S perintendent — E. McK. Goodwin.
S u u ard I : ' orge L. Phifer.
James McKee, M. D., Superintendent.
The State Hospital at Raleigh is the State's first genuinely charita':
offspring it ever had. It had its conception in the mind of that hig|t
enlightened humanitarian, Miss Dorothea Dix. Her effort to bring ah' 06
its developmenl is a part of the old Commonwealth's history, as it is
history of other Stile-. This good woman never relinquished her effc
in any State until her purpose was accomplished.
This place i- called Dix Hill in honor of her memory, and the site i f>
purchased by a commission of gentlemen under an act of the dene 1 ?
Assembly ratified on January 20. 1840. This building was completed
1856 and at a cost of $184,938.58, a most elegant and well-built sti
ture. and one of the most valuable pieces of property owned by the St;
The original design was that of a cross, with the main building
feet long, SO feet 8 inches wide and 86 feet 2 inches from the first flooV
top of the dome, and an arcade 80 feet 8 inches long and 26 feel 2 I
les wide. The wings are eaeli 325 feet long, 40 feel 8 in
eet high at right angles.
«his was intended for 224 patients, but by the building of two ami
these wings after the dormitory style and the placing
id certain number of rooms, 405 patients are cared for.
: 4i there are 175 acres belonging to the Hospital, bul onlj sixtj
'"gardening and farm products. The balance of the land i
the buildings, including the Hospital, laundry, boiler-h<
■; tl|i, steward's house, engineer's house and the barn.
otwith standing thai the original act to purchase propertj p
; "there should be upon the premises an unfailing supply ol
e water.'' yet the water became so contaminated by the incn
! U illation upon its banks that the Legislature made an appr< pi i
findaect this Hospital with the Wake Water Company, and we ai
;ent getting pure, wholesome water from this compan
holt conveniently situated for receiving supplies of fuel by meai
• eo eh with the Caraleigh branch of the Southern Railway.
Ik he daily average of patients j s noted in the biennial reporl for the
r 1902 as 442, and the percentage of euros upon admissions 7 1. the
|lest percentage of cures in the Hospital ever recorded, the hi
iously having reached 68, and the mortality was >ix per the
iber treated. The first patient was admitted February ±2. 1856
Franumber admitted and treated from that date to this — thai i-. Au
1904— is 4.096.
le cost of maintaining these patients per capita lias ranged from as
as $300 down to $135. The present per capita cosl lor m
patients is $170.65, and this seemingly high per capita cost is due
he exceedingly high prices of provisions, and the i
pal, and to the inadequate amount of land surrounding tin II"-
1. The Superintendent claims that with an additional a
I the patients would be more benefitted, and the per capil
he Hospital is constantly crowded, especially in the female d
t, with a great number of applications on file, though an arran
Zp has been made with the authorities of the State Bospital at Mor
f |;on to relieve it by taking thirty-six applications from the
rs if possible.
lis institution has been the mean- of bestowing many blessings
ensing good to the afflicted and giving relief to families,
?ite1 tld still' continue to give protection to the public and sub
upjose for which it was built.
THE STATE HOSPITAL AT MORGAN-TON.
P. L. Ml iii'iiv, M. 1)., Superintendent.
The State Bospital al Morganton, formerly the Western North Ca
lina [nsane Asylum, was authorized by an act of Assembly rati!
March 20, 1875. The Legislature appointed the building commission
and appropriated $75,000 "to provide another asylum for the insane
North ( '.i i olina."
Tlie erection of the building began the nexl year, 1876, the comn
- : having purchased 200 acre- of land near Morganton for the p
The Legislature of 1 s77 limited the building begun by the comn
sioners to the completion of one wing, the south. This was finished a
occupied early in L883. The Legislature of thai year ordered the cc |,
pletion of the north wing. This was occupied in 1886. The site and ^
building as it stood in 1886 had cost the State about $435,000. It v
supposed to furnish accommodation for 425 patients, though 500 w
crowded in it.
It was soon scon that this room was insufficient to care for all
insane in the Western Eospital district, which included the counties
Person, Durham, Chatham, Moore and Richmond and all west of th(
Subsequently Durham and Chatham were placed in the eastern distr
The board of directors, with savings made and a special appropriat
of si 2.001) in 1893, erected further accommodations for 250 patiei
These in tents cost about $72,000. These were finished in 18
Nothing further was done to enlarge the Hospital till 1899, when $20
was given to begin a "colony" for men and a building for women.
1901 si 10.000 was appropriated to eompleb these and to increase f
ther the water supply. Only $100,000 of this was available. Th
buildings and one now in course of erection for twenty five men \
increase the capacity 300 patients, so that now the Hospital has re
f. . I.', , patients, -con to he increased to 1,050.
The Hoard had a bare building in 1883, with no fire protection,
out-houses, rough grounds and sterile lands. They believed that
protection of the patients and the property required the expel
ture of means they had in hand. An ample barn, with stables, st(|
us and other out-buildings, were erected, the grounds were be
tified, the land enriched by proper cultivation, a large reservoir i
made, lire pump in-tailed, with pipe, hydrants, hase, etc. A gra
macadamized road was constructed to the railroad station, orchards ;
vineyards se1 out and 400 acres of land adjoining the original holding
the institution were purchased. As the Hospital stands to-day, it
cosl less th an S7OO.000. It could not be duplicated for $1,250,000. T"
with the increased fertility of the land, the beautifying of the prom
makes this property of the State worth, at a conservative estim
500,000. This increased value is due in a greal measu
bor of the patients. The water supply is ample for 1,500
le Hospital owns the whole water-shed, about S00 acres, thi
ire water. It is a gravity system, brought from the South V
re miles away.
The appropriation for the last two years was $125,0
i lis was considered inadequate and the hoard declined to
jw huildings to their capacity. The Governor ami his council,
iary. 1904, agreed to supply any deficiencies up id $12,000 if thi
Quid fill the wards. Since then the new house has been rapidb
ith women from all parts of che State. The Hospital at Raleigh I
errun with female applicants, it was decided for the presenl
'omen to ignore geographical lines a- far as possible.
On the first of September there were 1,012 patients mi the rolls,
tout forty unoccupied beds in the women's department.
"The wards for men are full. The expenditures for the yeai w\
ithin.the available means at the disposal of the institution.
eludes the $12,000 placed to its credit l>\ tin- Governor and no
robably not half of this $12,000 will be needed.
It is not possible to make an accurate estimate of (lie amount needed
r support for the next two years, because it cannot lie known
penses for the year will be, but a fair estimate would !»•. witl
information now at hand, that $145,000 per annum will be required foi
"lie present population.
The boilers, which have been in use for over twenty y nll\
ving out : new ones must lie had: these will cost about $6,0
An amusement hall is another necessity. This will cosi $5,000.
For the proper support and care of the patients now in the Hospital
will require $150,500 per annum.
..The Hospital, in round numbers, has beds for -100 men and I men.
, here should be erected accommodations for at least 150 men. It i-
■lieved that the majority of these beds should be supplied by
'■ection of inexpensive colony buildings, but to carry out this idea
"tssfully more land must be had.
All these questions will be further discussed by future rep ri
M. ( >. Sherbill, Librarian.
In October, L899, Mr. Wyche re-classified and catalogued the Sta l;- 1
Library under thi Dewej card system; al the same time he took an i 1
ventory of the books on hand, and reported 22,617 volumes, not inclu
i 1 1 ^_r pamphlets or < olonial and State IN''- 1 rds.
October, L899, up to the 20th of May, L904, we have added
the Library from all sources 13,837 volumes, making a total of 36,4
volumes in the main Library, nol including pamphlets, State and Co J
nial Records, North Carolina Regimental Histories, Moore's Rosters,
Grandfather's Tales. Neither does the above number include the boo
in the Eouse and Senate libraries. In addition to the above list
we had on the 20th of May, 1004, 1,847 bound volumes of nevfl
- s, ranging from 1 701 up to 190 1.
II will be patent to all thai the North Carolina Stale Library h
me of ureal importance and value as a reference library. T
rapid growth of the Library brings with il increased labor and respc t
sibilities to the Librarian and his assistant. The import Mice and val [
of the State Library i- becoming more and more appreciated by t
genera] public. In addition to the numerous letters asking for inforir $
inn. persons from other State- have spent much time in the Libra
searching our records. Also young men of our own State, students
Johns Hopkins, Columbia University and other institutions have speJ^U
weeks in our Slate Library gathering historical information not to
had anywhere else. A lady from Connecticut who spent, some time he
stated I hat she had found data here in our Library that she failed
find in the Congressional Library at Washington City. These matte
are mentioned to let our people know what an important library
have here in North Carolina. We are greatly in need of more ro<
wherein to store cur books. The section of the Library cut off duri
Governor Carr's administration for an office for the Bureau of Lab
was a mistake. It i- too small for that office, and we need it badly f
the Slate Library. North Carolina has thousands of dollars invest
in books (many that could not be replaced) in the State and Suprei ,
r1 Libraries, in a building thai is no1 at all safe as against ti
This ought not to be so; the State ought to have her valuable boo|* r
and records in fire-proof buildings.
THE BOARD OF PUBLIC CHAR] I
Miss Daisy Denson, Secretary.
State Constitution, Article XI, Sec. 7 :
Beneficent provision for the poor, the unfortunate and o
of the first duties of a civilized and Christian State, I
sembly shall, at its first session, appoint and define the dutii
ard of Public Charities, to whom shall be entrusted the supervisi
charitable and penal Slate institutions, and who shall annua]
t to the Governor upon their condition, with suggi
"Accordingly the General Assembly, at its first session, passed i
itled "An act providing for a Board of Public Charities and
Gibing the duties thereof."— Laws of L868-'69, chapter 170.
Through non-election by the General Assembly to the animal;;,
hg vacancies, and the failure of several Governors to fill the same, tin
"\kI was in a dormant state, when the necessity for in
["'• affairs of the State Hospital, Raleigh, called the attenti
;1 Hor Daniel G. Fowle to the need of such a Board. Be appoin
owing gentlemen to fill the existing vacancies: Messrs I'.. Burki
ywood, M. D.. President: Lawrence J. Haughton, Esq . Jam - P -
™', Esq., Capt. W. A. Bobbitt, and Charles Dully, dr.. M. D.
- they assembled at the Capitol on the firsl Tuesday in
'? fl wided in the act, section 2, Laws of 1868-'69.
3uly organized, they proceeded 'to elect as Secretary Capt. C. I'.. Den
i, who had served oil the Board from 1873 to 1878, and who contin
the position of Secretary until his death, January 15, 1903.
)n account of his professional duties. Dr. Haywood retired
'n, June 6, 1891. Dr. Charles Duffy succeeding him and adminisl
"'• affairs of the Board from then until his resignath n. -Inly
ril )ther members have been J. T. Reid, Wesley \. .Inn.-, s. \\ I!- id an.
L * A Blair. Mr. Blair, now senior member as to appointment,
fl n of the present Board. Members are. E. I.. Haughton, Esq., Pol
*ksville; W. F. Crai"-, Esq., Marion; Carey .1. Hunter. Esq
v;; ' ell l A. C.'McAllister, Esq., Ashboro.
' :fi, Jpon the organization of the Board in 1889 an inspection oi I
;to fclosed the fact that there was no appropriation aval
other expenses necessary to secure data from all the counties o the
ite in reference to their penal and charitable institution^
explains the dormant state of the previous Board D
fill the mission entrusted to them by the State, the Board :
, make bricks without straw." The Resident assigned the
tutions to the several members, also the county institution
idence for inspection and supervision. The Secretary v i. autj
prepare suitable inquiries to be used in the investigation ol I
struction and management of the institutions and the condition of
inmates. The expenses of postage, etc., were defrayed l>y the memib
the Secretary freely giving his services froi ■tober, 1889, to the le
lative session of 1891. An act was then passed to "Increase the pov
of the Board of Public Charities."
Laws i I 1891, chapter 491 :
2. "Thai the Board of Public Charities shall receive no cord;
sation for their services but their actual expenses, which, with
office expenses and the printing of necessary blanks, shall be paid by
te Treasurer upon the warrant of the Auditor."
Sc,-. 3. "That each and every officer and employee of any charit
or penal institution of the Si ate who shall fail, upon request, to afl |
said Board proper facilities for the examination of any of said inst
tions shall be subject to the penalties contained in section two thous
three hundred and forty-one of The Code."
The work and responsibilities have steadily increased with the e j 1
growing philanthropic movements in the State. Contrast the repor i
L889 with that of l903-'04. In 1889 six State institutions and thos I '
tour counties were inspected and made reports. In 1903-'04, fif
years later, all the State institution-, every county borne and jail in
ninety-even counties, twenty-five convict camps, reports of the
from the County Commissioners, one private hospital for the car
nervous and insane patient- licensed by the Board (Laws of 1899,
60, chap. 1). and in the field of private benevolence eleven orphana
including those aided by the State, twenty-one private hospitals and i
cellaneous charities for the relief of suffering humanity. State inst
tions have been inspected by committees appointed by the chairn
inspections being made at the time of the regular meetings. These
held, according to the act, on the first Tuesday in January. April, J
and October in the office of the Board. State Capitol.
The influence of their work is seen in the gradually improving co:
tion of all county homes and jails, in the establishment of a sepa
in-lit ut ion for the deaf and dumb at Morganton, in the increased ace
modation for the insane, in the popular movement for an indust
school or reformatory, and especially in their untiring efforts, in so
,, the present limited capacity of the institutions will permit, to
that all the unfortunate shall participate in the charities of the Stat
It is an advisory board without executive power. It is non-parti
It- members receive no pecuniary remuneration; their reward is a
conscience in the impartial discharge of the duty with which
mother. North Carolina, has charged them. In confiding to their <
her dependent, defective and delinquent classes, she lias honored t
and they have shown themselves worthy of the trust.
OXFORD ORPHAN ASVLl'M.
\\ . J. Hicks, Superintendent.
fhe Oxford Urplian Asylum was established in 1872 by thi
ge of Masons of North Carolina.
ts mission is to provide the necessities of life for destitute hon
dren, and to give them a care and training which will help I
m useful citizens, men and women of character.
'he benefits of the institution have never been restricted to tin- chil
la of Masons, but they are open to all while orphan childn
olina, not under six years of age (seldom over fourteen),
ly destitute and homeless. A greal majority oi it- beneticiari
the cnildren of Masons.
Bring the thirty-two years of its existence nearly twenty tin." him
I boys and girls have been under its care, and many of these ar
| valuable members of society.
jit present about two hundred and fifty children are in the instituti
it is hoped that the number can be very soon increased to three hun
Hie children are offered the opportunity and are in manj cases led to
uire a good English education, skill in the industrial branches
given moral and religious instruction.
Industrial training is received in cottages, kitchen, sewin
miry, shoeshop. printing office, woodworking shop, dairy, Oxl
nit'ure Factory and on the farm. Every child i-. during tl
ii. in school at least a half of each day.
lost of the industrial duties of the institution are performed
dren under proper direction and instruction.
?he State of North Carolina co-operates with the Masons in the main
ance of this worthy work for helpless children by appropriating
fffusand dollars annually. This is generally conceded to be a
icious, economical use of the public funds.
:*he State is represented upon the Board of Director- of tl
than Asylum uy three members, appointed by the Governor
uest of the Grand Lodge of Masons of North Carolina. \n anmu
s;:lt( ort from the institution is made to the Governor by the director
THE NORTH CAROLINA BOARD OF HE \LTIi.
Du. Richard II. Lewis, Secretary.
The State Board < i Health owes its origin and. for several of its fi
years, largely its financial support, to the patriotic and self-sacrific
devotion of the late Thomas F. Wood, M. I)., of Wilmington, who c j.
with truth be called the father of sanitation in North Carolina.
In tin- legislation originating with Dr. Wood and later fostered a L
secured by the Board, the principle of local home rule has been stric
d. The unil of sanitation is the County Sanitary Committ .
ed of the Hoard of County Commissioners and two registei l
physicians one appointed by the chairman of the said board, and < .
by the mayor of the countj town. This sanitary committee is char; ,'."
with "the immediate can- and responsibility of the health interests L
their county." They are required to elect a county superintendent
health, who is the executive officer of the committee and whose dual
are defined in the art relating to the Board of Health (chapter 2
Ma- functions of the State Board of Health are purely adviso
Executive powers and duties would require a large appropriation.
ral statemenl of the same is set forth in section 3 of the act. 1
work of the Hoard is necessarily chiefly educational in character. 1
principal agency employed for this purpose is the publication of
monthly bulletin — which, we are gratified to state, is said to be one
the besl of it- class published in the country. Besides the routine tal
lated statement of the prevalence and location of the various diseas
especially of the communicable class, and of the mortuary statistics
the principal cities and towns, it contains articles, original and select
bearing on the prevention of disease. This bulletin is sent to evi
physician in the State and is a valuable medium of communication w
the medical profession, upon whom in the last analysis the effect
work in disease prevention as well as cure depend-.
In addition to the monthly bulletin a number of special bulletins
health pamphlets have been prepared and widely distributed. Amo
them are -Disposal of Garbage,' 3 "Inst ructions for Quarantine and D,
infection," "Importance of the Disinfection of the Bowel Discharges
Typhoid Fever," "The Prevention of Tuberculosis," "Drinking Water
Its Relation to Malarial Diseases," and "Causes and Prevention of C^
sumption.'' The article on drinking water and malaria was published
The Sanitarian, the leading health journal of America, and was fav
ably noticed by newspapers all over the country. Its distribution in (
Si. Me was largely instrumental in promoting the substitution of driv
wells, bored wells and cistern- for the shallow open wells in our eastf
counties, thereby greatly improving the health conditions in that sectii
The Committee on Water Legislation of the American Public Hea
Association, in its report at the 1901 meeting, placed North Carolii
who c |
th only three other States, in the li
airing the passage of an "Act to Protect Watei «
■ires a chemical analysis quarterly and a bactei uii!
mthly of public water supplies, the Board has
icticable. the people using such supplies aj
fecially such epidemics as those of Plymouth and Bui
00 and 1.400 cases respectively in a populate
a provision in this act the State Board is autliori
its own laboratory the monthly biological analyses reqi i
irge therefor $5. This has enabled the Board
nt with the Departmenl of Agriculture by which ii p
ary of their biologist and has the work done j n their laboi
s way it not only keeps watch and ward over the public wati
es, but also makes analyses of country wells and springs ■
Using typhoid fever, which is chiefly a rural di
8ns in suspected diphtheria; of blood in malarial fever; of sputum in
Dercnlosis, and of faeces in hook-worm diseases. This work, ho
i come to be too voluminous for our resources, and the !
re an appropriation from the general treasury of at lea
;"")()() to supplement the income from the water companies.
K.S an illustration of the effect of this work in 1 lie - life
: '° I prevention of sickness, let us take typhoid fever. I
in our State about one thousand deaths from this di nd 1
fimsand eases which recover. According to the health anil"
Slate of New York, each life is valued at $5,000, and
= place it at a higher figure. But we will he conservati
000. which is hut little more than the price of a firsl lave in
;e-bellum times. Allowing three months of incapacitj f< 1 w<
ise who recover, the total loss of time for 1 he nine thousand who
over would he -.27,000 months. Withoul taking into conside
leral expenses, doctors' hills, cost of medicine, the time of nursi
sorrow and distress occasioned by deatli and sickness, the
w !.te annually from this one disease, valuing the 27.000 month? I
f at only $12 a month, is over $5,000,000. Now. if tl Bi
alth, by the prompt notification of the contamination of
i and 'by its instruction as to precaution- in other le-
ans of saving one life and nine cases of fever. i1 saves to the
000 — two and a half times the amount of its appropriation.
>ince January, 1808, small-pox has been widely prevalent in thi
total number of cases reported to May 1, 1004. bei
' l deaths and incidentally much injury to business. It is
™ t but for repeated instruction through the bulletin, by pi
' ! ,v( pondence and by sending small-pox experts to insp d
mm,! ravages of this loathsome disease would have been mm
11 conclusion, we make the claim with all confidence thai
ived by the people from the meagre appropriation of
"fte Board of Health is far greater than from I he same amen,
e appropriated in any manner whatsoever.
AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE FOR THE
COLORED i: ACE.
• I \mis B. Di m.i.v. I', < sident.
Agricultural and Mechanical < lollege was established by the Gene
Assembb bj an Acl ratified March 9, 1891. Temporary quarters fori
school were secured in Raleigh until the fall of 1893, when the schjj j