some
teachers prefer to use a Mental Arithmetic in addition to the regular
series.

We recommend as our first choice Milne's Mental Arithmetic, by
American Book Company.

The other books submitted are arranged in order of merit, but
without recommendation.

1. Weidenheimer's Mental Arithmetic — R. L. Myers.

2. Lipinncott's Mental Arithmetic — J .B. Lippincott Co.

3. Ranb's Mental Arithmetic — Werner Book Co.

4. Brooks' Mental Arithmetic — Christopher Sower Co.
Wentworth's Mental Arithmetic was submitted, but too late to be

examined, the report on Arithmetic having already been made.
C. G. Vardell. J. D. Hodges.

R. L. Flowers. Jas. A. Butler.

J. Y. JOYNER. J. I. FOUST.

J. L. Kesler.



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 27

MINORITY REPORT ON ARITHMETIC.

We, the undersigned members of the Sub-commission on Text-
Books, find ourselves unable to agree in opinion with our associates
on the sub-commission with reference to a series of arithmetics for
use in our public schools.

A majority of the sub-commission recommend Milne's Elements
of Arithmetic and Milne's Standard Arithmetic, published by the
American Book Company. We are willing to that recommendation,
provided Sanford's Intermediate Arithmetic and Sanford's Com-
mon School Arithmetic, published by the University Pub. Co., are
put in between Milne's Elements of Arithmetic and Milne's Stand-
ard, making a four-book series, as we now have, and have had for
twenty years, with Sanford's entire series, which has given satisfac-
tion through all these years, so far as our knowledge goes, and we
have had large experience in school work, with ample opportunity 10
know if there has been dissatisfaction.

In the arrangement, we propose that Milne's Elements of Arith-
metic take the place of Sanford's Primary, left off. Then will come
Sanford's Intermediate, followed by Sanford's Common School. Then
Milne's Standard as a higher arithmetic for classes needing a higher
arithmetic.

We regret the difference of opinion in the sub-commission and
would gladly avoid it by sinking our preference were these personal
only. We feel bound by our duty to our people and by our convic-
tions as to the best arithmetics for the teacher and children of the
public schools. Hence, we can not sink our preferences in this mat-
ter, which to us seems one of great importance and far beyond a
mere personal choice.

We, therefore, after years of practical experience in school work,
and after having had perfect knowledge of the work accomplished by
these books, declare that, in our judgment, Sanford's Intermediate
and Sanford's Common School are the best books offered for use in
our public schools; and that Milne's two books, as above, with these
two books of Sanford's Series, are far better for our teachers and
pupils. Without these two books from the Sanford Series, our
schools, which, in the very nature of their environments, are pri-
mary, and must be for yet a long while, will suffer material loss by
the change proposed to be made by the majority of theCommission.

This conclusion from the following reasons:

Throughout the State these books (Sanford) have done, and are
still doing, a work unequaled by any series of arithmetics ever used
in our public schools.

The author, in his experience and observation in the school-room,
both as teacher in secondary schools and as college professor of



25 Biennial Report of the

mathematics, found that the arithmetic work done in the schools was,
nearly without exception, rote work.

The method of memorizing rules and of mechanical work by rules
for results was universal. The reasoning powers were not only not
developed, but were dwarfed and weakened by such methods. The
work in arithmetic was purely a matter of memory, and not a matter
of reasoning from relations of numbers given to find numbers de-
sired.

Convinced that the defects were in the text-books and their
methods, he planned a series of text-books in arithmetic, in which
each operation should be made clear to the learner, and each step
would be taken as a reasoning process to correct conclusion, seen by
the pupil, by the nature of the process, to be correct.

His series of analytical arithmetics grew out of this effort. They
have revolutionized the methods of teaching arithmetic and the plan
of text-books on arithmetic.

We call attention to the clearness of definitions; also, to the
problems given, followed by clear, painstaking analysis, by simple
processes of reasoning. The conclusion is reached and explained
simply, clearly and logically.

We note also questions for mental work with careful analysis of
the same throughout the book. Take each subject treated through
the books, the same superior system is followed, the two books are on
the same plan and are graded and well adapted to our schools; we
believe better adapted and suited to our conditions and needs than
any other arithmetics within the scope of our knowledge. Hence, we
urge their adoption as herein set forth for use in our public schools.

The binding, print and paper are fairly good.
Respectfully submitted,

John C. Scarborough,
C. C. Wright.
W. L. Carmichael.

GEOGRAPHY.

We recommend as our first choice Maury's Series of Geographies,
consisting of Maury's Elementary and Maury's Manual, for the fol-
lowing reasons:

The idea of the earth as the home of man is the chief thought of
the book. The full-page colored illustrations serve to accentuate this
thought by giving vivid pictures of the people of each continent and
of the homes in which they live.

The plan is good and the arrangement of the text is in harmony
with the latest and best methods of instruction. While some mignt
object to the plan of questions and answers found in the Elementary
book, we consider this a helpful feature to the teacher in the un-
graded schools, as these questions and answers serve only to bring



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 29

out more fully the facts just recited in the text. Or the teacher, if
desired, may formulate her own questions. Another commendable
feature is the relief maps, the illustrations, and the treatment of the
earth as a unit.

We desire to call special attention to the fact that Maury's Manual
is more impartial in its treatment of the different States and sections
of the Union. Compare treatment of North Carolina by Maury and
others.

We further desire to call your attention to the feature of oral work
found in this series, which ought to be done by the teacher. This
will prove a means of great saving of time, as they contain valuable
suggestions, and, by using them, the teacher can prepare for each
lesson in advance.

The binding, illustrations, maps and paper are good; type clear.

As our second choice we recommend Prye's Series of Geographies.
We regard all other geographies submitted to us as unsuited for use
in our schools.

W. L. Carmichael. C. C. Weight.

J. D. Hodges. Jas. A. Butler.

John C. Scarborough.



MINORITY REPORT ON GEOGRAPHY.

We concur in the recommendations of the other members, except in
that part which refers to Frye's Introductory Geography and Maury's
Elementary Geography. We believe that Frye's Introductory, along
with Maury's Manual, should be the first choice of the sub-commis-
sion, and Maury's Elementary and Frye's Complete Geographies
should be the second choice. We give the following reasons for this
preference:

1. We prefer the plan of Frye's Introductory. This book gives
twenty pages to the study of what is know as Home Geography. This
we consider absolutely necessary, since the child must interpret all
geographical facts by the ideas gathered from observation. The fol-
lowing are some of the subjects treated in this division of the book:
Hills and Valleys, Brooks and Rivers, Slopes, Kinds of Soil, Work of
Water, etc.

Maury gives no attention whatever to these geographical forms
around the home of the child; but at once attempts to describe these
forms in distant countries without having given the child the ideas
necessary to his understanding the descriptions. This we consider a
very serious mistake.

2. Frye uses what is known as the development method, making
use of the material gathered by observation; the child is guided by
means of questions to the conception of new relations. By this



30 Biennial Report oe the

method the child himself does the work, and thus gains mental
power.

In Maury's Elementary the memory of the child is appealed to
almost entirely. The author states facts about geography and ex-
pects the child to remember those facts. Compare Frye's Introduc-
tory, page 2, with Maury, page 4; Frye, page 6, with Maury, page 6,
etc.

We do not think that the splitting of the series offers any disad-
vantage, since there is no vital connection between Maury's Ele-
mentary and Maury's Manual ; but we do consider it a serious matter
to have the subject of geography introduced by an incorrect method.
C. G. Vardell. J. L. Kesler.

J. I. FOUST. J. Y. JOYNER.

R. L. Flowers.



PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY.
Maury's Physical Geography — University Publishing Company.
Tarr's First Book on Physical Geography — The Macmillan Co.
The two books named above are the only two submitted. The sub-
ject is presented in Maury's Physical Geography in a clear, attractive
manner. The book is intended as a primary work. It has been re-
vised and contains a suitable amount of interesting natural knowl-
edge. The illustrations and maps are very good. This book is well
adapted to the work in the public schools. We recommend that this
book be adopted.

Tarr's work is a very good one. The subject is treated in an ex-
tended manner, and the book is too hard for use in the public schools.
We recommend that this book be not adopted.

C. G. Vardell. C. C. Wright.

R. L. Flowers. J. D. Hodges.

W. L. Carmichael. John C. Scarborough.

J. L. Kesler. J. Y. Joyner.

J. I. Foust. J as. A. Butler.



ENGLISH GRAMMAR.
After a careful examination of all the text-books submitted on this
subject, and a thorough comparative study of the best of them, we beg
leave to report as follows:

CLASS I.

1. A Modern English Grammar — Newson & Co., New York.

2. The Mother Tongue, Book II — Ginn & Co.

These two books are of nearly equal merit. It will appear below
from the detailed report of their respective merits, we consider
Beuhler's Grammar the better book for separate use, as a one-book



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 31

course, equally good for use in connection with Book I of The
Mother Tongue Series, and better for use in connection with any of
the other books recommended on language.

1. A Modern English Grammar — Beuhle'r.

The following are some of the numerous merits of this book:

(1) /Selection and Arrangement of Material. — In the selection of
material, the author exercises rare judgment and discrimination,
seizing upon the essentials and working these out to clearness and
omitting the unessentials. In the space allotted to respective sub-
jects, a sensible appreciation of their relative importance is shown.
The arrangement is simple, natural, logical, orderly.

(2 J The Method of Treatment is clear, concise, practical, pedagogi-
cal, almost fascinatingly interesting. There is no attempt to latinize
English Grammar; it is held true to its Anglo-Saxon-Norman origin.
There is a well-graded, simple, logical, progressive development of
subjects. His treatment of each subject is a clear, beautiful un-
folding.

Beginning with the sentence, the student is led in Part I, approxi-
mately one-half of the book, to work out inductively, by observation
and analysis, a knowledge of all the essential elements of the
sentence and a mastery of all the essential principles of sentence-
structure. In Part II, the uses and forms and further classification
of words, parts of speech, the nnal minor elements of the sentence are
dealt with. Here also the sentence is constantly recurred to as the
unit of study, and the student is led to observe the facts and forms of
language and master them for himself. There is a successful combi-
nation of the inductive and the deductive, the analytic and the syn-
thetic. The author properly and sensibly gives the student credit for
some knowledge of language acquired before from talking and read-
ing, begins with this as a working basis, and undertakes to lead him
by investigation and abservatlon to a conscious knowledge and a
classification of what he has already acquired from long unconscious
usage and habit. By easy, logical steps, the student is led from the
known to the unknown, from the simple to the complex, from the
whole to the parts. Analysis and synthesis are carried on together.
As fast as he is led by analysis, observation and generalization to
conclusions, definitions, statements of principles, etc., he is required
to take the step of application. The student is thus set to working
out his knowledge for himself instead of having to accept it help-
lessly on faith from others. He is made a participator in the de-
lightful exercise. Such learning is self-teaching. Knowledge thus
acquired is real, not artificial; live, not dead.

(3) Exercises and Illustrative Sentences. — Special attention rs di-
rected to the number, variety, life and practicability of the exercises.
This is one of the strongest features of the book.



32 Biennial Report of the

The illustrative sentences are numerous and are selected with un-
usual judgment and taste from the child's life and experience, and
from the best literature within the sphere of his life and sympathy.
Many of these sentences are of rare literary excellence, serving the
double purpose of illustrating clearly and simply the grammatical
facts and principles, and of stimulating incidentally a love of the
beautiful in expression and of the noble and lofty in thought and
feeling. The arrangement of these sentences is a very commendable
and unique feature of the book. Examine pages 67, 83, 88, etc. Ob-
serve how first come simple short sentences, usually drawn from the
student's every-day life and experience, presenting boldly, without
complication, the facts and principles to be illustrated, then follow
sentences, gradually increasing in complexity, drawn from mythol-
ogy, history, Scripture, fiction, poetry.

(4) Definitions, Rules, Cautions, etc. — The definitions and the
statements of principles are remarkably clear, simple, accurate and
concise. Please examine any of these. As indicated in the para-
graph on Method of Treatment, the student is led to discover, ob-
serve, conclude, generalize for himself, so that the definitions, rules,
etc., when reached, are but a better and more accurate expression oi
what he has already been led to understand.

The cautions are few, but well chosen, displaying the acquaintance
of an experienced and successful teacher with the hard places, the
snares. The treatment of these is direct, simple, clear, wise and
practical. The book is not overloaded and obscured with endless
"dont's." His plan is to make clear the correct principles and secure
a mastery of these.

This book deserves its name — "A Modern English Grammar." We
deem it admirably adapted to use in our city and country schools.
It is, in our opinion, the best book examined for use by itself, or for
use in connection with any good text-book of language lessons. Like
all the other books on grammar, it should be supplemented by some
good text-book of language lessons.

2. The Mother Tongue, Book II. — This book conforms admirably to
the plan and purpose outlined in its preface, to which the reader is
referred. In selection and arrangement of material, and in method
x>f treatment, it is similar to Beuhler's Grammar, and of about equal
merit with it. In scope of work it is about equally comprehensive.

For a clear, succinct summary and review of the' first fifty-six
chapters of this book, see Chapter LVII, page 131. The remaining
chapters are devoted chiefly to inflection, difficult questions of con-
struction, and sub-divisions of classification.

In definitions, exercise's, illustrative sentences, etc., the book is
somewhat inferior to Beuhler's Grammar. The exercises are scarcely
so numerous and varied as those in Beuhler's, and are more mechani-



Superintendent of Public Instruction. 33

cal. There are not enough exercises for original constructive work.
The illustrative sentences, as an examination of any page will show,
are simple and illustrative, but lacking in life, variety and literary
beauty. In these respects the book is inferior to Beuhler's Grammar.



Hyde's Two-Book Course in English — D. C. Heath & Co.

This book is our third choice, and we place it in Class II. In scope
it is sufficiently comprehensive. In selection of material the author
is sensible and judicious, selecting essentials and discriminatingly
dividing space according to the relative importance of the respective
subjects. The arrangement is natural, logical, excellent. The
sequence, unity and continuity are above the average. Special atten-
tion is called to the divisions and the statement of the subject or cen-
tral idea of each.



Online LibraryNorth Carolina. Dept. of Public InstructionBiennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of North Carolina, for the scholastic years ... [serial] (Volume 1900/01-1901/02) → online text (page 9 of 46)