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plumbing and electricity — all unavailable in 1840. Whatever is
done, my comfort should be considered. Especially, I would like to
have hot, as well as cold, running water!

In my bosom laws were made. Through the decades, I have
heard the thunders of eloquence. I have been amused at the wit
and tall tales of statesmen.

Today my halls are silent. People come and go and look at me,
and marvel at the stories of the past. They say I am a symbol of

The Capitol 23

all that has been achieved within the borders of our State. So be it.
I am a symbol.

Authored by Edwin Gill, and ordered spread upon the minutes of
the Council of State meeting held June 17, 1970.








(Named by Ch. 8, SL 1963)
By Ralph B. Reeves, Jr.

The Building Commission

The 1959 General Assembly appropriated funds and authorized
the establishment of a Building' Commission for the construction
of a new building for the Legislative Branch of the State Govern-
ment. The statute provided that two members be appointed by
each Presiding Officer of the Two Houses and that three be ap-
pointed by the Governor.

Archie K. Davis and Robert F. Morgan were appointed by Lieu-
tenant Governor Luther E. Barnhardt; B. L Satterfield and Thomas
J. White were appointed by Speaker of the House Addison Hew-
lett; and Governor Hodges appointed A. E. Finley, Edwin Gill,
and Oliver R. Rowe.

The Commission elected Thomas J. White as Chairman and
Robert F. Morgan as Vice Chairman. Paul A. Johnston, Director
of the Department of Administration, was elected Executive Secre-
tary; and upon his resignation, the Commission elected Frank B.
Turner, State Property Officer, to succeed him.

To perform architectural services, the Commission selected Ed-
ward Durell Stone of New York with John S. Holloway and Ralph
B. Reeves, Jr., Associated.

After prolonged study, the Commission selected a site one block
North of the Capitol and encompassing a two-block area. The 5%-
acre site is bounded by Jones, Salisbury, Lane, and Wilmington
streets. Halifax Street between Jones and Lane streets was closed
and included within the new site.

Bids were received in December, 1960; construction commenced
in early 1961. The 1961 General Assembly appropriated an addi-
tional $1 million for furnishings and equipment bringing the total
appropriation to ^BVz million.

Based upon the latest census, the cost of the building to citizens
of North Carolina was $1.24 each.

*The Building is commonly referred to as THE STATE HOUSE.

26 North Carolina Manual

Description of the Building

The State Legislative Building, though not an imitation of his-
toric classical styles, is classical in character. Rising from a 340-
foot wide podium of North Carolina granite, the building proper is
242 feet square. The walls and the columns are of Vermont mar-
ble, the latter forming a colonnade encompassing the building and
reaching 24 feet from the podium to the roof of the second floor.

Inset in the south podium floor, at the main entrance, is a 28-
foot diameter terrazzo mosaic of the Great Seal of the State. From
the first floor main entrance (at Jones Street) the carpeted 22-
foot wide main stair extends directly to the third floor and the
public galleries of the Senate and House, the auditorium, the display
area, and the roof gardens.

The four garden courts are located at the corners of the build-
ing. These courts contain tropical plants, and three have pools,
fountains, and hanging planters. The main floor areas of the
courts are located in the first floor, and mezzanines overlook the
courts from the second floor. The skylights which provide natural
lighting are located within the roof gardens overhead. The courts
provide access to committee rooms in the first floor, the legislative
chambers in the second floor, and to members' offices in both floors.

The Senate and House chambers, each 5,180 square feet in
area, occupy the east and west wings of the second floor. Follow-
ing the traditional relationship of the two chambers in the Cap-
itol, the two spaces are divided by the rotunda; and when the
main brass doors are open, the two presiding officers face one
another. Each pair of brass doors weigh 1,500 pounds.

The five pyramidal roofs covering the Senate and House cham-
bers, the auditorium, the main stair, and the rotunda are sheathed
with copper, as is the Capitol. The pyramidal shape of the roofs
is visible in the pointed ceilings inside. The structural ribs form
a coffered ceiling; and inside the coffered patterns, concentric
patterns are outlined in gold. In each chamber, the distance from
the floor to the peak of the ceiling is 45 feet.

Chandeliers in the chambers and main stair are 8 feet in dia-
meter and weigh 625 pounds each. The 12-foot diameter chan-
delier of the rotunda, like the others, is of brass, but its weight
is 750 pounds.

The Capitol 27

Because of the interior environment, the garden courts and
rotunda have tropical plants and trees. Outside, however, the
shrubs and trees are of an indigenous type. Among the trees in
the grounds, on the podium, and in the roof areas are sugar
maples, dogwoods, crabapples, magnolias, crepe myrtles, and pines.

Throughout the building, the same color scheme is maintained:
Walnut, white, gold, and red, with green foliage. In general, all
wood is American walnut, metal is brass or other gold colored
material, carpets are red, and upholstery is gold or black.

The enclosed area consists of 206,000 square feet of floor area
with a volume of 3,210,000 cubic feet. Heating equipment pro-
vides over 7,000,000 B.T.U. per hour; and the cooling equipment
has a capacity of 620 tons. For lighting, motors, and other elec-
trical equipment, the building has a connected service load of over
2,000,000 watts.

28 North Carolina Manual


Governors of "Virginia'

Ralph Lane, April ...., 1585-June ...., 1586.
John White, April ...., 1587-August ...., 1587.

Chief Executives Under the Proprietors

William Drummond, October ...., 1663-October ...., 1667.
Samuel Stephens, October ...., 1667-December ...., 1669.
Peter Carteret, October ...., 1670-May ...., 1673.
John Jenkins, May ...., 1673-November ...., 1676.

Thomas Eastchurch, November ...., 1676- , 1678.

Thomas Miller, , 1677-

John Culpepper, , 1677- , 1678.

Seth Sothel, , 1678-

John Harvey, February ...., 1679-August .— , 1679.

John Jenkins, November ...., 1679- , 1681.

Seth Sothel, , 1682- , 1689.

Philip Ludwell, December ...., 1689- , 1691.

Philip Ludwell, November 2, 1691- , 1694.

Thomas Jarvis, , 1691- , 1694.

John Archdale, August 31, 1694- , 1696.

Thomas Harvey, , 1694- , 1699.

Henderson Walker, , 1699-August 14, 1704.

Robert Daniel, , 1704, , 1705.

Thomas Cary, , 1705- , 1706.

William Glover, , 1706- , 1708.

Thomas Cary, , 1708-January ...., 1711.

Edward Hyde, , 1710-May 9, 1712.

Edward Hyde, May 9, 1712-September 8, 1712.
Thomas Pollock, September 12, 1712-May 28, 1714.
Charles Eden, May 28, 1714-March 26, 1722.
Thomas Pollock, March 30, 1722-August 30, 1722.
William Reed, August 30, 1722-January 15, 1724.
George Burrington, January 15, 1724-July 17, 1725.
Richard Everard, July 17, 1725-May ...., 1728.

Governors 29

Governors Under the Crown

Richard Everard, May ...., 1728-February 25, 1731.
George Burrington, February 25, 1731-April 15, 1734.
Nathaniel Rice, April 15, 1734-October 27, 1734.
Gabriel Johnston, October 27, 1734-July 17, 1752.
Matthew Rowan, July 17, 1752-November 2, 1754.
Arthur Dobbs, November 2, 1754-March 28, 1765.
William Tryon, March 28, 1765-December 20, 1765.
William Tryon, December 20, 1765-July 1, 1771.
James Hasell, July 1, 1771-August 12, 1771.
Josiah Martin, August 12, 1771-May ...., 1775.

Governors Elected by the Legislature

Name, County, Terms of Office

Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 19, 1776-April 18, 1777.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 18, 1777-April 18, 1778.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 18, 1778-May 4, 1779.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, May 4, 1779-April, 1780.
Abner Nash, Craven, April, 1780-June 26, 1781.
Thomas Burke, Orange, June 26, 1781-April 26, 1782.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, April 26, 1782-April 30, 1783.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, April 30, 1783-April 1, 1785.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, April 1, 1785-December 12, 1785.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 12, 1785-December 23, 1786.
Richard Caswell, Dobbs, December 23, 1786-December 20, 1787.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, December 20, 1787-November 18, 1788.
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, November 18, 1788-November 16, 1789
Samuel Johnston, Chowan, November 16, 1789-December 17, 1789
Alexander Martin, Guilford, December 17, 1789-December 9, 1790.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, December 9, 1790-January 2, 1792.
Alexander Martin, Guilford, January 2, I'i92-December 14, 1792
R. D. Spaight, Craven, December 14, 1792-December 26, 1793.
R. D. Spaight, Craven, December 26, 1793-January 6, 1795.
R. D. Spaight, Craven, January 6, 1795-November 19, 1795.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, November 19, 1795-December 19, 1796.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, December 19, 1796-December 5, 1797.
Samuel Ashe, New Hanover, December 5, 1797-December 7, 1798.

30 North Carolina Manual

W. R. Davie, Halifax, December 7, 1798-November 23, 1799.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 23, 1799-November 29, 1800.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 29, 1800-November 28, 1801.
Benjamin Williams, Moore, November 28, 1801-December 6, 1802.
James Turner, Warren, December 6, 1802-December 1, 1803.
James Turner, Warren, December 1, 1803-November 29, 1804.
James Turner, Warren, November 29, 1804-December 10, 1805.
Nathaniel Alexander, Mecklenburg, December 10, 1805-December 1,

Nathaniel Alexander, Mecklenburg, December 1, 1806-December 1,

Benjamin Williams, Moore, December 1, 1807-December 12, 1808.
David Stone, Bertie, December 12, 1808-December 13, 1809.
David Stone, Bertie, December 13, 1809-December 5, 1810.
Benjamin Smith, Brunswick, December 5, 1810-December 9, 1811.
William Hawkins, Warren, December 9, 1811-November 25, 1812.
William Hawkins, Warren, November 25, 1812-November 20, 1813.
William Hawkins, Warren, November 20, 1813-November 29, 1814.
William Miller, Warren, November 29, 1814-December 7, 1815.
William Miller, Warren, December 7, 1815-December 7, 1816.
William Miller, Warren, December 7, 1816-December 3, 1817.
John Branch, Halifax, December 3, d817-November 24, 1818.
John Branch, Halifax, November 24, 1818-November 25, 1819.
John Branch, Halifax, November 25, 1819-December 7, 1820.
Jesse Franklin, Surry, December 7, 1820-December 7, 1821.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 7, 1821-December 7, 1822.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 7, 1822-December 6, 1823.
Gabriel Holmes, Sampson, December 6, 1823-December 7, 1824.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 7, 1824-December 6, 1825.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 6, 1825-December 29, 1826.
H. G. Burton, Halifax, December 29, 1826-December 8, 1827.
James Iredell, Chowan, December 8, 1827-December 12, 1828.
John Owen, Bladen, December 12, 1828-December 10, 1829.
John Owen, Bladen, December 10, 1829-December 18, 1830.
Montford Stokes, Wilkes, December 18, 1830-December 13, 1831.
Montford Stokes, Wilkes, December 13, 1831, December 6, 1832.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 6, 1832-Deceniber 9, 1833.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 9, 1833-December 10, 1834.
D. L. Swain, Buncombe, December 10, 1834-December 10, 1835.
R. D. Spaight, Jr., Craven, December 10, 1835-December 31, 1836.

Governors 31

Governors Elected by the People

E. B. Dudley, New Hanover, December 31, 1836-December 29, 1838.

E. B. Dudley, New Hanover, December 29, 1838-January 1, 1841.

J. M. Morehead, Guilford, January 1, 1841-December 31, 1842.

J. M. Morehead, Guilford, December 31. 1842-January 1, 1845.

W. A. Graham, Orange, January 1, 1845-January 1, 1847.

W. A. Graham, Orange, January 1, 1847-January 1, 1849.

Charles Manly, Wake, January 1, 1849-January 1, 1851.

D. S. Reid, Rockingham, January 1, 1851-December 22, 1852.

D. S. Reid, Rockingham, December 22, 1852-December 6, 1854.

Warren Winslow, Cumberland, December 6, 1854-January 1, 1855.

Thomas Bragg, Northampton, January 1, 1855-January 1, 1857.

Thomas Bragg, Northampton, January 1, 1857-January 1, 1859.

John W. Ellis, Rowan, January 1, 1859-January 1, 1861.

John W. Ellis, Rowan, January 1, 1861-July 7, 1861.

Henry T. Clark, Edgecombe, July 7, 1861-September 8, 1862.

Z. B. Vance, Buncombe, September 8, 1862-December 22, 1864.

Z. B. Vance, Buncombe, December 22, 1864-May 29, 1865.

W. W. Holden, Wake, May 29, 1865-December 15, 1865.

Jonathan Worth, Randolph, December 15, 1865-December 22, 1866.

Jonathan Worth, Randolph, December 22, 1866-July 1, 1868.

W. W. Holden, Wake, July 1, 1868-December 15, 1870.

T. R. Caldwell, Burke, December 15, 1870-January 1, 1873.

T. R. Caldwell, Burke, January 1, 1873-July 11, 1874.

C. H. Brogden, Wayne, July 11, 1874-January 1, 1877.

Z. B. Vance, Mecklenburg, January 1, 1877-February 5, 1879.

T. J. Jarvis, Pitt, February 5, 1879-January 18, 1881.

T. J. Jarvis, Pitt, January 18, 1881-January 21, 1885.

A. M. Scales, Rockingham, January 21, 1885-January 17, 1889.

D. G. Fowle, Wake, January 17, 1889-April 8, 1891.
Thomas M. Holt, Alamance, April 8, 1891-January 18, 1893.
Elias Carr, Edgecombe, January 18, 1893-January 12, 1897.
D. L. Russell, Brunswick, January 12, 1897-January 15, 1901.
Charles B. Aycock, Wayne, January 15, 1901-January 11, 1905.
R. B. Glenn, Forsyth, January 11, 1905-January 12, 1909.
W. W. Kitchin, Person, January 12, 1909-January 15, 1913.
Locke Craig, Buncombe, January 15, 1913-January 11, 1917.
Thomas W. Bickett, Franklin, January 11, 1917-January 12, 1921.
Cameron Morrison, Mecklenburg, January 12, 1921-January 14, 1925.

32 North Carolina Manual

Anp:us Wilton McLean, Robeson, January 14, 1925-January 11, 1929.
O. Max Gardner, Cleveland, January 11, iy29-January 5, 1933.
J. C. B. Ehrinji:haus, Pascjuotank, January 5, 1933-January 7, 1937.
Clyde R. Iloey, Cleveland, January 7, 1937-January 9, 1941.
J. Melville BrouKhton, Wake, January 9, 1941-January 4, 1945.
R. Gregjj; Cherry, Gaston, January 4, 1945-January (5, 1949.
W. Kerr Scott, Alamance, January 6, 1949-January 8, 1953.
William B. Umstead, Durham, January 8, 1953-November 7, 1954.
Luther H. Hodj^-es, Rockingham, November 7, 1954-February 7,

Luther H. Hodges, Rockingham, February 7, 1957-January 5, 19r)l.
Terry Sanford, Cumberland, January 5, 1961-January 8, 1965.
Dan K. Moore, Haywood, January 8, 1965-January 3, 1969.
Robert W. Scott, Alamance, January 3, 1969 — •

Lieutenant Governors



This List Has Been Compiled From The North Carolina

Manual of 1913 And The Manuals Published Every

Two Years Since That Date.


Tod R. Caldwelli

Curtis H. Brogdeii2...

Thomas J. Jarvis-'

James L. Robinson

Charles M. Steadman.

Thomas M.Holt^

Rufus A. Doughton...
Charles A. Reynolds..

W. D. Turner

Francis D. Winston...
William C. Newland. .
Elijah L. Daughtridge

O. Max Gardner


J. Elmer Long

Richard T. Fountain..

A. H. Graham

W. P. Horton

R. L. Harris

L. Y. Ballentine


Luther H. Hodges-^'

Luther E. Barnhardt.
H. CloydPhilpott»...

Robert W. Scott

H. Patrick Taylor, Jr..






New Hanover









New Hanover













Term Elected


Term Served



























1. Became Governor December 15, 1870 when W. W. Holden was impeached, tried and put out of office.

2. Became Governor July 1 1, 1874 when Tod R. Caldwell died in office.

3. Became Governor February 5, 1879 when Governor Vance was elected U. S. Senator.

4. Became Governor April 9, 1891 when D. G. Fowie died in office.

5. Became Governor November 7, 1954 when William B. Umstead died in office.

6. Died in office, August 18, 1961.


An Act to Establish a State Flag

The General Assembly of North Carolina do enact:
Section 1. That the flag- of North Carolina shall consist of a
blue union, containing' in the center thereof a white star with the
letter N in s'ilt on the left and the letter C in gilt on the right of
said star, the circle containing the same to be one-third the width of
the union.

Sec. 2. That the fly of the flag shall consist of two equally pro-
portioned bars; the upper bar to be red, the lower bar to be white;
that the length of the bars horizontally shall be equal to the pei'-
pendicular length of the union, and the total length of the flag
shall be one-third more than its width.

Sec. 3. That above the star in the center of the union there
shall be a gilt scroll in semicircular form, containing in black let-
ters this inscription: "May 20th, 1775," and that below the star
there shall be a similar scroll containing in black letters the in-
scription: "April 12th, 1776."

In the General Assembly read three times and ratified this 9th
day of March, A.D., 1885.

No change has been made in the flag since the passage of this
act. By an act of 1907 it is provided :

"That the board of trustees or managers of the several State
institutions and public buildings shall provide a North Carolina flag,
of such dimensions and materials as they may deem best, and the
same shall be displayed from a staff upon the top of each and
evei-y such building at all times except during inclement weather,
and upon the death of any State officer or any prominent citizen
the Flag shall be put at half-mast until the burial of such person
shall have taken place.

"That the Board of County Commissioners of the several coun-
ties in this State shall likewise authorize the procuring of a North
Carolina flag, to be displayed either on a stafl" upon the top, or
draped behind the Judge's stand, in each and every courthouse in
the State, and that the State flag shall be displayed at each and
every term of court held, and on such other public occasions as
the Commissioners may deem proper." (Rev., s. 5321; 1885 c. 291;
1907, c. 838.)

20th MAY, 1775*


Names of the Delegates Present

Col. Thomas Polk John McKnitt Alexander

Ephriam Brevard Hezekiah Alexander

Hezekiah J. Balch Adam Alexander

John Phifer Charles Alexander

James Harris Zacheus Wilson, Sen.

William Kennon Waightstill Avery

John Ford Benjamin Patton

Richard Barry Mathew McClure

Henry Downs Neil Morrison

Ezra Alexander Robert Irwin

William Graham John Flenniken

John Quary David Reese

Abraham Alexander Richard Harris, Sen.

Abraham Alexander was appointed Chairman, and John Mc-
Knitt Alexander, Clerk. The following resolutions were offered,

1. Resolved. That whosoever directly or indirectly abetted or in
any way form or manner contenanced the unchartered and dan-
gerous invasion of our rights as claimed by Great Britain is an
enemy to this country, to America, and to the inherent and in-
alienable rights of man.

2. Resolved. That we the citizens of Mecklenburg County, do
hereby dissolve the political bands which have connected us to the
mother country and hereby absolve ourselves from all allegiance
to the British Crown and abjure all political connection contract
or association with that nation who have wantonly trampled on
our rights and liberties and inhumanly shed the blood of American
patriots at Lexington.

3. Resolved. That we do hereby declare ourselves a free and in-
dependent people, are, and of right ought to be a sovereign and

*The above is found in Vol. IX, pages 1263-65 of the Colonial Records of North Carolina.

The Mecklenburg Declaration 37

self-governing association under the control of no power other
than that of our God and the General Government of the Congress
to the maintenance of which independence we solemnly pledge to
each other our mutual cooperation, our lives, our fortunes, and our
most sacred honor.

4. Resolved, That as we now acknowledge the existence and con-
trol of no law or legal officer, civil or military within this County,
we do hereby ordain and adopt as a rule of life all, each and
every of our former laws— wherein nevertheless the Crown of
Great Britain' never can be considered as holding rights, privileges,
immunities, or authority therein.

5. Resolved, That it is further decreed that all, each and every
Military Officer in this County is hereby reinstated in his former
command and authority, he acting conformably to these regula-
tions. And that every member present of this delegation shall
henceforth be a civil officer, viz., a justice of the peace, in the
character of a "committee man" to issue process, hear and deter-
mine all matters of controversy according to said adopted laws
and to preserve peace, union and harmony in said county, and
to use every exertion to spread the love of Country and fire of
freedom throughout America, until a more general and organized
government be established in this Province.


By popular choice the Cardinal was selected for adoption as
our State Bird as of March 4, 1943. (S. L. 1943 c. 595; G. S.


This bird is sometimes called the Winter Redbird because it is
most conspicuous in winter and is the only "redbird" present at
that season. It is an all year round resident and one of the com-
monest birds in our gardens and thickets. It is about the size of a
Catbird with a longer tail, red all over, except that the throat and
region around the bill is black ; the head is conspicuously crested
and the large stout bill is red; the female is much duller — the red
being mostly confined to the crest, wings and tail. There are no
seasonal changes in the plumage.

The Cardinal is a fine singer, and what is unusual among birds
the female is said to sing as well as the male, which latter sex
usually has a monoply of that art in the feathered throngs.

The nest is rather an untidy affair built of weed stems, grass
and similar materials in a low shrub, small tree or bunch of briars,
usually not over four feet above the ground. The usual number
of eggs to a set is three in this State, usually four further North.
Possibly the Cardinal raises an extra brood down here to make
up the difference, or possibly he can keep up his normal population
more easily here through not having to face inclement winters
of the colder North. A conspicuous bird faces more hazards.

The Cardinal is by nature a seed eater, but he does not dislike
small fruits and insects.



The Constitution of North Carolina , Article III, section 16, re-
quires that

"There shall be a seal of the State which shall be kept by the
Governor, and used by him as occasion may require, and shall be
called 'The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina.' All grants
and Commissions shall be issued in the name and by the authority
of the State of North Carolina, sealed with 'The Great Seal of the
State,' signed by the Governor and countersigned by the Secretary
of State."

The use of a Great Seal for the attestation of important docu-
ments began with the institution of government in North Carolina.
There have been at various times nine different seals in use in the
colony and State.

The present Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is de-
scribed as follows:

"The Great Seal of the State of North Carolina is two and one-
quarter inches in diameter, and its design is a representation of
the figures of Liberty and Plenty, looking toward each other, but
not more than half fronting each other, and otherwise disposed, as
follows: Liberty, the first figure, standing, her pole with cap on it
in her left hand and a scroll with the word 'Constitution' inscribed
thereon in her right hand. Plenty, the second figure, sitting down,

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