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ties, those with populations under 15,000, was initiated in 1970.
Under C&D's guidance, local communities were encouraged to org-
anize development teams, urged to undertake projects to qualify
for this Governor's Award. When the year ended, 65 Tar Heel
communities had conducted clean-up, fix-up campaigns, had org-
anized local development teams, had set aside and placed under
option industrial sites to attract new and clean industry.

Capital investments committed by industry for new and expanded
facilities in the State during 1970 amounted to $632 million. This
record came during a year of economic slow-down and uncertainty,
and was termed an "incredible record" by Sowers in his year end
report. The $632 million investment promises to add $114 million
to the State's payroll, and create 22,576 new job opportunities for
the people. The average annual wage for those 22,500 new jobs was
estimated to reach $5,098 — far above the State's average per capita
income of $2,888.

10 North Carolina Manual

Public Health in North Carolina

Ever since its creation by the General Assembly of 1877, the
State Board of Health has conducted effective programs to protect
and promote public health in North Carolina.

In 1911 Guilford County was the first county in the United
States to inaugurate a fulltime health program. The following
year Robeson became the first predominantly rural county in the
nation to take the same step. By 1949 all 100 counties were par-
ticipating in public health programs.

In many ways North Carolina is a national leader in public
health affairs. The new statute relating to abortion enacted by the
1967 General Assembly is bringing the State credit as a pioneer
in dealing effectively with the problem. North Carolina published
the nation's first Occupational Health Manual in 1961. A pro-
gram for detecting PKU — phenylketonuria — in North Carolina
serves as a model for other states. (PKU is a disorder that re-
sults in severe mental retardation. Early detection and treatment
can prevent destruction of mental faculties.)

The new law calling for adequate ambulance service involves
the State Board of Health. The Board establishes criteria for
safety, sanitation, equipment, and training of attendants. Health
inspectors evaluate vehicles, equipment and personnel and certify
those that measure up to standards.

The new Medical Examiner System, which will strengthen the
State's abilities to ensure just and effective investigation of suspi-
cious deaths and a more adequate detection of criminal causes
of death, is a function of the State Board of Health. The Chief
Medical Examiner is a member of the State Board staff.

The State Board of Health is the State agency administering
the Health Insurance Benefits Program (Medicare). The Board
spends $2.7 million a year on surgical, medical and hospital
services for children.

The Board is responsible for seeing that children of pre-school
age are vaccinated for smallpox, diptheria, tetanus and whooping
cough. Mobile Tuberculosis X-ray units traveling about the State
are from the State Board of Health. The Board licenses nursing
homes and homes for the aged and infirm. It conducts programs

The State 11

for the control of insects, rodents and air pollution. Sanitarians
inspect and grade food handlers and food handling establishments,
such as restaurants and food processing plants. They keep an eye
on the public water supplies and sewerage systems.

Clinics throughout the state educate and help the public in such
health areas as prenatal care, pediatrics, mental health, orthopedics,
venereal diseases, and cancer detection.

A dental health program in public schools provides many chil-
dren their first — and for some, their only — opportunity to receive
attention from a dentist. The Little Jack Puppet Show entertains
grade school children while teaching them the basic rules for
having healthy teeth.

The Board administers new programs in genetic counseling.
Family planning activities are being expended, using new teach-
niques. Health programs for senior citizens and the chronically
ill are being conducted. The Board carries out a coordinated State
radiological health program, and far-reaching programs in health
mobilization, migrant health, physical therapy, public health nurs-
ing, and home health services.

The modern laboratory renders preventives services and conducts
thousands of analyses every year to help the various divisions of
the Board carry on efi^ective programs of surveillance.

Consultant staffs of both the State Board and local health de-
partments are actively seeking ways of improving health services.
Professional and non-professional employees are continually im-
proving their knowledge and efficiency. A special training program
is conducted statewide through the facilities of educational tele-
vision for public health workers in every county to improve their

State Highway Systems

On January 1, 1970, the State had under its direct jurisdiction
73,626 miles of highways, roads and streets, a distance equivalent
to almost three times around the world at the equator. This vast
mileage is almost 10 per cent of the gross length of all mileage

12 North Carolina Manual

under State control in the entire Nation. The three basic systems
in this North Carolina network are as follows:

The Rural Primary State Hig-hway System is made up of the
U. S., N. C. and Interstate numbered routes, and has a length of
11,G62 miles. The lartrest of the three systems is the Rural Second-
ary System of 58,375 miles, of which 33,897 miles are paved — the
remainder being- surfaced with stone, soil or other all weather
material. There is more rural paving in North Carolina than in
any other state except Texas, New York, Ohio, California, Penn-
sylvania and Wisconsin. Some i)6'// of the State's rural people
live on, or within one mile of a paved highway or road.

In addition to these two rui'al systems, the State has jurisdiction
over 3,589 miles of streets which form a part of the State High-
way and Road systems in municipalities. Of this Municipal Sys-
tem, 3,394 miles are paved.

Combining the three systems, the State operates a network of
48,911 miles of paved and 24,715 miles of unpaved highways,
roads and streets. The State has direct jurisdiction over more
mileage than has any other road governing body in the nation.
In terms of size and population, no other state exceeds North
Carolina in the extent of road services provided for its people.
There are no toll roads or bridges in North Carolina.

Major emphasis is now being placed on modernizing many ob-
solete sections of the Primary System from current revenue; com-
pleting the Interstate Highway System; and continuing the Appa-
lachian Highway Program. Some 471 miles of the Interstate have
already been built to final standards and opened to traffic.

Since 1921, the entire Road and Highway program of the State
has been financed exclusively from the gasoline tax, motor vehicle
license fees and Federal Aid, without recourse to property tax-
ation or aid from the General State Fund. During the past fiscal
year ending June 30, 1970, the State Highway Fund, including
Federal Aid, expended $338,085,654 for highway, road, and street
construction, maintenance, betterments and improvements, includ-
ing the operation of the Motor Vehicle Department, Highway Patrol,
Highway Safety Division, other state agencies, and the retirement
of Bonds.

The State 13

Rural Electric and Telephone Service

Rural areas of North Carolina received little benefits from rural
electrification prior to 1935, which is often spoken of as the starting
point. At that time, only 1,884 miles of rural lines serving 11,558
farms were recorded by the North Carolina Rural Electrification
Authority, which was created in that year to secure electric ser-
vice for the rural areas. Today the Authority reports in operation
105,854 miles of rural lines serving 1,057,885 consumers. In addi-
tion to this, there were 151 miles under construction or authorized
for construction to serve 2,615 consumers. Electrification has con-
tributed considerably to the great progress in agricultural develop-
ment over the past few years. The electrified farm provided for
comfort and health in farm living through lighting, refrigeration,
communication, ranges, washing machines, freezers, plumbing, and
all other many useful household electric appliances.

Electric service is essential to modern farm production. Electri-
city is used by farmers in many ways — yard and building lighting;
running water; poultry incubators, brooders and feeders; livestock
feeding; milking; grain and hay driers; irrigation; and many
other electric motor driven pieces of farm producing equipment.
Electricity affords fire protection and the operation of many labor-
saving devices for the rural home and farm activities. Electric
service is practically essential in types of farm production; for ex-
ample, the production of poultry and Grade A Milk.

The 1945 United States Census indicated that only 14,539 North
Carolina farms had telephone service. The desire and need in the
rural areas for communication, so essential to the well-being of
the people was so widespread that the 1945 General Assembly en-
acted the Rural Telephone Act, charging the North Carolina Rural
Electrification Authority with the responsibility of assisting rural
residents in securing telephone service. Funds and personnel were
first assigned to the program in 1949, which might well be termed
the active beginning. Through the activities of the State Authority
and other industry and the organization of a number of member-
owned Telephone Membership Corporations, over eight or ten times
as many farms now have telephone service as in 1945. In addition,
a greater number of rural non-farm residences also have service.

14 North Carolina Manual

Public Schools

North Carolina provi(ios a basic State-supported nine months
public school term, which is supplemented by the 152 local school
administrative units. Public school enrollment in 1909-70 was
1,217,024, the ninth larjrest enrollment of the 50 states. Attendance
is compulsory for children between the ap:es of 7 and 16. There
were 54,407 teachers, principals and supervisors in 1969-70. Nearly
60 percent of all general fund taxes collected by the State are used
for elementary and secondary schools. The State finances operation
of a fleet of 9,447 buses, transporting about 630,000 pupils to the
public schools. In 1969-70 there were 2,057 separately organize 1
public schools in the State, and the total value of public school
property was $1,215,388,432. Expenditures per pupil for current
expenses in 1968-69 included $365.64 from State funds, $75.00 from
federal funds, and $76.44 from local sources. The State Board of
Education, with three ex-officio members and ten members appointed
by the Governor and confirmed by the General Assembly, has respon-
sibility for the general supervision and administration of the public
school system and of the educational funds provided by the State
and Federal governments; for the formulation of rules, regula-
tions and policies concerning instructional programs and for fiscal
matters. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction is the
administrative head of the public school system and secretary of
the State Board of Education. Elected every four years by popular
vote, he is responsible for administering the instructional policies
established by the Board, for organizing and establishing the State
Department of Public Instruction, and for other matters relating
to administration and supervision, excluding fiscal matters. The
Controller of the State Board of Education is the executive ad-
ministrator of the Board in the supervision and management of
fiscal affairs, including the budgeting, allocation, accounting, certi-
fication, auditing and disbursing of public school funds administered
by the Board.

Community Colleges

The 1963 General Assembly, following recommendations of the
Governor's Commission on Education Beyond the High School,

The State 15

enacted legislation authorizing the establishment of a system of
community colleges, technical institutes and industrial education
centers. The Department of Community Colleges, under the direc-
tion of the State Board of Education, is responsible for State-
level administration of this system. These three types of institu-
tions are commuting, nonresident, multipurpose and community
centered, offering to high school graduates and others beyond the
normal high school age opportunities for two-year college transfer
programs, technical programs, vocational programs, and general
adult and community service courses. The average annual full-time
equivalent enrollment for the 53 institutuions in operation in the
fall of 1970 was over 47,800. The total number of persons served
(unduplicated headcount) for 1969-1970 was over 293,000.

Fifteen tax-supported State community colleges were in opera-
tion: Caldwell Community College and Technical Institute (Le-
noir), Central Piedmount Community College (Charlotte), Coastal
Carolina Community College (Jacksonville), College of the Albe-
marle (Elizabeth City), Davidson County Community College (Lex-
ington), Gaston College (Gastonia), Isothermal Community College
(Spindale), Lenoir County Community College (Kinston), Rock-
ingham Community College (Wentworth), Sandhills Community
College (Southern Pines), Southeastern Community College (White-
ville), Surry Community College (Dobson), Wayne Community
College (Goldsboro), Western Piedmont Community College (Morg-
anton), and Wilkes Community College (Wilkesboro).

There were in operation 39 technical institutes: Anson (Anson-
ville), Asheville-Buncombe (Asheville), Beaufort County (Wash-
ington), Bladen (Elizabethtown), Blue Ridge (Hendersonville),
Cape Fear (Wilmington), Carteret (Morehead City), Catawba Val-
ley (Hickory), Central Carolina (Sanford), Cleveland County
(Shelby), Craven (New Bern), Durham (Durham), Edgecombe
(Tarboro), Fayetteville (Fayetteville), Forsyth (Winston-Salem),
Guilford (Jamestown), Halifax County (Weldon), Haywood
(Clyde), James Sprunt (Kenansville) , Johnston County (Smith-
field), Martin (Williamston), McDowell (Marion), Montgomery
(Troy), Nash (Rocky Mount), Pamlico (Alliance), Person (Rox-
boro), Pitt (Greenville), Randolph (Asheboro), Richmond (Ham-
let), Roanoke-Chowan (Ahoskie), Robeson (St. Pauls), Rowan
(Salisbury), Sampson (Clinton), Southwestern (Sylva), Alamance

16 North Carolina Manual

(Burlinfiton), Tri-County (Murphy), Vance County (Henderson),
Wilson County (Wilson), W. W. Holding- (Raleig-h).

Colleges and Universities

The University of North Carolina, chartered in 1789, was the
first State University in the United States to open its doors.

Today, the University of North Carolina is composed of six
units: The University of Noi'th Carolina at Chapel Hill, North
Carolina State University at Raleigh, University of North Carolina
at Charlotte, the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, the
University of North Carolina at Asheville and the University of
North Carolina at Wilmington.

There are ten tax-supported senior colleges and regional uni-
versities located throughout the State: Appalachian State Uni-
versity (Boone), East Carolina University (Greenville), Eliza-
beth City State University (Elizabeth City), Fayetteville State
University (Fayetteville), North Carolina Agricultural and Tech-
nical State University (Greensboro), North Carolina Central Uni-
versity (Durham), North Carolina School of the Arts (Winston-
Salem), Pembroke State University (Pembroke), Western Carolina
University (Cullowhee) , and Winston-Salem State University
(Winston-Salem) .

Fifteen tax-supported State community colleges, requiring local
financial support in addition to State funds, are in operation.

In all there are 73 institutions of higher learning in the State.
Among the forty-two private or church-related institutions, there
are two universities (Duke University in Durham and Wake For-
est University in Winston-Salem), 29 senior colleges, and 12 junior
colleges. There are also one theological seminary and three Bible

Total college enrollment in North Carolina institutions of higher
learning both public and private, was 132,135 in Fall 1969 and
140,485 in Fall 1970.

Legal responsibility for planning and promoting a sound, vig-
orous, progressive and coordinated system of higher education for

The State 17

the State rests with the State Board of Higher Education. Estab-
lished by the 1955 General Assembly, the Board seeks the coopera-
tion of other agencies and colleges, public and private, in develop-
ing a system of higher education that meets the State's ongoing and
future needs at the highest level of excellence.


The original State Capitol of North Carolina was destroyed by
fire on June 21, 1831.

At the session of November, 1832, the Assembly resolved to
rebuild on the old site, and $50,000 was appropriated for the pur-
pose. Commissioners were appointed to have the work done. The
rubbish was cleared away, the excavations made and the founda-
tions were laid. On July 4, 1833, the cornerstone was set in place.

After the foundations were laid the work progressed more slow-
ly and it was so expensive that the appropriation was exhausted.
The Legislature at its next session appropriated $75,000 more.
To do the stone and finer work many skilled artisans had been
brought from Scotland and other countries. The Building Com-
missioners contracted with David Paton to come to Raleigh and
superintend the work. Mr. Paton was an architect who had come
from Scotland the year before. He was the builder, the architect,
and designer.

The Legislature was compelled to make appropriations for the
work from time to time. The following is a table of the several
appropriations made:

Session of 1832-33 $ 50,000.00

Session of 1833-34 75,000.00

Session of 1834-35 75,000.00

Session of 1835 75,000.00

Session of 1836-37 120,000.00

Session of 1838-39 105,300.00

Session of 1840-41 31,374.46

Total $531,674.46

The stone with which the building was erected was the property
of the State. Had the State been compelled to purchase this ma-
terial the cost of the Capitol would have been considerably in-

In the summer of 1840 the work was finished. At last, after
more than seven years, the sum of $531,674.46 was expended. As
large as that sum was for the time, when the State was so poor
and when the entire taxes for all State purposes reached less than

•20 North Carolina Manual

$100,000, yet the people were satisfied. The building had been
erofted with rigorous economy, and it was an object of great pride
to the people. Indeed, never was money better expended than in
the erection of this noble Capitol.

Description of the Capital, Written by David Paton,

the Architect

"Tlie State Capitol is 160 feet in length from north to south
by 140 feet from east to west. The whole height is 97% feet in the
center. The apex of pediment is 64 feet in height. The stylobate
is 18 feet in height. The columns of the east and west porticoes
are 5 feet 2V2 inches in diameter. An entablature, including block-
ing course, is continued around the building 12 feet high.

"The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric, and copied
from the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the Parthenon,
which was erected in Athens about 500 years before Christ. An
octagon tower surrounds the rotunda, which is ornamented with
Grecian cornices, etc., and its dome is decorated at top with a
similar ornament to that of the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates,
commonly called the Lanthorn of Demosthenes.

"The interior of the Capitol is divided into three stories: First,
the lower story, consisting of ten rooms, eight of which are appro-
priated as offices to the Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, and
Comptroller, each having two rooms of the same size — the one
containing an area of 649 square feet, the other 528 square feet
— the two committee rooms, each containing 200 square feet and
four closets; also the rotunda, corridors, vestibules, and piazzas,
contain an area of 4,370 square feet. The vestibules are decor-
ated with columns and antae, similar to those of the Ionic Tem-
ple on the Ilissus, near the Acropolis of Athens. The remainder
is groined with stone and brick, springing from columns and
pilasters of the Roman Doric.

"The second story consists of Senatorial and Representatives'
chambers, the former containing an area of 2,545 and the latter
2,849 square feet. Four apartments enter from Senate Chamber,
two of which contain each an area of 169 square feet, and the other
two contain each an area of 154 square feet; also, two rooms enter

The Capitol 21

from Representatives' chamber, each containing an area of 170
square feet; of two committee rooms, each containg an area
of 231 square feet; of four presses and the passages, stairs, lob-
bies, and colonnades, containing an area of 3,204 square feet.

"The lobbies and Hall of Representatives have their columns
and antae of the Octagon Tower of Andronicus Cyrrhestes and the
plan of the hall is of the formation of the Greek theatre and
the columns and antae in the Senatorial chamber and rotunda are
of the Temple of Erectheus, Minerva, Polias, and Pandrosus, in
the Acropolis of Athens, near the above named Parthenon.

"Third, or attic story, consists of rooms appropriated to the
Supreme Court and Library, each containing an area of 693 square
feet. Galleries of both houses have an area of 1,300 square feet;
also two apartments entering from Senate gallery, each 169 square
feet, of four presses and the lobbies' stairs, 988 square feet. These
lobbies as well as rotunda, are lit with cupolas, and it is proposed
to finish the court and library in the florid Gothic style."

The Capitol

I am the Capitol; upon my copper dome, I wear a crown. If it
were gilded, it would flash a signal to the sun. This crown is more
than decoration. It is a symbol of sovereignty.

When the sun is bright and the arch of heaven is clear, the
greenish-blue of my dome is bold against the sky. But sometimes,
when the sun is veiled, the grey of my dome appears to blend with

Between 1833 and 1840, I was constructed of stone quarried
nearby, which time has mellowed. These stones were precision cut
and, nicely balanced. The traffic of human feet has worn some
stones, and, occasionally, I have been roughly used. The edges of
steps have been broken. But I am hale and hearty and will, of
course, endure.

The Court, the Legislature and the Auditor have left me for
more modern homes. It is rumored that others may go. However,
I am assured I shall become a shrine. Now what is a shrine? No

22 North Carolina Manual

one seems to know, except they say it has something to do with
memory and Glory.

I am complimented that may people are concerned about my
condition. Questions have been raised. Let me assure one and all
that I am solid and sound of body. My problems are mostly super-

My roof has leaked a bit, and inquiries should be made into the
soundness of the timbers that undergird it. Also, at appropriate
intervals, my electrical wiring should be carefully examined.

In fairness to the past, a sprinkler system was installed beneath
my roof in 1939, and my exterior was cleaned effectively in 1952.

But it is well to have the Governor, the Council of State and
others concerned about my future. It is good to know there are
those who care — to have a flutter of interest in my behalf. Even
the pigeons and squirrels are concerned!

Some time before the year is out, I am informed, we will dedi-
cate, in an appropriate ceremony, the receipt from Italy of the
figure of Washington carved in marble. It is meet and proper in
anticipation of this event that I be cleaned, refurbished and made
in every way presentable. Incidentally, my architect told me that
in the original plans I was to have this statue. So, in a sense, I
am unfinished until it is in place.

There are those who think I should be restored to my former
splendor. The doctors of history suggest I should be arrayed in
the mode of 1840. This, I suppose has something to do with my
ultimate status as a shrine.

I favor this restoration. But I doubt that such a project can be
completely achieved. After all, in recent times, I have become
a creature of modern conveniences, such as central heating, inside

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