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broaden the State's industrial base.

During 1966, a major effort in development of export markets
for North Carolina products was carried out by a far-reaching
mission to Europe called Exportunity 1966. The mission was
conducted with the cooperation and assistance of the United
States Department of Commerce. Secretary of Commerce John
T. Connor hailed results of the mission outstanding, calling it
"... the most ambitious and far-reaching program of its type
ever carried out by a State government."

Exportunity 1966 was divided into four separate parts: a tex-
tiles show, a trade mission, an industrial development mission,
and a travel promotion mission. More than 90 North Carolinians
covered Europe from Sweden to Italy during a one month period,
promoting North Carolina's manufactured products, industrial
advantages, and tourist attractions. As a result of the mission,
many new jobs will be created, European firms are expected to
branch out into North Carolina with manufacturing facilities,
and more European travelers are expected to visit North Carolina.

The new program of Regional Representatives of the Com-
merce and Industry Division in Sylva, Salisbury, Washington
and Lumberton was established and has carried the programs
of industrial development directly to the people.

Tourists and travelers spent $560 million in North Carolina

Id Noutu Cakolina Manual

in 1965, bringing ;i new record for sales and receipts in our
st;iie's billion-dollar travel service and transportation business.

Tourists from outside North Carolina spent $345 million in
our State in 1965. This was the result of a ten percent increase
in tourist expenditures. During the last decade, spending by
visitors from other states lias been increasing at an average
rate of 7.3 percent annually. Trading with tourists has ex-
panded well beyond the 5.7 percent yearly growth rate of all
North Carolina retail business. Meanwhile, the national tourist
market was rising 5.9 percent annually.

Fifteen million tourist parties visited or passed through North
Carolina in 1965, bringing thirty million persons to our State.
They traveled nearly six billion passenger miles on highways,
railways and airways. Out-of-state tourists account for one-fifth
of the nearly twenty-six billion miles of intercity travel by private
and public transportation.

This large volume of spending by the transient tourist market
stimulates North Carolina commerce and industry. Spending
by travelers has created a $1.2 billion business in North Caro-
lina which provides service and transportation for persons away
from home.

These figures are based on the 1965 North Carolina Travel
Survey by Lewis C. Copeland. The 1966 report has not yet been
completed, but all indications are that new records will again

lie set.

The 1965 General Assembly renamed the Division of Com-
mercial Fisheries the Division of Commercial and Sports Fish-
eries, and rewrote all coastal fisheries laws. The Division was
charged with stewardship of the State's marine and estuarine
resources. The new laws further define "all marine and estuarine
resources" as 'all fish, except inland game fish, found in the
Atlantic Ocean and in coastal fishing waters; all fisheries based
upon such fish; all uncultivated or undomesticated plant and ani-
mal life, other than wildlife resources, inhabiting or dependent
upon coastal fishing waters; and the entire ecology supporting
such fish, fisheries, and plant animal life.

A definite shift in Division responsibilities was carried out
with increased emphasis and concern being directed toward the

The State 11

condition and biology of our total fishery resource, regardless of
the commercial or sport uses to which it is subjected. Previous
responsibilities were concerned primarily with the enforcement
of laws and regulations which pertained to the harvest, sale and
transport of fish and fisheries products.

Following the guidance of the General Assembly, the Division
has given increasing attention to all factors which influence
coastal fisheries, has worked with numerous State and federal
agencies concerned with these resources, and has greatly in-
creased its research and development efforts.

The market value of finfish and shellfish to North Carolina
fishermen during the 1964-66 biennium amounted to $25,296,997.

During the 1964-66 biennium, the Division of Community
Planning had 20 6 contracts with 18 2 municipalities and counties
to provide them with technical planning assistance. Of the 86
communities being assisted on June 30, 1966, 43 of them were
undertaking advanced planning programs based on earlier studies
and plans completed in earlier contracts with the Division.

In July 19 66, applications for Federal grant funds were sub-
mitted on behalf of 20 communities.

The Division also initiated in 19 66 its first program to train
professional community planning experts. The work of this
division assures the orderly growth of our State's cities, towns
and counties.

The 19 65 spring forest fire season was more serious than that
of 19 6 4. but not as severe as the 19 63 spring fire season. The
serious drought of fall 19 65 continued into the latter part of
April 1966. This drought, coupled with unfavorable atmos-
pheric conditions, resulted in a severe 1966 spring fire season.
Forest fire losses in 1966, under abnormal conditions similar to
those of 1963, were reduced by 46 percent with about a three
percent reduction in the number of fires.

The U. S. Forest Service has completed a forest survey of
North Carolina and published preliminary forest resource sta-
tistics, which continue to emphasize the importance of forest
resources to the economy of our State. The wood-using industry
produces well over a billion dollars annually in terms of finished
products The perpetuation of these benefits from the State's

12 North Carolina Manual

forests depends upon maintaining a favorable balance of timber
-row ili over ilif drain from harvesting raw materials and losses
<lue to timber mortality.

For the first time in several years, a safe margin in this
favorable balance lias been lost due to expansion of our wood-
using industries. Improvement in this situation is imperative
if we are to hold and expand our forest industries and continue
to enjoy the resulting economic benefits. More than 245,000
small landowners control seventy-eight percent of our State's
L'n million acres of forest lands. These lands owned by small
landowners are currently capable of sustaining a higher growth
rate than they are at present. The Forestry Division is the only
agency capable of causing material improvement in small owner-
ship forestry. The future supply of forest raw materials depends
on the effectiveness of the Division's programs.

.More than 40 million tree seedlings are produced annually at
the Division's four nurseries and supplied to landowners at cost
of production. Forest fire control procedures and training con-
tinues to become more effective. Pest and insect control efforts
have minimized timber mortality and growth loss, but are in
need of increased support in order to remain at its current high
level of effectiveness.

The Division of Geodetic Survey is charged with surveying of
the State to determine the exact positions of various points,
mathematically taking into account the curvature of the earth's
surface. Fxpansion of this division has been proposed and dur-
ing the 1964-66 biennium, 835 control markers were established
in North Carolina.

The work of the division has been singled out for its accuracy
and excellence, and a paper outlining the duties and organization
of the division was presented to the 1967 annual meeting of the
American Congress of Mapping and Surveying.

The value of mineral production in North Carolina totalled
si'ei.4 million in 1965, reflecting the increasing importance of
I he mineral industry to the State's overall economic development.

According to preliminary estimates prepared by the Bureau
of .Mines, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1966, value of mineral
production in North Carolina increased 9 percent over 1965 to
a total of $65.7 million, setting a new record high.

The State 13

Principal minerals mined were stone, sand and gravel, feldspar,
mica, and lithium minerals. In addition, the first shipment of
phosphate rock from new mining activities in eastern North
Carolina was made April 1, 1966.

Use by the public of North Carolina's 13 State Parks con-
tinued to increase by leaps and bounds during 1965 and 1966,
setting new records each year. The emphasis on total use of the
park facilities has generated more swimming, camping, hiking,
boating and fishing by park users.

In 1965, 2,092,519 persons visited the State Parks, a record
high for total attendance.

In 1966, a new record for total attendance of 2,182,300 was
recorded, showing an increase of almost 90,000 over the previous

Planned improvements of current park facilities and an
orderly program of expansion is being carried out by the State
Parks Division, aimed at preserving, protecting and renewing
the quality of those natural resources for which it is responsible.

The North Carolina Department of Conservation and Develop-
ment is proud of our State's accomplishments during the past
two years, and looks forward to ever greater progress toward
"Total Development" in the coming years. Without the co-
operation and efforts of countless citizens, State, Federal and
local officials, this record of achievement would not be nearly
as impressive.

Public Health in North Carolina

North Carolina has a vigorous and effective program of public

The State Board of Health and the 66 local health departments
serving the 100 counties assure an alert concern for the healtb
conditions in all facilities serving the public. Basic State laws
empower the health departments to inspect and regulate condi-
tions affecting health.

While there were various laws and statutes relating to public
health measures passed prior to that time, the State Board of
Health was created by the General Assembly of 1877, and lias

l 1 North Carolina Manual

been functioning, with changes from time to time, ever since. The
General Assembly of 1957 recodified, and to a considerable extent
modernized, all public health and related laws of North Carolina.
This was done for purposes of coordination and clarification.
Guilford has the distinction of being the first county in the United
states to inaugurate full-time county health work. June 20, 1911. The
following year, Robeson became the first purely rural county in
the United States to take this step, but it was not until July 1,
1949 thai the last four counties provided this service.

There has been continued progress in public health in these
more than five decades. Illustrations of this can be found in every
aspect of the legal responsibilities placed upon the State Board of
Health. Among these may be noted: compulsory immunization ol
children beginning at two months of age for poliomyelitis; li-
censure of nursing and combination nursing and homes for the
aged and infirm; surveys in the areas of air pollution and en-
vironmental health; and the establishment of a coordinated State
Radiological Program. North Carolina published the nation's
first Occupational Health Manual in 1961.

The State Hoard of Health is the State agency administering
the Health Insurance Benefits Program (Medicare). Over a
million eight hundred thousand dollars a year is being spent on
surgical, medical and hospital service to handicapped children.
We have a progressive school health coordinating unit and pro-
grams of service are being carried on for the aged and for the
chronically ill. Many preventive services are rendered by the
modern Laboratory Division and by both the consultant staff oi
the State Hoard and by the staffs of the local health departments.

State Highway Ststkms

Oil January 1, 1966, the State had under its direct jurisdiction
72,822 miles of highways, roads and streets, a distance equivalent
to almost three times around the world at the equator. This vast
mileage is almost 10 per cent of the gross length of all mileage
under State control in the entire Nation. The three basic sys-
tems in this North Carolina network are as follows:

Tim Primary State Highway System in rural areas is made up

The State 15

of the U. S., N. C. and Interstate numbered routes, and has a
length of 11,566 miles, substantially all hard surfaced. The larg-
est of the three systems is the Rural Secondary System of 57,959
miles, of which 29.810 miles are paved — the remainder being sur-
faced with stone, soil or other all weather material. There is
more rural paving in North Carolina than in any other state except
Texas, California, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and Wisconsin.
Some 96% of the State's rural people live on, or within one mile
of a paved highway or road.

In addition to these two rural systems, the State has jurisdiction
over 3,297 miles of streets which form a part of the State High-
way and Road systems in municipalities. Of this Municipal Sys-
tem, 3,090 miles are paved.

Combining the three systems, the State operates a network of
4 4.391 miles of paved and 28,431 miles of unpaved highways,
roads and streets. The State has direct jurisdiction over more
mileage than has any other road governing body in the nation
In terms of size and population, no other state exceeds North
Carolina in the extent of road services provided for its people.
There are no toll roads or bridges in North Carolina.

Major emphasis is now being placed on modernizing many ob-
solete sections of the Primary System, mainly from the $300
million Bond Issue authorized in the Statewide referendum of
November. 1965; completing the Interstate Highway System;
and starting the Appalachian Highway Program. Some 386 miles
of the Interstate have already been built to final standards and
opened to traffic.

Since 1921. the entire Road and Highway Program of the State
has been financed exclusively from the gasoline tax. motor vehicle
license fees and Federal Aid. without recourse to property tax-
ation or aid from the General State Fund. During the past fiscal
year ending June 30, 1966. the State Highway Fund, including
Federal Aid. expended $244,621,581 for highway, road, and street
construction, maintenance, betterments and improvements, in-
cluding the operation of the Motor Vehicle Department. Highwaj
Patrol, Highway Safety Division, other state agencies, and the
retirement of Secondary Road Ponds.

RtKM Electric ami Telephone Servick
Rural areas of North Carolina received little benefits from
rural electrification prior to 1935. which is often spoken of as

1 6 N'ni: i ii Carolina Manual

the starting point. At thai time, only 1.SS4 miles or rural lines
serving LI, 558 farms were recorded by the North Carolina Rural
Electrification Authority, which was created in that year to secure
electric service for the rural areas. Today the Authority reports
in operation 97,786 miles of rural lines serving 900,456 con-
sumers. In addition to this, there were 237 miles under con-
struction or authorized for construction to serve 3,036 consumers.
Electrification has contributed considerably to the great progress
in agricultural development over the past few years. The electri-
fied farm provided for comfort and health in farm living through
lighting, refrigeration, communication, ranges, washing machines.
freezers, plumbing and all other many useful household electric

Electric service is essential to modern farm production. Elec-
tricity is used by farmers in many ways — yard and building light-
ing; running water; poultry incubators, brooders, and feeders;
livestock feeding; milking; grain and hay driers; irrigation; and
many other electric-motor driven pieces of farm producing equip-
ment. Electricity affords fire protection and the operation of
many labor-saving devices for the rural home and farm activities.
Electric service is practically essential in types of farm produc-
tion; for example, the production of Grade A Milk.

The 1945 United States Census indicated that only 14,539 North
Carolina farms had telephone service. The desire and need in the
rural areas for communication, so essential to the well-being of
the people was so widespread that the 1945 General Assembly
enacted the Rural Telephone Act, charging the North Carolina
Rural Electrification Authority with the responsibility of assist-
ing rural residences in securing telephone service. Funds and
personnel were first assigned to the program in 1949, which might
well be termed the active beginning. Through the activities of
the State Authority and other State agencies and as a result of
cooperation on the part of the telephone industry and the organ-
ization of a number of member-owned Telephone Membership
Corporations, over eight times as many farms now have telephone
service as in 1945. In addition, a. greater number of rural non-
farm residences also have service.

Public Schools

North Carolina provides a basic State-supported nine months
public school term, which is supplemented by the 169 local school

The State 17

administrative units. Public school enrollment in 1965-66 was
1,201,139, the ninth largest enrollment of the 50 states. At-
tendance is compulsory for children between the ages of 7 and
16. There were 48,631 teachers, principals and supervisors in
1965-66. Nearly 60 percent of all general fund taxes collected
by the State are used for elementary and secondary schools. The
State finances operation of a fleet of 9,10 8 buses, transporting
592,318 pupils to the public schools. In 1965-66, there were
2,164 separated organized public schools in the State, and the
total value of public school property was $994,752,404. Ex-
penditures per pupii for current expenses included $2 67.5 6 from
State funds, $55.36 from federal funds, and $45.37 from local
sources. The State Board of Education, with three ex-officio
members and ten members appointed by the Governor and con-
firmed by the General Assembly, has responsibility for the general
supervision and administration of the public school system and
of the educational funds provided by the State and Federal gov-
ernments; for the formulation of ru'es, regulations and policies
concerning instructional programs and for fiscal matters. The
State Superintendent of Public Instruction is the administrative
head of the public school system and secretary of the State Board
of Education. Elected every four years by popular vote, he is
responsible for administering the instructional policies estab-
lished by the Board, for organizing and establishing the State
Department of Public Instruction, and for other matters relating
to administration and supervision, excluding fiscal matters. The
Controller of the State Board of Education is the executive ad-
ministrator of the Board in the supervision and management of
fiscal affairs, including the budgeting, allocation, accounting,
certification, auditing and disbursing of public school funds ad-
ministered by the Board.

Community Colleges

The 19 63 General Assembly, following recommendations of the
Governor's Commission on Education Beyond the High School,
enacted legislation authorizing the establishment of a system of
community colleges, technical institutes and industrial education
centers. The Department of Community Colleges, under the
direction of the State Board of Education, is responsible for State

is Nobth Carolina Manual

level administration of this system. These three types of institu-
tions are commuting, nonresident, multipurpose and community
centered, offering to high school graduates and others beyond the
normal high school age opportunities for two-year college par-
allel programs, technical programs, vocational programs and
general adult and community service courses. Institutions in op-
• ration in the fall of 1!)66 were 12 community colleges, 17 tech-
nical institutes, one industrial educational center, and 13 exten-
sion units of these institutions. The average annual full-time
equivalent enrollment for the 43 institutions in 1965-66 was
25.704. These students were instructed by 986 faculty members.

Colleges am» Universities

The University of North Carolina, chartered in 17S9, was the
first State University in the United States to open its doors.

Today, the University of North Carolina is composed of four
units: the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North
Carolina State University at Raleigh, University of North Carolina
at Charlotte, and the University of North Carolina at Greensboro.

There are twelve tax-supported senior colleges located through-
out the State: Agricultural and Technical College (Greensboro).
Appalachian State Teachers College (Boone). Asheville-Biltmore
College (Asheville), East Carolina College (Greenville). Eliza-
beth City State College (Elizabeth City). Fayetteville State Col-
lege (Fayetteville), North Carolina College at Durham (Dur-
ham i North Carolina School of the Arts (Winston-Salem).
Pembroke State College (Pembroke), Western Carolina College
i Cullowhee ) , Wilmington College (Wilmington) and Winston-
Salem State College (Winston-Salem).

Twelve tax-supported State community colleges, requiring lo-
cal financial support in addition to State funds, are in operation:
Central Piedmont Community College (Charlotte). College of the
Albemarle (Elizabeth City). Davidson County Community Col-
lege (Lexington). Gaston College (Gastonia). Isothermal Com-
munity College (Spindale). Lenoir County Community College
(Kinston). Rockingham Community College (Wentworth), Sand-
nills Community College (Southern Pines). Southeastern Com-
munity College ( Whiteville ) . Surry Community College (Dob-

Tiik Statk 19

son), Western Piedmont Community College (Morganton), and
Wilkes Community College ( Wilkesboro) .

In all there are seventy institutions of higher learning in the
State. Among the forty-two private or church-related institu-
tions, there are: one university (Duke University in Durham, one
of the most heavily endowed institutions of higher learning in
the world), twenty-seven senior colleges, fourteen junior colleges,
one theological seminary, and three Bible colleges.

Total college enrollment in North Carolina institutions of high-
er learning, both public and private, was 112,805 in Pall 1966.
and 104,852 in Fall 1965.

Legal responsibility for planning and promoting a sound, vig-
orous, progressive and coordinated system of higher education
for the State rests with the State Board of Higher Education
Established by the 1955 General Assembly, the Board seeks tli.
cooperation of other agencies and colleges, public and private,
in developing a system of higher education that meets the State -
ongoing and future needs at the highest level of excellence.




The original State Capital of North Carolina was destroyed by
fire on June 21, 1831.

At the session of November, 1832, the Assembly resolved to
rebuild on the old site, and $50,000 was appropriated for the pur-
pose. Commissioners were appointed to have the work done. The
rubbish was cleared away, the excavations made and the founda-
tions were laid. On July 4, 1833, the cornerstone was set in place.

After the foundations were laid the work progressed more slow-
ly and it was so expensive that the appropriation was exhausted.
The Legislature at its next session appropriated $75,000 more.
To do the stone and finer work many skilled artisans had been
brought from Scotland and other countries. The Building Com-
missioners contracted with David Paton to come to Raleigh and
superintend the work. Mr. Paton was an architect who had come
from Scotland the year before. He was the builder, the architect,
and designer.

The Legislature was compelled to make appropriations for the
work from time to time. The following is a table of the several
appropriations made:

Session of 1S32-33 _$ 50,000.00

Session of 1833-34 75,000.00

Session of 1834-35. 75,000.00

Session of 1835 . 75,000.00

Session of 1836-37_ 120,000.00

Session of lS38-39_ 105,300.00

Session of 1840-41_ 31,374.46

Total $531,674.46

The stone with which the building was erected was the property
of the State. Had the State been compelled to purchase this ma-
terial the cost of the Capitol would have been considerably in-

In the summer of 18 40 the work was finished. At last, after
more than seven years, the sum of $531,674.46 was expended. As

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