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large as that sum was for the time, when the State was so poor


22 North Carolina Manual

and when the entire taxes for ;ill State purposes reached less than
$100,000, yet the people were satisfied. The building had been
erected with rigorous economy, and it was an object of great pride
in the people. Indeed, never was money better expended Than in
the erection of this noble Capitol.

Description of the Capitol, Written by David Pa ton,

the Architect

"The State Capitol is 1 HO feet in length from north to south
by 1 4 ii feet from east to west. The whole height is 97% feet in the
center. The apex of pediment is t>4 feet in height. The stylobate
is 18 feel in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes
-.ivv :> feel l"l> inches in diameter. An entablature, including block-
ing course, is continued around the building 12 feet high.

The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied
from the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon.
which was erected in Athens about 500 years before Christ. An
octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with
Grecian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a
similar ornament to that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates.
commonly called the Lanthorn of Demosthenes.

The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First.
the lower story, consisting of ten rooms, eight of which are appro-
priated as offices to the Governor, Secretary. Treasurer, and
Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one
containing an area of H49 square feet, the other 528 square feet

the two committee rooms, each containing 200 square feet and
four closets; also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, and piazzas,
contain an area of 1,370 square feet. The vestibules are decor-
ated with columns and antae, similar to those of the Ionic Tem-
ple on the Missus, near the Acropolis of Athens. The remainder
is groined with stone and brick, springing from columns and
pilasters of the Roman Doric

"The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives'
chambers, the former containing an area of 2.545 and the latter
2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from Senate Chamber.
two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other
two contain <>ach an area of 154 square feet: also, two rooms enter

The Capitol 23

from Representatives' chamber, each containing an area of L70
square feet; of two committee rooms, each containing an area
of 231 square feet; of four presses and the passages, stairs, lob-
bies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square feet.

"The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns
and antae of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the
plan of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theatre and
the columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are
of the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva, Polias, and Pandrosus, in
the Acropolis of Athens, near the above named Parthenon.

"Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the
Supreme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 square
feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square feet;
also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169
square feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square
feet. These lobbies as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and
it is proposed to finish the court and library in the florid Gothic



(Named by Ch. 8, SL 1963)
By Ralph B. Reeves, Jr.

The Building Commission

The 1959 General Assembly appropriated funds and authorized
the establishment of a Building Commission for the construction
of a new building for the Legislative Branch of the State Govern-
ment. The statute provided that two members be appointed by
each Presiding Officer of the two Houses and that three be ap-
pointed by the Governor.

Archie K. Davis and Robert P. Morgan were appointed by Lieu-
tenant Governor Luther E. Barnhardt; B. I. Satterfield and
Thomas J. White were appointed by Speaker of the House Addi-
son Hewlett; and Governor Hodges appointed A. E. Finley, Ed-
win Gill, and Oliver R. Rowe.

The Commission elected Thomas J. White as Chairman and
Robert F. Morgan as Vice Chairman. Paul A. Johnston, Director
of the Department of Administration, was elected Executive Secre-
tary; and upon his resignation, the Commission elected Prank B.
Turner, State Property Officer, to succeed him.

To perform architectural services, the Commission selected Ed-
ward Durell Stone of New York with John S. Holloway and Ralph
B. Reeves, Jr., Associated.

After prolonged study, the Commission selected a site one block
North of the Capitol and encompassing a two-block area. The 5%-
acre site is bounded by Jones, Salisbury, Lane, and Wilmington
streets. Halifax Street between Jones and Lane streets was closed
and included within the new site.

Bids were received in December, 1960; construction commenced
in early 1961. The 1961 General Assembly appropriated an addi-
tional $1 million for furnishings and equipment bringing the total
appropriation to $5% million.

Based upon the latest census, the cost of the building to citizens
of North Carolina was $1.24 each.

*The Building is commonly referred to as THE STATE HOUSE.


I'C, NOKTH (' \i:«>i I \ \ .M \\ PAL

Description of the Building'

The State Legislative Building, though not an imitation of his-
Loric classical styles, is classical in character. Rising from a 340-
fool wide podium of North Carolina granite, the building proper is
2 I- feel square. The walls and the columns are of Vermont mar-
ble, the latter forming a colonnade encompassing the building
and reaching 24 feel from the podium to the roof of the second

Inset in the south podium floor, at the main entrance, is a 28-
fool diameter terrazzo mosaic of the Great Seal of the State. From
the first floor main entrance (at Jones Street) the carpeted 22-
I'oot wide main stair extends directly to the third floor and the
public galleries of the Senate and House, the auditorium, the dis-
play area, and the roof gardens.

The four garden courts are located at the corners of the build-
ing. These courts contain tropical plants, and three have pools,
fountains, and hanging planters. The main floor areas of the
courts are located in the first floor, and mezzanines overlook the
courts from the second floor. The skylights which provide natural
lighting are located within the roof gardens overhead. The courts
provide access to committee rooms in the first floor, the legislative
chambers in the second floor, and to members' offices in both

The Senate and House chambers, each 5,180 square feet in
area, occupy the east and west wings of the second floor. Follow-
ing the traditional relationship of the two chambers in the Cap-
itol, the two spaces are divided by the rotunda; and when the
main brass doors are open, the two presiding officers face one
another. Each pair of brass doors weigh 1,5 pounds.

The five pyramidal roofs covering the Senate and House cham-
bers, the auditorium, the main stair, and the rotunda are sheathed
with copper, as is the Capitol. The pyramidal shape of the roofs
is visible in the pointed ceilings inside. The structural ribs form
a coffered ceiling; and inside the coffered patterns, concentric
patterns are outlined in gold. In each chamber, the distance from
the floor to the peak of the ceiling is 45 feet.

Chandeliers in the chambers and main stair are 8 feet in dia-
meter and weigh 625 pounds each. The 12-foot diameter chan-
delier of the rotunda, like the others, is of brass, but its weight
is 750 pounds.

The Capitol 27

Because of the interior environment, the garden courts and
rotunda have tropical plants and trees. Outside, however, the
shrubs and trees are of an indigenous type. Among the trees in
the grounds, on the podium, and in the roof areas are sugar
maples, dogwoods, crabapples, magnolias, crepe myrtles, and

Throughout the building, the same color scheme is maintained:
Walnut, white, gold, and red, with green foliage. In general, all
wood is American walnut, metal is brass or other gold colored
material, carpets are red, and upholstery is gold or black.

The enclosed area consists of 206,000 square feet of floor area
with a volume of 3,210,000 cubic feet. Heating equipment pro-
vides over 7,000,000 B.T.U. per hour; and the cooling equipment
has a capacity of 620 tons. For lighting, motors, and other elec-
trical equipment, the building has a connected service load of
over 2,000,000 watts.

28 North Carolina Manual


Governors of "Virginia"

Ralph Lane, April _ , 1585-June . , 1586.
John White, April ..... 1587-August ... , 1587.

Chief Executives Under the Proprietors

William Drummond, October .__., 1663-October _.., 1667.

Samuel Stephens, October , 1667-December ... , 1669.

Peter Carteret, October ...., 1670-May ... ., 1673.
John Jenkins, May . . . 1673-November _., 1676.

Thomas Eastchurch, November ... , 1676- , 1678.

Thomas Miller, __.., 1677-

John Culpepper, , 1677- , 1678.

Seth Sothel, _ , 1678-

John Harvey, February _ , 1679-August , 1679.

John Jenkins, November __., 1679- , 1681.

Seth Sothel, . _., 1682- , 1689.

Philip Ludwell, December ... 1689- , 1691.

Philip Ludwell, November 2, 1691- .... 1694.

Thomas Jarvis, , 1691-. ..._, 1694.

John Archdale, August 31, 1694...... , 1696.

Thomas Harvey , 1694- , 1699.

Henderson Walker, .. .... 1699-August 14, 1704.

Robert Daniel, .. .... 1704- , 1705.

Thomas Cary, 1705- , 1706.

William Glover, , 1706- , 1708.

Thomas Cary, , 1708-January ...., 1711.

Edward Hyde, ., 1710-May 9, 1712.

Edward Hyde, May 9, 1712-September 8, 1712.
Thomas Pollock, September 12, 1712-May 28, 1714.
Charles Eden, May 28, 1714-March 26, 1722.
Thomas Pollock, March 30, 1722-August 30, 1722.
William Reed, August 30, 1722-January 15, 1724.
George Burrington, January 15, 1724-July 17, 1725
Richard Everard, July 17, 1725-May , 1728.


Governors Under the Crown

Richard Everard, May ... , 1728-February 25, 1731.
George Burrington, February 25, 1731-April 15, 1734.
Nathaniel Rice, April 15, 1734-October 27, 1734.
Gabriel Johnston, October 27, 1734-July 17, 1752.
Matthew Rowan, July 17, 1752-November 2, 1754.
Arthur Dobbs, November 2, 1754-March 28, 1765.
William Tryon, March 28, 1765-December 20, 1765.
William Tryon, December 20, 1765-July 1, 1771.
James Hasell, July 1, 1771-August 12, 1771.
Josiah Martin, August, 12, 1771-May ... , 1775.

Governors Elected by the Legislature

Name, County, Terms of Office

Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 19, 1776-April 18, 1777.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 18, 1777-April 18, 1778.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 18, 1778-May 4, 1779.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, May 4, 1779-April, 1780.
Abner Nash, Craven, April, 1780-June 26, 1781.
Thomas Burke, Orange, June 26, 1781-April 26, 1782.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, April 26, 1782-April 30, 1783.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, April 30, 1783-April 1, 1785.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 1, 1785-December 12, 1785.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 12, 1785-December 23, 1786.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 23, 1786-December 20, 1787.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, December 20, 1787-November 18, 1788.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, November 18, 1788-November 16, 1789.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, November 16, 1789-December 17, 1789.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, December 17, 1789-December 9, 1790.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, December 9, 1790-January 2, 1792.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, January 2, 1792-December 14, 1792.
R. D. Spaight, Craven, December 14, 1792-December 26, 1793.
R. D. Spaight, Craven, December 26, 1793-January 6, 1795.
R. D. Spaight, Craven, January 6, 1795-November 19, 1795.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, November 19, 1795-December 19, 1796.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, December 19, 1796-December 5, 1797.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, December 5, 1797-December 7, 1798.
W. R Davie, Halifax, December 7, 1798-November 23, 1799.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 23, 1799-November 29, 1800.

30 Nokiii Manual

Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 29, 1800-November 28, 1801.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 28, 1801-December 6, 1802.
James Turner, Warren, December 6, 1802-December 1, 1803.
James Turner, Warren, December 1, 1803-November 29, 1804.
James Turner, Warren, November 29, 1804-December 10, 1805.
Nathaniel Alexander, Mecklenburg, December 10, 1805-December 1,

Nathaniel Alexander, Mecklenburg, December 1, 1806-December 1,

Benjamin W r illiams, Moore, December 1, 1807-December 12, 1808.
David Stone, Bertie, December 12, 1808-December 13, 1809.
David Stone, Bertie, December 13, 1809-December 5, 1810.
Benjamin Smith, Brunswick, December 5, 1810-December 9, 1811.
William Hawkins, Warren, December 9, 1811-November 25, 1812.
William Hawkins. Warren. November 25, 1812-November 20, 1813.
William Hawkins, Warren, November 20, 1813-November 29, 1814.
William Miller, W'arren, November 29, 1814-December 7, 1815.
William Miller, Warren, December 7, 1815-December 7, 1816.
William Miller, Warren, December 7, 1816-December 3, 1817.
John Branch, Halifax, December 3, 1817-November 24, 1818.
John Branch, Halifax, November 24, 1818-November 25, 1819.
John Branch, Halifax, November 25, 1819-December 7, 1820.
Jesse Franklin, Surry, December 7, 1820-December 7, 1821.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 7, 1821-December 7, 1822.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 7, 1822-December 6, 1823.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 6, 1823-December 7, 1824.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 7, 1824-December 6, 1825.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 6, 1825-December 29, 1826.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 29, 1826-December 8, 1827.
James Iredell, Chowan, December 8, 1827-December 12, 1828.
John Owen, Bladen, December 12, 1828-December 10, 1829.
John Owen, Bladen, December 10, 1829-December 18, 1830.
Montford Stokes, Wilkes, December 18, 1830-December 13, 1831.
Montford Stokes, Wilkes, December 13, 1831-December 6, 1832.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 6, 1832-December 9, 1833.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 9, 1833-December 10, 1834.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 10, 1834-December 10, 1835.
R. D. Spaight, Jr., Craven, December 10, 1835-December 31, 1836.

Governors 31

Governors Elected by the People

E. B. Dudley, New Hanover, December 31, 1836-December 29, 1838.

E. B. Dudley, New Hanover, December 29, 1838-January 1, 1841.

J. M. Morehead, Guilford, January 1, 1841-December 31, 1842.

J. M. Morehead, Guilford, December 31, 1842-January 1, 1845.

W. A. Graham, Orange, January 1, 1845-January 1, 1847.

W. A. Graham, Orange, January 1, 1847-January 1, 1849.

Charles Manly, Wake, January 1, 1849-January 1, 1851.

D. S. Reid, Rockingham, January 1, 1851-December 22, 1852.

D. S. Reid, Rockingham, December 22, 1852-December 6, 1854.

Warren Winslow, Cumberland, December 6, 1854-January 1, 1855.

Thomas Bragg, Northampton, January 1, 1855-January 1, 1857.

Thomas Bragg, Northampton, January 1, 1857-January 1, 1859.

John W. Ellis, Rowan, January 1, 1859-January 1, 1861.

John W. Ellis, Rowan, January 1, 1861-July 7, 1861.

Henry T. Clark, Edgecombe, July 7, 1861-September 8, 1862.

Z. B. Vance, Buncombe, September 8, 1862-December 22, 1864.

Z. B. Vance, Buncombe, December 22, 1864-May 29, 1865.

W. W. Holden, Wake, May 29, 1865-December 15, 1865.

Jonathan Worth, Randolph, December 15, 1865-December 22, 1866.

Jonathan Worth, Randolph, December 22, 1866-July 1, 1868.

W. W. Holden, Wake, July 1, 1868- December 15, 1870.

T. R. Caldwell, Burke, December 15, 1870-January 1, 1873.

T. R. Caldwell, Burke, January 1, 1873-July 11, 1874.

C. H. Brogden, Wayne, July 11, 1874-January 1, 1877.

Z. B. Vance, Mecklenburg, January 1, 1877-February 5, 1879.

T. J. Jarvis, Pitt, February 5, 1879-January 18, 1881.

T. J. Jarvis, Pitt, January 18, 1881-January 21, 1885.

A. M. Scales, Rockingham, January 21, 1885-January 17, 1889.

D. G. Fowle, Wake, January 17, 1889-April 8, 1891.
Thomas M. Holt, Alamance, April 8, 1891-January 18, 1893.
Elias Carr, Edgecombe, January 18, 1893-January 12, 1897.
D. L. Russell, Brunswick, January 12, 1897-January 15, 1901.
Charles B. Aycock, Wayne, January 15, 1901-January 11, 1905.
R. B. Glenn, Forsyth, January 11, 1905-January 12, 1909.

W. W. Kitchin, Person, January 12, 1909-January 15, 1913.
Locke Craig, Buncombe, January 15, 1913-January 11, 1917.
Thomas W. Bickett, Franklin, January 11, 1917-January 12, 1921.
Cameron Morrison, Mecklenburg, January 12, 1921-January 14, 1925.

;{2 NoK'J m (' \i;mi.i\ \ ManUAI

Angus Wilton McLean, Robeson, January 14, 1 " 11, 192b.

0. Max Gardner, Cleveland, January 11, 1929-Ja
J. C. B. Ehringhaus, Pasquotank, January 5, 19.
Clyde R. Hoey, Cleveland, January 7, 1937-Janua
J. Melville Broughton. Wake, January 9, 1941-J
R. Gregg Cherry, Gaston, January 4, 1945-Janua
W. Kerr Scott, Alamance. January 6, 1949-Janutry , i9o3.
William B. Umstead, Durham, January 8, 1953-rovember 7, 1954.
Luther H. Hodges, Rockingham, November 7, 1954-February 7, 1957.
Luther H. Hodges. Rockingham, February 7, 1957-January 5, 1961.
Terry Sanford, Cumberland, January 5, 1961-Januar ..- 8, 1965.
Dan K. Moore, Haywood, January 8, 1965-

Lieutenant Governors



This List Has Been Compiled From The North Carolina

Manual of 14J13 And The Manuals Published Every

Two Years Since That Date.


Tod R. Caldwell 1

Curtis H. Broaden*

Thomas J. Jarvls 3

James L. Robinson.....
Charles M. Steadman

Thorn; i M. Holt*

Rufus A. Doughton

Charles A. Reynolds...

W. D. Turner

Francis D. Winston

William C. Newland...
Elijah I.. Paughtridge.

0. Max Gardner

W. B. Cooper

J. Elmer Long

Richard T. Fountain...

A. H. Graham _

W P. Horton

R. L. Harris

L. Y. Ballentine

H. P. Taylor

Luther H. Hodges 6

" uther K. Barnhardt...

Cloyd Phllpott 4

obert W. Scott.._






Ntw Hanover









New Hanover












Term Elected



























Term Served



1. Became Governor December 15, 1870 when W. W. Holden was impeached, tried

and put out of office.

2. Became Governor July 11, 1874 when Tod

3. Became Governor February 5, 1879 when


4. Became Governor April 9, 1891 when D. G.

5. Became Governor November 7, 1954 when

6. Died in office, August 18, 1961.

R. Caldwell died in office.
Governor Vance was elected U. S.

Fowle died in office.
William B. Umstead died in office.

An Act to Establish a State Flag

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact :

Section 1. That the flag of North Carolina shall consist of a
blue union, containing in the center thereof a white star with tin
letter N in gilt on the left and the letter C in gilt on the righl <>i
said star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of
the union.

Sec. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally pro-
portioned bars; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be white;
that the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to the per-
pendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag
shall be one-third more than its width.

Sec. 3. That above the star in the center of the union there
shall be a gilt scroll in semicircular form, containing in black let-
ters this inscription: "May 20th, 1775," and that below the star
there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the in-
scription: "April 12th, 1776."

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th
day of March, A.D., 1885.

No change has been made in the flag since the passage of this
act. By an act of 1907 it is provided:

"That the board of trustees or managers of the several State
institutions and public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag,
of such dimensions and materials as they may deem best, and the
same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and
every such building at all times except during inclement weather,
and upon the death of any State officer or any prominent citizen
the Flag shall be put at half-mast until the burial of such person
shall have taken place.

"That the Board of County Commissioners of the several coun-
ties in this State shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North
Carolina flag, to be displayed either on a staff upon the top, or
draped behind the Judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in
the State, and that the State flag shall be displayed at each and
every term of court held, and on such other public occasions as
the Commissioners may deem proper." (Rev., s. 5321; 1885 c. 291;
1907, c. 838.)

20th MAY, 1775


Names of the Delegates Present

Col. Thomas Polk .John MoKnitt Alexander

Ephriam Brevard I [ezekiah Alexander

Hezekiah J. Balch Adam Alexander

John Phifer Charles Alexander

.James Harris Zacheus Wilson, Sen.

William Kennon Waightstill Avery

John Ford Benjamin Patton

Richard Barry Mathew McClure

Henry Downs Neil Morrison

Ezra Alexander Robert Irwin

William Graham John Flenniken

John Quary David Reese

Abraham Alexander Richard Harris, Sen.

Abraham Alexander was appointed Chairman, and John Mc-
Knitt Alexander, Clerk. The following resolutions were offered,

1. Resolved. That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in
any way form or manner contenanced the unchartered and dan-
gerous invasion of our rights as claimed by Great Britain is an
enemy to this country, to America, and to the inherent and in-
alienable rights of man.

2. Resolved. That we the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do
hereby dissolve the political bands which have connected us to the
mother country and hereby absolve ourselves from all allegiance
to the British Crown and abjure all political connection contract
or association with that nation who have wantonly trampled on
our rights and liberties and inhumanly shed the blood of American
patriots at Lexington.

3. Resolved. Thai we do hereby declare ourselves a free and in-
dependent people, are. and of right ought to be a sovereign and

*The above is found in Vol. IX, papres 1263-05 of the Colonial Records of North


The Mecklenburg Declaration 37

self-governing association under the control of no power other
than that of our God and the General Government of the Congress
to the maintenance of which independence we solemnly pledge to
each other our mutual cooperation, our lives, our fortunes, and our
most sacred honor.

4. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and con-
trol of no law or legal officer, civil or military within this County,
we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of life all, each and
every of our former laws — wherein nevertheless the Crown of
Great Britain never can be considered as holding rights, privileges,
immunities, or authority therein.

5. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every
Military Officer in this County is hereby reinstated in his former
command and authority, he acting conformably to these regnla
tions. And that every member present of this delegation shall
henceforth be a civil officer, viz., a justice of the peace, in the
character of a "committee man" to issue process, hear and deter-
mine all matters of controversy according to said adopted laws
and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, and
to use every exertion to spread the love of Country and fire of
freedom throughout America, until a more general and organized
government be established in this Province.


The Constitution of North Carolina, Article III, section 1(1, re-

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