North Carolina. Secretary of State.

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should be of approximately equal size. International usage forbids
the display of the flag of one nation above that of another nation
in time of peace.

(h) When the flag of the United States is displayed fi-om a
staff projecting horizontally or at an angle from the window
sill, balcony, or front of a building, the union of the flag should
be placed at the peak of the staff unless the flag is at half staff.
When the flag is suspended over a sidewalk from a rope extending
from a house to a pole at the edge of the sidewalk, the flag should
be hoisted out, union first, from the building.

(i) When the flag is displayed otherwise than by being flown
from a staff, it should be displayed flat, whether indoors or out,
or so suspended that its folds fall as free as though the flag were

(j) When the flag is displayed over the middle of the street,
it should be suspended vertically with the union to the north in
an east and west street or to the east in the north and south street.

92 North Carolina Manual

(k) When used on a speaker's platform, the fla^, if displayed
flat, should be displayed above and behind the speaker. When
displayed from a staff in a churcli or public auditorium, if it
is displayed in the chancel of a church, or on the speaker's plat-
form in a public auditorium, the flag should occupy the position
of lionor and be placed at the clergyman's or speaker's right as
he faces the congregation or audience. Any other flag so displayed
in the chancel or on the platform should be placed at the clergy-
man's or speaker's left as he faces the congregation or audience.
But when the flag is displayed from a staffs in a church or public
auditorium elsewhere than in the chancel or on the platform it
shall be placed in the position of honor at the right of the con-
gregation or audience as they face the chancel or platform. Any
other flag so displayed should be placed on the left of the con-
gregation or audience as they face the chancel or platform.

(1) The flag should form a distinctive feature of the cere-
mony of unveiling a statue or monument, but it should never
be used as the covering for the statue or monument.

(m) The flag, when flown at half-stafi', should be first hoisted
to the peak for an instant and then lowered to the half-stafi"
position. The flag should be again raised to the peak before
it is lowered for the day. By "half-staff"" is meant lowering the
flag to one-half the distance between the top and bottom of the
staff. Crepe streamers may be affixed to spear heads or flagstaffs
in a parade only by order of the President of the United States.

(n) When the flag is used to cover a casket, it should be so
placed that the union is at the head and over the left shoulder.
The flag should not be lowered into the grave nor allowed to
touch the ground.

Sec. 176. No disrespect should be shown to the flag of the
United States of America; the flag should not be dipped to any per-
son or thing. Regimental colors, State flags, and organization
or institutional flags are to be dipped as a mark of honor.

(a) The flag should never be displayed with the union down
save as a signal of dire distress.

(b) The flag should never touch anything beneath it, such as
the ground, the floor, water, or merchandise.

The American Flag 93

(c) The flag should never be carried flat or horizontally, but
always aloft and free.

(d) The flag- should never be used as drapery of any sort
whatsoever, never festooned, drawn back, nor up, in folds, but
always allowed to fall free. Bunting- of blue, white and red, always
arranged with the blue above, the white in the middle, and the
red below, should be used for covering a speaker's desk, draping
the front of a platform, and for decoration in general.

(e) The flag should never be fastened, displayed, used, or
stored in such a manner as will permit it to be easily torn, soiled,
or damaged in any way.

(f) The flag should never be used as a covering for a ceiling.

(g) The flag should never have placed upon it, nor on any
part of it, nor attached to it any mark, insignia, letter, word,
figure, design, picture or drawing of any nature.

(h) The flag should never be used as a receptacle for receiving,
holding, carrying, or delivering anything.

(i) The flag should never be used for advertising purposes in
any manner whatsoever. It should not be embroidered on such
articles as cushions or handkerchiefs and the like, printed or
otherwise impressed on paper napkins or boxes or anything that
is designed for temporary use and discard; or used as any portion
of a costume or athletic uniform. Advertising signs should not
be fastened to a staff" or halyard from which the flag is flown.

(j) The flag, when it is such condition that it is no longer
a fitting emblem for display, should be destroyed in a dignified
way, preferably by burning.

Sec. 177. During the ceremony of hoisting or lowering the
flag or when the flag is passing in a parade or in a review, all
persons present should face the flag, stand at attention, and
salute. Those present in uniform should render the military
salute. When not in uniform, men should remove the headdress
with the right hand holding it at the left shoulder, the hand
being over the heart. Men without hats should salute in the same
manner. Aliens should stand at attention. Women should salute
by placing the right hand over the heart. The salute to the flag
in the moving colunm should be rendered at the moment the
flag passes.

94 North Carolina Manual

Sec. 178. Any rule or custom pertaining to the display of the
flag of the United States of America, set forth in sections 171-178
of this title, may be altered, modified, or repealed, or additional
rules with respect thereto may be prescribed, by the Commander
in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, whenever
he deems it to be appropriate or desii-able; and any such altera-
tion or additional rule shall be set forth in a proclamation.

The Pledge to the Flag

(Taug-ht in many of the schools and repeated by pupils daily)

"I pledge allegiance to the flag of the United States of America,
And to the Republic for which it stands.
One Nation under God, indivisible.
With liberty and justice for all."

The Pledge to the Flag, according to a report of the Historical
Committee of the United States Flag Association (May 18, 1939),
was written by Francis Bellamy (August 1892), a member of the
editorial staff of The Youth's Co)iipu)iio)i, in Boston, Massachu-
setts. It was first repeated at the exercises in connection with
the celebration of Columbus Day (October 12, 1892, Old Style).
The idea of this national celebration on Columbus Day was largely
that of James B. Upham, one of the junior proprietors of The
Youth's Companion.

Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of Independence,
was the designer of the Stars and Stripes — not Betsy Ross of
Philadelphia, who made flags. He also designed the first Great
Seal of the United States, and a number of coins and several items
of paper currency in the early days of the Republic.

Hopkinson, born in Philadelphia (September 21, 1737), and a
graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, was the first native
American composer of a secular song, "My Days Have Been So
Wondrous Free." He was a lawyer and later a judge in New Jersey
and then in Pennsylvania. He died in Philadelphia (May 9, 1791).
His portrait, painted by himself, hangs in the rooms of the Penn-
sylvania Historical Society, Philadelphia. He played the organ and


The Capitol building in Washington, D. C, is situated on a
plateau 88 feet above the level of the Potomac River and covers
an area of 153,112 square feet, or approximately three and one-
half acres. Its length, from north to south, is 751 feet, four inches;
its width, including approaches, is 350 feet; and its location is
described as being in latitude 38°53'20.4" N. and longitude
70°00'35.7" W. from Greenvi^ich. Its height above the base line on
the east front to the top of the Statue of Freedom is 287 feet,
five and one-half inches. The dome is built of iron, and the aggre-
gate weight of material used in its construction is 8,909,200

The Statue of Freedom surmounting the dome is of bronze and
weighs 14,985 pounds. It was modeled by Thomas Crawford,
father of Francis Marion Crawford, the novelist, in Rome, and
the plaster model shipped to this country. It was cast in bronze
at the shops of Clark Mills, on the Bladensburg Road, near Wash-
ington. The cost of the casting and the expenses in connection
were $20,796.82, and the sculptor was paid $3,000 for the plaster
model. It was erected and placed in its present position December
2, 1863.

The grounds have had an area of 58.8 acres, at one time a part
of Cern Abby Manor, and at an early date were occupied by a
subtribe of the Algonquin Indians known as the Powhatans, whose
council house was then located at the foot of the hill. By sub-
sequent purchase of ground at the North of the Capitol and at
the west of the new House Office building the area of the grounds
has been increased to 139 ^/^ acres.

The Rotunda is 97 feet 6 inches in diameter, and its height from
the floor to the top of the canopy is 180 feet, 3 inches.

The Senate Chamber is 113 feet, 3 inches, in length by 80 feet,
3 inches, in width and 36 feet in height. The galleries will ac-
commodate 682 persons.

The Representatives' Hall is 139 feet in length by 93 feet in
width and 36 feet in height.

The room, until 1935 the meeting place of the Supreme Court,
was, until 1859, occupied as the Senate Chamber. Previous to that


96 North Carolina Manual

time the court occupied the room immediately beneath, now used
as a law library.

The Capitol has a floor area of 14 acres, and 4.30 rooms are de-
voted to office, committee, and storag'e purposes. There are 14,518
square feet of skylights, 679 windows, and 550 doorways.

The dome receives lig-ht throug'h 108 windows, and from the
architect's office to the dome there are 365 steps, one for each day
of the year.

The southeast cornerstone of the original building was laid Sep-
tember 18, 1793, by President Washington, with Masonic cere-
monies. It is constructed of sandstone from quarries on Aquia
Creek, Va. The original designs were prepared by Dr. William
Thornton, and the work was done under the direction of Stephen
H. Hallet, James Hoban, George Hadfield, and B. H. Latrobe,

The north wing was finished in 1800 and the south wing in 1811.
A wooden passageway connected them. On August 24, 1814, the
interior of both wings was destroyed by fire, set by the British.
The damage to the building was immediately repaired.

In 1818 the central portion of the building was commenced
under the architectural superintendence of Charles Bullfinch. The
original building was finally completed in 1827. Its cost, including
the grading of the grounds, alterations, and repairs, up to 1827,
was $2,433,844.13.

The cornerstone of the extensions was laid on the Fourth of
July, 1851, by President Fillmore, Daniel Webster officiating as
orator. The work was prosecuted under the architectual direc-
tion of Thomas U. Walter until 1865, when he resigned, and it was
completed under the supervision of Edward Clark. The material
used in the walls is white marble from the quarries of Lee, Massa-
chusetts, and that in the columns fi'om the quarries from Cockeys-
ville, Maryland. The House extension was first occupied for legis-
lative purposes December 16, 1857, and the Senate January 4,

The House office building was begun in 1905 and occupied on
January 10, 1908; later a story on top was added. The Senate
office building was started in 1906 and occupied on March 5, 1909.
The House building cost, with site, $4,860,155; the Senate struc-
ture, $5,019,251.

The National Capitol 97

Among the paintings in the Capitol are:

In Rotunda: Signing of the Declaration of Independence, Sur-
render of General Burgoyne, Surrender of Lord Cornwallis at
Yorktown, Va., George Washington Resigning His Commission as
Commander in Chief of the Army, all by John Trumbull.

Baptism of Pocahontas, by John G. Chapman; Landing of Co-
lumbus, by John Vanderlyn; Discovery of the Mississippi River
by DeSoto, by William H. Powell; Embarkation of the Pilgrims,
by Robert W. Weir.

In House Wing: Westward the Course of Empire Takes Its Way,
by Emanuel Leutze; First Reading of the Emancipation Proclama-
tion, by Francis Bicknell Carpenter.

In Senate Wing: Battle of Lake Erie, by William H. Powell;
Battle of Chapultepec, by James Walker.


(Unanimously Adopted in Congress, July 4, 1776, at Philadelphia)

When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for
one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected
them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth,
the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and
of Nature's God entitles them, a decent respect to the opinions of
mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel
them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are creat-
ed equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain in-
alienable Rights; that among these are Life, Liberty and the pur-
suit of Happiness. That, to secure these rights, Governments are
instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent
of the governed; That, whenever any Form of Government be-
comes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to
alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its
foundations on such principles, and organizing its powers in such
forms, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and
Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long
established should not be changed for light and transient causes;
and, accordingly, all experience hath shewn, that mankind are
more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right
themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed.
But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invari-
ably the same Object, evinces a design to reduce them under abso-
lute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such
Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.
Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies, and such
is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former
Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great
Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all hav-
ing in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over
these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid

He has refused his assent to Laws, the most wholesome and
necessary for the public good.


Declaration of Independence 99

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and
pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his
Assent should be obtained; and, when so suspended, he has utterly
neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of
large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the
right of Representation in the Legislature — a right inestimable to
them, and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, un-
comfortable and distant from the depository of their public Rec-
ords, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with
his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing
with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause
others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of
Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exer-
cise; the State remaining, in the m.eantime, exposed to all the
dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavored to prevent the population of these States for
that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreign-
ers; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither,
and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing
his assent to laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure
of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither
swarms of Officers to harass our people, and eat out their sub-

He has kept among us, in times of peace. Standing Armies
without the Consent of Our Legislature.

He has affected to render the Military independent of, and
superior to, the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction
foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws;
giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation. For
quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

100 North Carolina Manual

For protectiiiR- them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any
Murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by

For transporting us beyond Seas, to be tried for pretended of-
fenses ;

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbor-
ing Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and
enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an example
and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into
these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable
Laws, and altering fundamentally, the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves
invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his
Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns,
and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign mer-
cenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny,
already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely
paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the
Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow-Citizens, taken captive on the
high Seas, to bear Arms against their County, to become the exe-
cutioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by
their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has en-
deavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merci-
less Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare is an undis-
tinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Re-
dress in the most humble terms; Our repeated Petitions have been
answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is
thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to
be the ruler of a free people.

Declaration of Independence 101

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren.
We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their
legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We
have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and
settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and
magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our com-
mon kindred to disavow these usurptation, which inevitably inter-
rupt our connections with correspondence. They, too, have been
deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, there-
fore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation,
and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind — Enemies in War,
in Peace Friends.

We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of
America, in General Congi-ess Assembled; appealing to the Su-
preme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do,
in the Name and by authority of the good People of these Colonies,
solemnly publish and declare. That these United Colonies are, and
of Right ought to be free and independent States; that they are
Absolved from All Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all
political connections between them and the State of Great Britain
is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that as Free and Inde-
pendent States, they have full power to levy War, conclude Peace,
contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts
and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for
the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the pro-
tection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other
our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

John Hancock

Button Gwinnett Edward Rutledge

Lyman Hall Thomas Heyward, Junr.

Geo. Walton Thomas Lynch, Junr.

Wm. Hooper Arthur Middleton

Joseph Hewes Samuel Chase

John Penn Wm. Paca

Thos. Stone Carter Braxton


North Carolina Manual

Charles Carroll of Carrollton

James Wilson

Geo. Ross

Caesar Rodney

Geo. Reed

Tho. M. Kean

Wm. Floyd

Phil. Livingston

Frans. Lewis

Lewis Morris

Richd. Stockton

Jno. Witherspoon

Fras. Hopkinson

John Hart

Abra Clark

George Wythe

Richard Henry Lee

Th. Jefferson

Benja. Harrison

Thos. Nelson, Jr.

Francis Lightfoot Lee

Roht. Morris
Benjamin Rush
Benja. Franklin
John Morton
Geo. Clynier
Jas. Smith
Geo. Taylor
Josiah Bartlett
Wm. Hippie
Saml. Adams
John Adams
Robt. Treat Payne
Eldridge Gerry
Step. Hopkins
William Ellery
Roger Sherman
Samuel Huntington
Wm. Williams
Oliver Woolcott
Matthew Thornton



We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more
perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, pro-
vide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and
secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do
ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of

Article I

Section 1 — All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate
and a House of Representatives.

Sec. 2 — 1. The House of Representatives shall be composed of
members chosen every second year by the people of the several
States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State

2. No person shall be a Representative who shall not have at-
tained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citi-
zen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an
inhbiatant of the State in which he shall be chosen.

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among
the several States which may be included within this Union, ac-
cording to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by
adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound
to service for a term of years and excluding Indians not taxed,
three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be
made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress
of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten
years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of
Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand,
but each State shall have at least one Representative; and until
such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire
shall be entitled to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8; Rhode Island and
Providence Plantations, 1; Connecticut, 5; New York, 6; New


104 North Carolina Manual

Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Dclawai-e, 1; Maryland, 6; Virginia,
10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 5; and Georgia, 3.*

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any State
the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill
such vacancies.

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and
other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Sec. 3 — 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of
two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof
for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.f

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence
of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into

Online LibraryNorth Carolina. Secretary of StateNorth Carolina manual [serial] (Volume 1971) → online text (page 8 of 61)