North Carolina. Secretary of State.

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five and one-half inches. The dome is built of iron, and the aggre-
gate weight of material used in its construction is 8. 909. 20c
pounds.

The Statue of Freedom surmounting the dome is of bronze and
weighs 14,985 pounds. It was modeled by Thomas Crawford,
father of Francis Marion Crawford, the novelist, in Rome, and
the plaster model shipped to this country. It was cast in bronze
at the shops of Clark Mills, on the Bladensburg Road, near Wash-
ington. The cost of the casting and the expenses in connection
were $20,796.82, and the sculptor was paid $3,000 for the plaster
model. It was erected and placed in its present position Decembe.
2, 1863.

The grounds have had an area of 58.8 acres, at one time a parr
of Cern Abby Manor, and at an early date were occupied by a
subtribe of the Algonquin Indians known as the Powhatans, whose
council house was then located at the foot of the hill. By sub-
sequent purchase of ground at the North of the Capitol and at
the west of the new House Office building the area of the grounds
lias been increased to 13 9 */£ acres.

The Rotunda is 97 feet 6 inches in diameter, and its height from
the floor to the top of the canopy is 180 feet, 3 inches.

The Senate Chamber is 113 feet, 3 inches, in length by 80 feet.
3 inches, in width and 3 6 feet in height. The galleries will ac-
commodate 682 persons.

The Representatives' Hall is 139 feet in length by 93 feet in
width and 3 6 feet in height.

The room, until 1935 the meeting place of the Supreme Court,
was, until 18 59, occupied as the Senate Chamber. Previous to that

99



10n NOR! II C VKOl INA M Wl'AI

time the court occupied the room immediately beneath, now used
as a law library.

The Capitol has a floor area of 14 acres, and 430 rooms are de-
moted to office, committee, and storage purposes. There are 14,518
square feet of skylights, 679 windows, and 550 doorways.

The dome receives light through 108 windows, and from the
architect's office to the dome there are 3 65 steps, one for each day
of the year.

The southeast cornerstone of the original building was laid Sep-
tember 18, 1793, by President Washington, with Masonic cere-
monies. It is constructed of sandstone from quarries on Aquia
Creek, Va. The original designs were prepared by Dr. William
Thornton, and the work was done under the direction of Stephen
11. Hallet. James Hoban, George Hadfield, and B. H. Latrobe.
architects.

The north wing was finished in 18 00 and the south wing in 1811.
A wooden passageway connected them. On August 24, 1814, the
interior of both wings was destroyed by fire, set by the British.
The damage to the building was immediately repaired.

In 1818 the central portion of the building was commenced
under the architectural superintendence of Charles Bullfinch. The
original building was finally completed in 18 27. Its cost, including
the grading of the grounds, alterations, and repairs, up to 1827.
was $2,433,844.13.

The cornerstone of the extensions was laid on the Fourth of
July, 1851, by President Fillmore, Daniel Webster officiating as
orator. This work was prosecuted under the architectual direc-
tion of Thomas U. Walter until 18 65, when he resigned, and it was
completed under the supervision of Edward Clark. The material
used in the walls is white marble from the quarries of Lee, Massa-
chusetts, and that in the columns from the quarries from Cockeys-
ville, Maryland. The House extension was first occupied for legis-
lative purposes December 16. 1857. and the Senate January 4.
1859.

The House office building was begun in 190 5 and occupied on
January 10, 1908; later a story on top was added. The Senate
office building was started in 1906 and occupied on March 5, 1909.
The House building cost, with site. $4,860,155: the Senate struc-
ture. $5,019,251.



The Nation w Capitoi 101

Among the paintings in the Capitol are:

In Rotunda: Signing of the Declaration of Independence, Sur-
render of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at
Yorktown, Va., George Washington Resigning His Commission as
Commander in Chief of the Army, all by John Trumbull.

Baptism of Pocahontas, by John G. Chapman; Landing of Co-
lumbus, by John Vanderlyn; Discovery of the Mississippi River
by DeSoto, by William H. Powell: Embarkation of the Pilgrims,
by Robert W. Weir.

In House Wing: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way,
by Emanuel Leutze; First Reading of the Emancipation Proclama-
tion, by Francis Bicknell Carpenter.

In Senate Wing: Battle of Lake Erie, by William H. Powell;
Battle of Chapultepec. by James Walker.



THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE

(Unanimously Adopted in Congress, July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia)

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for
one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected
them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth,
the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and
of Nature's God ontitles them, a decent respect to the opinions of
mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel
them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are creat-
ed equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain in-
alienable Rights; that among these are Life, Liberty and the pur-
suit of Happiness. That, to secure these rights, Governments are
instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent
of the governed; That, whenever any Form of Government he-
roines destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to
alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its
foundations on such principles, and organizing its powers in such
forms, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and
Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long
established should not be changed for light and transient causes;
and, accordingly, all experience hath shewn, that mankind are
more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right
themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invari-
ably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under abso-
lute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such
Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies, and such
is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former
Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great
Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all hav-
ing in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over
these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid
world.

He has refused his assent to Laws, the most wholesome and
necessary for the public good.

102



Declaeation of I _\ dependence L03

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his
Assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly
neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of
large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the
right of Representation in the Legislature — a right inestimable to
them, and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, un-
comfortable and distant from the depository of their public Rec-
ords, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with
his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing
with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exer-
cise; the State remaining, in the meantime, exposed to all the
dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States for
that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreign-
ers; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither,
and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing
his assent to laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure
of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither
.swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their sub-
stance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies
without the Consent of Our Legislature.

He has affected to render the Military independent of, and superior
to, the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction
foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws;
giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:



in i North Carolina Manuai

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any
Murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these
States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by
jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas, to be tried for pretended offenses;

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbor-
ing Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and
enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an example
and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into
these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable
Law r s, and altering fundamentally, the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves
invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his
Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns.
and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign mer-
cenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny,
already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely
paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the
Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens, taken captive on the
high Seas, to bear Arms against their Country, to become the exe
cutioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by
their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has en-
deavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merci-
less Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undis-
tinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Re-
dress in the most humble terms; Our repeated Petitions have been
answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is
thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to
be the ruler of a free people.



Declaration of Independence 105

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren.
We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their
legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We
have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and
settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and
magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our com-
mon kindred to disavow these usurpations, which inevitably inter-
rupt our connections with correspondence. They, too, have been
deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. "We must, there-
fore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation,
and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind — Enemies in War,
in Peace Friends.

We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of
America, in General Congress Assembled; appealing to the Su-
preme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do,
in the Name and by authority of the good People of these Colonies,
solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and
of Right ought to be free and independent States; that they are
Absolved from All Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all
political connections between them and the State of Great Britain
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that as Free and Inde-
pendent States, they have full power to levy War, conclude Peace,
contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts
and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for
the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the pro-
tection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other
our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

John Hancock

Button Gwinnett Edward Rutledge

Lyman Hall Thomas Heyward, Junr.

Geo. Walton Thomas Lynch. Junr.

Wm. Hoopei Arthur Middleton

Joseph Hewes Samuel Chase

John Penn Wm. Paca

Thos Stone Carter Braxton



lu.;



Mouth Carolina Mamtai.



Charles Carroll of Carrollton

James Wilson

Geo. Ross

Caesar Rodney

Geo. Reed

Tho. M. Kean

Win. Floyd

Phil. Livingston

Frans. Lewis

Lewis Morris

Richd. Stockton

Jno. Witherspoon

Fras. Hopkinson

John Hart

Abra Clark

George Wythe

Richard Henry Lee

Th. Jefferson

Benja. Harrison

Thos. Nelson, Jr.

Francis Lightfoot Lee



Robt. Morris
Benjamin Rush
Benja. Franklin
John Morton
Geo. Clymer
Jas. Smith
Geo. Taylor
Josiah Bartlett
Wm. Hippie
Saml. Adams
John Adams
Robt. Treat Payne
Eldridge Gerry
Step. Hopkins
William Ellery
Roger Sherman
Samuel Huntington
Wm. Williams
Oliver Woolcott
Matthew Thornton



THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES

Preamble

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more
perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, pro-
vide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do
ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of
America.

Article I

Section 1 — All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate
and a House of Representatives.

Sec. 2 — 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of
members chosen every second year by the people of the several
States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State
Legislature.

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have at-
tained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citi-
zen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an
inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among
the several States which may be included within this Union, ac-
cording to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by
adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound
to service for a term of years and excluding Indians not taxed,
three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be
made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress
of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten
years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of
Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand,
but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until
such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire
shall be entitled to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations, 1; Connecticut, 5; New York, 6; New

107



L08 North Carolina Manual

Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1; Maryland, 6; Virginia,
10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia, 3.*

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State
the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill
such vacancies.

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and
other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Sec. 3 — 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of
two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof
for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.t

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence
of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into
three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be
vacated at the expiration of the second year; of the second class
at the expiration of the fourth year; and of the third class at the
expiration of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every
second year, and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise,
during the recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive
thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meeting
of the Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.!

3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to
the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United
States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that
State for which he shall be chosen.

4. The Vice President of the United States shall be President of
the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a
President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President, or
when he shall exercise the office of President of the United States.

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments.
When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation.
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice
shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the con-
currence of two-thirds of the members present.

7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further
than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy
any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but



*See Article XIV, Amendments.
tSee Article XVII, Amendments.



Constitution of the United States L09

the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to
indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

Sec. 4 — 1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections
for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State
by the Legislature thereof, but the Congress may at any time by
law make or alter such regulations, except as to the places of
choosing Senators.

2 The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and
such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless
they shall by law appoint a different day.

Sec. 5 — 1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, re-
turns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of
each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller num-
ber may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to com-
pel the attendance of absent members, in such manner and under
such penalties as each House may provide.

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceedings, pun-
ish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence
of two-thirds, expel a member.

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from
time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in
their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the
members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of
one-fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.

4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without
the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor
to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be
sitting.

Sec. 6 — 1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a com-
pensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid
out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases,
except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from
arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective
Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for
any speech or debate in either House they shall not be questioned
in any other place.

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which
he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the
authority of the United States which shall have been created, or



110 North Carolina Manual

the emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such
time; and no person holding any office under the United States
shall be a member of either House during his continuance in office.

Se< . 7 — 1. All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the
House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur
with amendments, as on other bills.

2. Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representa-
tives and the Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented
to the President of the United States; if he approves, he shall sign
it, but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that House
in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections
at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after
such reconsideration two-thirds of that House shall agree to pass
the bill, it shall be sent together with the objections, to the
other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if
approved by two-thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But
in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by
yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and
against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House re-
spectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within
ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented
to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed
it, unless the Congress by their adjournment prevent its return,
in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of
the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (ex-
cept on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the Presi-
dent of the United States; and before the same shall take effect,
shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be
repassed by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representa-
tives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case
of a bill.

Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power:

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay
the debts and provide for the common defense and general wel-
fare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall
be uniform throughout the United States;

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States;



COKSTITUTIOJV O* THJ UNITED STATES 111

3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the
several States, and with the Indian tribes;

4. To establish a uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform
laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

5. To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin,
and fix the standards of weights and measures;

6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities
and current coin of the United States;

7. To establish postoffices and postroads:

S. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing,
for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to
their respective writings and discoveries;

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court;

10. To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the
high seas, and offenses against the law of nations;

11. To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and
make rules concerning captures on land and water;

12. To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money
to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

13. To provide and maintain a navy;

14. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land
and naval forces;

15. To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws
of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions;

16. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the
militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed
in the service of the United States, reserving to the States respec-
tively the appointment of the officers and the authority of training
the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;



Online LibraryNorth Carolina. Secretary of StateNorth Carolina manual [serial] (Volume 1967) → online text (page 9 of 59)