North Carolina. Secretary of State.

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Till' LIBRARY OF THE

UNIVERSITY OF

NORTH CAROLINA



THE COLLECTION OF
NORTH CAROLINIANA



C917.05

N87m
1957
C.2



This book must not
be token from the
Library building.






NORTH CAROLINA MANUAL

1957




Issued by

Thad Eure

Secretary of State

Raleigh



1957



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1958



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TO THE

1957 MEMBERS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY
OF NORTH CAROLINA



TO THE

STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND TOWN OFFICIALS



AND TO THE

PEOPLE OF THE OLD NORTH STATE
AT HOME AND ABROAD



THIS MANUAL IS RESPECTFULLY
DEDICATED




Secretary of State



Printed by

WINSTON PRINTING COMPANY

Winston-Salem, N. C, U. S. A.



CONTENTS

PART I

HISTORICAL

Page

The State 3

The State Capitol 15

Chief Executive of North Carolina

Governors of Virginia 18

Executives under the Proprietors 18

Governors under the Crown 19

I Governors Elected by the Legislature 19

Governors Elected by the People 21

List of Lieutenant Governors 23

The State Flag 25

The Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence 26

The Great Seal of North Carolina 28

The State Bird 31

The Halifax Resolution 32

Name of State and Nicknames 33

The State Motto 33

The State Colors 34

The State Flower 34

The State's Most Famous Toast 34

Legal Holidays in North Carolina 35

Population of the State since 1675 36

State Song 37

The Constitution of North Carolina 39

The American's Creed 79

The American Flag

Origin 79

Proper Display 81

Pledge to the Flag 85

The National Capitol 87

Declaration of Independence 90

Constitution of the United States 95

PART II

CENSUS

Seventeenth Census, 1950

Population of State 119

Population of Counties 120

Population of Cities and Towns

Incorporated places of 10,000 or more 120

Incorporated places of 2,500 to 10,000 121

>• Incorporated places of 1,000 to 2,500 121

W5 Incorporated places of less than 1,000 123

jy,^ Estimated Population of United States, 1956 127



\ I NoKTU Car(»lina Manual

PART III

rOLlTK AL

Page

Coiinrt'ssioiial Districts 131

.Iu(iic-ial Districts 131

Senatorial Districts and Apportionment of Senators 133

ApiJortiomncnt of Members of the House of Representatives . . 137

State Democratic Platform 138

Plan of Or^ranization of the State Democratic Party 159

Committees of the Democratic Party

State Democratic Executive Committee 172

Congressional District Executive Committees 176

Judicial District Executive Committees 180

Senatorial District Executive Committees 185

State Democratic Solicitorial District

Executive Committees 188

Chairman of the County Executive Committees 192

County Vice-Chairmen 194

State Republican Platform 196

Plan of Organization of the State Republican Party 201

Committees of the Republican Party

State Republican Executive Committee 209

Congressional, Judicial and Senatorial

District Committees 212

Chairmen of the County Executive Committees 212

PART IV

ELECTION RETURNS

Popular and Electoral Vote for President by States, 1956 . . 215

Popular Vote for President bv States, 1940-1952 216

Vote for President by Counties, 1936-1956 218

Vote for Governor by Counties, Primaries, 1956 221

Vote for Governor by Counties, General Elections, 1936-1956 . . 223

Vote for State Officials, Democratic Primaries, 1948-1954 226

Vote for State Officials bv Counties, Primary, 1956 228

Total Votes Cast— General Election, 1954-1956 232

Vote for Governor in Democratic Primaries, 1932-1956 234

Vote for Congressmen in Democratic Primaries, 1956 235

Vote for Members of Congress, 1942-1956 237

Vote for United States Senators in Primaries, 1942-1954 249

Vote for United States Senators in

General Elections, 1942-1954 250

Vote for United States Senators, Democratic Primary, 1956 . . 251

Vote for United States Senators, General Election, 1956 .... 252

Vote on Constitutional Amendments by Counties, 1956 255

Vote on Prohibition, 1881^ 1908, 1933 259



Contents VII

PART V
GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES, BOARDS AND COMMISSIONS

Page

Agencies, Boards and Commissions 263

North Carolina Institutions
Correctional

White 292

Negro 292

Educational

White 293

Negro 301

Hospitals

White 304

Negro 307

Confederate Woman's Home 308

Examining Boards 309

State Owned Railroads 317

PART VI

LEGISLATIVE

The General Assembly

Senate

Officers 321

Senators (Arranged Alphabetically) 321

Senators (Arranged by Districts) 322

Rules 323

Standing Committees 339

Seat Assignments 345

House of Representatives

Officers 346

Members (Arranged Alphabetically) 346

Members (Arranged bv Counties) 348

Rules .' 350

Standing Committees 366

Seat Assignments 380

PART VII

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

Eixecutive Officials 385

Administrative Officials 394

United States Senators : 425

Representatives in Congress 428

Justices of the Supreme Court 438

Members of the General Assembly

• Senators . ; . . . .■■... . . : : 445

Representatives 479

Occupational and Professional Classification 542



VIII North Carolina Manual

I'ART VIII
OFFICIAL REGISTER

Page

United States Government

President and Vice-President 549

Cabinet Members 549

North Carolina Senators and Representatives in Congress 549

United States Supreme Court Justices 549

United States District Court

Judges 549

Clerks 549

District Attorneys 549

United States Circuit Court of Appeals

Judge Fourth District 549

Governors of the States and Territories 550

State Government

Legislative Department 551

Executive Department 551

Judicial Department 551

Administrative Department 552

State Institutions 553

Heads of Agencies other than State 554

County Government 555

ILLUSTRATIONS

State Capitol 16

State Flag 24

State Seal 29

State Bird 30

State Song (Words and Music) 37

Map of North Carolina 76

The American Flag 78

Map Showing Congressional Districts 134, 135

Map Showing Senatorial Districts 198, 199

Seating Diagram of Senate Chamber 344

Seating Diagram of House of Representatives 381

Pictures

Governor 384

State Officers 389

Senators and Congressmen 424, 432

Justices of the Supreme Court 437

State Senators 444, 455, 466

Members of the House of Representatives

478, 487, 496, 506, 514, 524, 534



PART I
HISTORICAL



THE STATE

North Carolina, often called the "Tar Heel" state, was the scene
of the first attempt to colonize America by English-speaking peo-
ple. Under a chai'ter granted to Sir Walter Raleigh by Queen
Elizabeth, a colony was begun in the 1580's on Roanoke Island.
This settlement, however, was unsuccessful and later became
known as "The Lost Colony."

The first permanent settlement was made about 1650 by immi-
grants from Virginia. In 1663 Charles II granted to eight Lords
Proprietors a charter for the territory lying "within six and
thirty degrees of the northern latitude, and to the west as far as
the south seas, and so southerly as far as the river St. Mattias,
which bordereth upon the coast of Florida, and within one and
thirty degrees of northern latitude, and so west in a direct line as
far as the south seas aforesaid; . . ." and the colony was called
Carolina. In 1665 another charter was granted to these noble-
men. This charter extended the limits of Carolina so that the
northern line was 36 degrees and 30 minutes north latitude, and
the southern line was 29 degrees north latitude, and both of these
lines extended westward to the South Seas.

In 1669 John Locke wrote the Fundamental Constitutions as a
model for the government of Carolina. The Lords Proprietors
adopted these constitutions and directed the governor to put into
operation as much of them as was feasible. In 1670 there were
four precincts (changed to counties in 1739) ; Pasquotank, Per-
quimans, Chowan, and Currituck. North Carolina now has one
hundred counties.

Garel'ina on December 7, 1710, was divided into North Carolina
and South Carolina, and Edward Hyde, on May 12, 1712, became
the first governor of North Carolina.

In 1729 seven of the eight Lords Proprietors sold their interest
in Carolina to the Crown and North Carolina became a royal
colony. George Burrington was the first royal governor. Richard
Everard, the last proprietary governor, served until Burrington
was appointed.

North Carolina, on April 12, 1776, authorized her delegates in
the Continental Congress to vote for independence, and on Decem-
ber 18, 1776, adopted a constitution. Richard Caswell became the



4 North Carolina Manual

first governor under this constitution. On November 21, 1789, the
state adopted the United States Constitution, being the twelfth
state to enter the Federal Union. North Carolina, in 1788, had
rejected the Constitution on the grounds that certain amendments
were vital and necessary to a free people.

A Constitutional convention was held in 1835 and among several
changes made in the Constitution was the method of electing the
governor. After this change the governor was elected by the peo-
ple for a term of two years instead of being elected by the Legis-
lature for a term of one year. Edward Bishop Dudley was the
first governor elected by the people.

North Carolina seceded from the Union May 20, 1861, and was
readmitted to the Union in July, 1868.

A new State Constitution was adopted in 1868 and since that
date the governor has been elected by the people for four-year
terms and he cannot succeed himself. There has not been a new
constitution since 1868, but numerous amendments have been
added to it.

North Carolina has had a democratic administration since 1900,
during which period it has made its greatest progress.

North Carolina has had two permanent capitals — New Bern and
Raleigh — and there have been three capitol buildings. Tryon's
Palace in New Bern was constructed in the period, 1767-1770, and
the main building was destroyed by fire February 27, 1798. The
first capitol in Raleigh was completed in 1794 and was destroyed
by fire on June 21, 1831. The present capitol was completed in 1840.

The state in 1790 ceded her western lands, which was composed
of Washington, Davidson, Hawkins, Greene, Sullivan, Sumner,
and Tennessee counties, to the Federal government, and between
1790 and 1796 the territory was known as Tennessee Territory,
but in 1796 it became the fifteenth state in the Union.

In 1738, the General Assembly of North Carolina passed an act
authorizing the establishment of district courts which served as
appelant courts. These courts were authorized to be held in Bath,
New Bern, and New Town — now Wilmington. In 1746, the Gen-
eral Assembly repealed the act of 1738 and established district
courts to be held at Edenton, Wilmington, and Edgecombe. From
1754 until 1790, other districts were formed as the state expanded
in territory and developed needs for these districts. By 1790, there



The State 5

were eight judicial districts divided into two ridings of four dis-
tricts each. In 1806, the General Assembly passed an act estab-
lishing a superior court in each county. The act also set up judi-
cial districts composed of certain contiguous counties, and this
practice of expanding the districts has continued from five dis-
tricts in 1806 until now there are thirty districts.

When North Carolina adopted the Federal Constitution on
November 21, 1789, she was authorized to send two senators and
five representatives to the Congress of the United States accord-
ing to the constitutional apportionment. In 1792, when the first
federal census had been completed and tabulated, it was found
that North Carolina was entitled to ten representatives. It was
then that the General Assembly divided the state into ten congres-
sional districts. In 1812, the state had grown and increased in
population until it was entitled to thirteen representatives in Con-
gress. Between 1812 and 1865, however, the population decreased
so much in proportion to the population of the other states of the
Union that North Carolina was by that time entitled only to
seven representatives. Since 1865 the population of the state has
shown a slow but steady increase, and now there are twelve con-
gressional districts. The state, therefore, has two senators and
twelve representatives in the Congress of the United States.

Agriculture

North Carolina is one of the leading agricultural states of the
Nation, with the largest farm population of any of the 48 states.
Although acreages planted to many of the crops have been trend-
ing downward due primarily to smaller acreage allotments, farmers
in the state are generally producing more efficiently than in earlier
years, with the result that total agricultural income has continued
to increase.

In 1955, the most recent year for which complete agricultural
income statistics are available, cash receipts from farm operations
in North Carolina totaled $942,757,000. This is the second largest
total cash income from agriculture in North Carolina, having been
exceeded only in 1951 when the total reached about $962 million.
In 1955 North Carolina ranked tenth among the states of the
Nation in total cash income, while Texas was the only Southern
state in which the value of the agricultural output exceeded that
of North Carolina.



6 North Carolina Manual

Cash receipts from crops in 1955 amounted to $712,502,000,
IcadiiiK- all states of the Nation except Texas and California.
Income from livestock and livestock products amounted to $222,-
Dfi.S.OOd. Ill iiddition. North Carolina farmers received government
imymeiits of $7,2!I2,000 for conservation practices.

As is jrenerally the case, tobacco counted for more than one-half
the total cash income to Noi-th Carolina farmers in 1955. Cash
receipts of about $534 million for this crop is 56.6 percent of the
total ajri'icuitural income and abcut three-fourths of total income
from field crops. Poultry and poultry products accounted for
$99,024,000 or 10.5 percent of the total, cattle and calves and
dairy products $81,182,000 or 8.6 percent of the total, and cotton
and cottonseed $58,488,000 or 6.2 percent.

Farm income statistics are not now available for all of 1956,
but for the first nine months of the year cash receipts from
marketings of agricultural products amounted to $523,017,000—
about 4 percent below the $540,779,000 total for a comparable
period in 1955. Receipts from sales of livestock and livestock
products during the first nine months of 1956 were running about
4 percent above receipts for the comparable period in 1955, while
receipts from sales of crops were running 6 percent below. Much
of the loss in receipts from sales of crops through September of
1956 results from a slightly smaller poundage of tobacco harvested
during 1956 as compared with 1955.

With respect to the 1956 crop season, it is significant to note
that unusually good yields per acre were realized from most of
the crops harvested in the state. Several all-time records were
broken both in per-acre yield and in total production.

The harvested yield of flue-cured tcbacco averaged 1,641 pounds,
exceeding by 142 pounds the previous record of 1,499 pounds
harvested in 1955. Despite a reduction in acreage for harvest
of about 11 percent from the preceding year, the 952 million
pounds of flue-cured tobacco harvested in 1956 was only 2.8 per-
cent short of the previous record high of 979 million harvested in
1955.

The 1956 corn yield of 41.0 bushels per acre was 7 bushels
above the previous record of 34.0 bushels harvested in 1955.
Total production of 80.7 million bushels was 9 percent above the
previous record crop harvested back in 1950. During each of ■ the



The State 7

intervening years between 1950 and 1956 the State's corn crop had
been adversely affected to varying- degrees by excessive drought
and by hurricane damage.

Per-acre yields of wheat, oats, rye, and barley all established
new records during 1956. The average of 25.5 bushels per acre of
wheat was 2-% bushels above the previous record of 23.0 bushels
produced in 1951. Oats yielded 40 bushels compared with 36 the
previous record, barley 37.0 compared with 34.5, and rye 15.5
compared with 14.5. Total production of each of these crops except
rye also established new records.

Acreages of soybeans continued to trend upward, and the 416
thousand acres harvested in 1956 was well above any other year
of record as was the 21.5 bushels per acre realized from this
crop. Total harvested production of 8,944,000 bushels of soybeans
in 1956 exceeded by 70 percent the previous record of 5,253,000
bushels harvested in 1951.

Marketing quotas have held cotton average to a low level in
recent years, so that the 440 thousand acres harvested in 1956
was the smallest since 1869.

Although record cotton yields were not realized in 1956, the
average of 393 pounds of lint harvested per acre was 72 pounds
above the 10-year 1945-54 average.

North Carolina's peanut crop yielded an estimated 1,550 pounds
per acre with total production calculated at 306,900,000 pounds.
This is almost 50 percent above the 1955 harvest of 204,250,000
pounds. Production of potatoes, sweet potatoes, hay, and cowpeas
— all fell just slightly below totals harvested in 1955.

There were 1,600,000 bushels of commercial apples produced in
North Carolina during 1956, compared with the 10-year 1945-54
average of 1,239,000 bushels. Production of peaches at 950 thou-
sand bushels compared with an average production of 1,559,000
bushels, while pecan production totaled 2,775,000 pounds compared
with 2,254,000 pounds, the average.

Commercial vegetables produced in North Carolina for fresh
market during 1956 were valued at $11,503,000, approximately
$2 million above the $9,529,000 evaluation placed on 1955 pro-
duction.

In production of livestock products, several new records were
established in 1949. The total of 94,087,000 broilers produced in
the State during 1956 exceeds the previous record of 72,936,000



8 North Carolina Manual

pro<iuct'(i in litfio by 29 percent. Production of milk has continued
to trend upward, aii<i the 1,741 million pounds produced during
1956 compares with the previous record of 1,683 million pounds
produced in 1955. E^fX production, likewise, continued its upward
trend, with an estimated total of 1,672 million eggs for 1956,
comparing with the previous record of 1,469 million produced in
1955.

The jihenomenal increases in pre-acre yields for many crops
realized in 1956 reflect improvement in cultural practices which
have been under way for several years, breeding of higher yield-
ing varieties of seed, and generally favorable climatic conditions.
For a number of years prior to 1956 North Carolina farmers
had not realized their full potentials from crop production due
to unfavorable climatic conditions. The increase in production
of livestock products also represents a continuation of the up-
ward trend which has been under way for several years, and
reflects better feeding and breeding practices in connection with
the livestock industry.

Conservation and Development

Notable progress continues to be made in the conservation,
development, and promotion of the wiser use of North Carolina's
natural resources. More profitable use of these vast natural re-
sources are paying dividends, but their greatest potential is yet
to be reached.

Constant efforts are being made to bring about a better balance
between agriculture and industry. More industrial payrolls of a
year-around nature are constantly being sought by local develop-
ment and area groups working with the Department of Conserva-
tion and Development. Industrial expansion is being pushed on
a statewide front.

While it has long been noted for its leadership in the pro-
duction of textile, tobacco, and furniture products, North Caro-
lina is becoming more and more known for the numerous diversi-
fied goods its 7,500 manufacturing plants annually produce with
their approximately 470,000 employees for the markets of the
nation and the world.

In sales volume, textiles, tobacco, furniture, food, electronic
products, and chemicals are highest.



The State



9



Indicating a growing trend in the manufacture of diversified
products, the electrical and electronics industry is the newest and
fastest growing in North Carolina. Since 1939, when there were
only 3 small electronic plants in the State with about 60 workers,
the number had grown to more than 40 in 1956 with more
than 22,000 workers. Products they produced were valued at
$162,000,000.

The approximately 470,000 workers employed in the State's
7,500 manufacturing plants produced goods in 1955 that had a
value of $6,482,000,000. Their adaptability, productivity, and will-
ingness to give an honest day's work for a day's pay and the
unusually good relations between management and worker have
drawn praise on numerous occasions from out-of-State industrial-
ists locating plants in North Carolina.

A total of $1,852,000,000 was paid in salaries and wages to
North Carolina's industrial workers in 1955.

The textile industry has about 1,100 plants in the State. In
1955 some 230,000 persons were employed. They produced textile
products valued at $2,675,000,000 and their total payroll amounted
to $800,000,000.

The State's textile industry, tops in the nation, is gradually
becoming more and more diversified within itself. In addition to
cotton products, it is now producing a wide variety of synthetic
and woolen textiles.

More than 44 percent of America's hosiery is produced in the
State.

To illustrate how North Carolina has progressed industrially,
the following table^ of the leading classifications is shown below:





1939


1953


1954


1955


Textiles


1 549,700,000

538,400,000

69,200,000

58,800,000



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