THE HEALTH BULLETIN
Margaret Dolan Appointed
Member of Health
Cohen, Acting Secretary of
Health, Education, and Welfare, an-
nounced the appointment of Charles L.
Schultze, former Director of the Bureau
of the Budget, as the new Chairman of
the Health Insurance Benefits Advisory
Council. Mr. Schultze is now Professor
of Economics at the University of Mary-
land and Senior Fellow with the Brook-
ings institution. He succeeds Kermit
Gordon, whose term as Chairman re-
The appointment of 6 new members
was also announced, 3 to succeed mem-
bers whose terms have expired and 3
appointed in accordance with recent
legislation increasing the membership
of the Council from 1 6 to 19.
Mrs. Maragret B. Dolan, professor
and head of the Public Health Nursing,
School of Public Health at Chapel Hill,
is one of these new members.
The Council was appointed in No-
vember 1965, to advise the Secretary
of Health, Education, and Welfare on
matters of policy in the newly enacted
LSD characteristically causes opposite
moods at the same time: one can feel
tense yet calm, or serious but silly with-
in the same few moments, scientists
at the National Institute of Mental
Health, U. S. Public Health Service,
Dr. Martin M. Katz, NIMH psycholo-
gist and senior investigator, described
major findings of the study. Scientists
selected 80 prison inmates of average
intelligence who knew little about LSD
as subjects in the project to pinpoint the
drug's psychological effects.
The prisoners were given either 50
micrograms of LSD, dextro-ampheta-
mine, or plain sugar pills. None knew
which of the three he was taking. The
subjects were then asked to answer a
carefully designed questionnaire on
their responses to the drug, and to
give their reactions to a series of pic-
tures of people. In addition, their voices
were recorded and analyzed for emo-
The results showed the LSD state
to be a unique and puzzling one. Its
primary characteristic consists of "very
strong but opposing emotions occurring
approximately at the same time" with-
out any particular reason or outside
stimulus. Dr. Katz noted. For example,
one subject said "I feel jittery and
nervous, but I also feel relaxed." An-
other reported "1 feel serious but some-
how everything seems funny and I feel
Other reactions included:
1) A feeling of one-'s emotions and
thoughts being out of control.
2) A feeling of detachment from the
3) A feeling of perceptual sharpness
at the same time the outer world
4) A perception of others as friendly
Dr. Katz found that subjects on the
amphetamine felt they had increased
control and improved motor reactions.
Those on sugar pills showed little
change from their normal moods. There
were three main types of LSD reactions:
One group felt moderately relaxed,
happy, and peaceful; another, tense and
jumpy; and the third, ambivalent, ex-
periencing opposite feelings at the same
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But nearly all subjects at some time
showed a confusing mixture of positive
and negative feelings. Dr. Katz said:
"They reported a number of feelings
to be occurring at approximately the
same time which would appear to the
rational observer as opposed and con-
tradictory. One of the most dominant
aspects of the experience, then, was the
contrariness and intensity of the basic
effects which take place in the early
stages of the LSD reaction."
Dr. Katz concluded that "this assem-
blage of competing emotions and per-
ceptual counterparts and the general
intensity of the reaction would appear
to create a very bizarre experience for
most individuals in our culture to un-
dergo—and one which may not be
easily assimilated or integrated into
their previous experience."
The attempt to find meaning in such
a paradoxical experience may help ex-
plain some of the philosophical con-
cepts reported by users on higher doses
of LSD, the investigators suggested.
The NIMH report, by Drs. Katz, Irene
E. Waskow, and James Olsson, appears
in the February 1968 issue of the Jour-
nal of Abnormal Psychology.
THE HEALTH BULLETIN
DATES AND EVENTS
April 28-May 2 — Southern Psychi-
atric Association, Southern Pines, N.
April 29-AAay 24 — Rehabilitative Nurs-
ing Workshop, Charlotte Rehabilita-
tion Hospital, Charlotte, N. C.
April 30-May 1st — N. C. Tuberculosis
Association, Annual Meeting, Heart
of Charlotte Motel, Charlotte, N. C.
May 1-7 — Mental Health Week
May 9-1 C - Western Branch, N. C.
Public Health Association, High
Hampton Inn, Cashiers, N. C.
May 13-17 — Biennial Convention:
American Nurses' Association, Dallas,
May 15-17 — Meeting: 38th Annual
Statewide Industrial Safety Confer-
ence, Jack Tar Hotel, Durham
May 16 — N. C. Association of indus-
trial Nurses, Durham
May 19-22 — Annual Meeting: Nation-
al Tuberculosis Association, Houston,
May 27-31 — Annual Meeting: South-
ern Branch APHA, Roanoke, Va.
JUN 5 196ti
HEALTH AFFAIRS LIBRARY
Wilbur J. Cohen
President Johnson's choice for a new secretary
of Health, Education and Welfare to replace
Dr. John Gardner, (see story on page 3.)
Physicians' Attitudes Toward Venereal
Is revealed in a recently conducted
survey by the National Opinion Re-
search. In sunnmary the survey indicat-
ed that "there are not two kinds of
physicians: those who faithfully report
each veneral disease case they treat and
those who consistently fail to report.
Though there are some physicians in
each of these categories, the majority
exercise their professional judgment in
each case and, on the basis of a mul-
tiplicity of factors, decide to report
some patients and not to report others."
To Determine The True Extent of
In this country, the American Social
Health Association will on July 1 mail
questionnaires to nearly 200,000 physi-
cians and 13,000 osteopaths in private
practice requesting them to report any
veneral disease cases treated within the
three-month period from April 1 to
June 30. A similar survey conducted
by ASHA six years ago revealed that
private physicians were reporting about
11% of the infectious venereal diseas-
es treated. The sponsoring organizations
for the VD Incidence Survey are the
American Medical Association, the Na-
tional Medical Association, and the
American Osteopathic Association, in
cooperation with the U. S. Public Health
Service. State and local medical societies
are urged to acquaint their membership
of the current survey.
Reported Cases of Gonorrhea
Continue to increase according to
figures recently released by the U. S.
Public Health Service. Gonorrhea in-
creased by 13.7 per cent the first quar-
ter of fiscal 1968 over the same period
the previous year. And fiscal 1967 saw
the second highest gonorrhea total in
"Elements of Total Family Health"
will be one of the major addresses of
the annual meeting of the American
Public Health Association's Southern
Branch May 28-31 in Roanoke, Virginia.
The speaker will be Dr. John J. Han-
Ion, President of the APHA. Dr. Han-
Ion is the health commissioner of De-
troit. His address will be delivered May
30, at the second general session of
the meeting. Sharing the platform will
be Dr. Paul D. Sanders of Richmond,
Virginia, editor of the Southern Plant-
er, who will discuss "Social and Eco-
nomic Impact of Family Health on the
At the first general session, on May
29, Dr. Carl S. Winters, lecture staff
consultant for General Motors Corpora-
tion, will deliver the keynote address,
based on the meeting theme of "Fami-
ly Health is Community Wealth."
Dr. Berwyn F. Mattison, APHA ex-
ecutive director, will tell the third gen-
eral session "What's New in APHA and
The Southern Branch meeting is
expected to draw members from 16
Southern states and the District of Co-
lumbia to the Hotel Roanoke.
Sectional meetings will be held on
dental health, medical care, environ-
mental health, nutrition, health educa-
tion, public health nursing, personnel
administration, and records and statis-
THE HEALTH BULLETIN
Wilbur J. Cohen
President Johnson's choice for a new
secretary of Health, Education and Wel-
fare to replace John Gardner has spent
a third of a century building impressive
credentials for the job.
Wilbur J. Cohen came to Washington
in 1934 as a research assistant to the
executive director of President Franklin
D. Roosevelt's Cabinet Committee on
Economic Security, which drafted the
original Social Security Act. And since
that time he has had a major hand in
nearly every piece of important social
and education legislation passed by
Mr. Cohen, 55, is an energetic liberal
who has earned a reputation under
three HEW secretaries — Abraham A.
RibicofF, Anthony J. Celebrezze and
Mr. Gardner — as a master legislative
technician. He has been serving as act-
ing secretary since Mr. Gardner's resig-
nation took effect March 1.
Except for a stint as a public welfare
professor at the University of Michigan
from 1956 to 1961, Mr. Cohen has de-
voted his career to continuous govern-
ment service at HEW and its predeces-
sor agencies. In January 1961 he was
appointed by President John F. Ken-
nedy as HEW assistant secretary for
legislation. During his four-and-a-half
years in that post, some 65 legislative
proposals passed by Congress bore his
He was appointed HEW undersecre-
tary by President Johnson on June 1,
1965, and served Mr. Gardner for two-
and-a-half years as coordinator of major
policy issues between the legislative
and executive branches. During that
time, he was a leading strategist in the
enactment of medicare legislation.
In many respects, Mr. Cohen has run
the massive HEW agency — which em-
ploys 100,000 persons and has a bud-
get second only to that of the Penta-
gon — during the tenure of the last
three secretaries. As one observer put
it, "Wilbur Cohen knows everything a-
bout HEW." He is recognized as a skill-
ed administrator who, like former De-
fense Secretary Robert S. McNamara,
has so thorough a knowledge of his
subject that he can instantly produce
facts and figures about programs that
Mr. Cohen is also known as an offi-
cial who drives himself because his re-
sponsibilities matter personally to him.
In a magazine article last spring, Theo-
dore H. White listed Mr. Cohen, along
with John Gardner, McGeorge Bundy,
James Conant and others, as one of the
nation's, leading "action intellectuals."
"After all his years in the capital,"
Mr. White wrote, "Cohen has lost none
of his humanitarian glow — 'as though,'
an acquaintance once said, "he feels
every person in the country who is
home alone sick is his personal re-
Though he has made his mark most
deeply in the fields of health and wel-
fare, Mr. Cohen's achievements in fed-
eral education legislation cannot be un-
derrated. He sees a great need for the
nation to extend federal education pro-
grams to help solve the poverty-welfare
cycle. "Education is a main part of the
welfare problem," he once told an in-
terviewer. "It is the central solution.
The vast majority of these people on
welfare have no education; they're
grade school and high school dropouts.
We've got to educate these people,
train them for jobs."
THE HEALTH BULLETIN
Tornado and hurricane victims of the
future may not have to go to a hos-
pital—the hospital may go to them.
Boxed units of emergency medical
supplies and equipment are being posi-
tioned by the Public Health Service in
areas where natural disasters frequent-
ly occur. When a disaster strikes, the
unit can be loaded on a truck, rushed
to the scene, and used to aid the vic-
tims. The units are called Natural Dis-
aster Hospitals (NDH).
The first NDH has just been placed at
Enid, Oklahoma. "Enid's vulnerable lo-
cation in the tornado belt makes it a
prime site for an NDH," said Dr. Henry
C. Huntley, Director of the Division of
Health Mobilization which coordinates
the disaster services of the Public
In an agreement signed with DHM,
the Garfield County (Oklahoma) Civil
Defense Office has assumed responsi-
bility for the storage and transportation
of the unit.
Staffing of the unit will be handled
by the Garfield County Medical Associ-
The NDH is one phase of the Public
Health Service's program to provide
emergency medical supplies, equipment,
and services quickly and efficiently in
times of disaster. Packaged Disaster
Hospitals (units of supplies and equip-
ment necessary to establish a 200-bed
hospital) and Hospital Reserve Disas-
ter Inventories (30-day backup inven-
tories of critical medical items for com-
munity hospitals) are phases already in
operation. The NDH serves a need dif-
ferent from the other programs in that
it is designed to operate as a short-
term medical facility for up to 24
In an emergency, the NDH can be
quickly set up as a complete 50-bed
unit. It can be used by a hospital to
expand its facilities or it can be set up
in a church, school or other available
building to serve the emergency needs
of approximately 300 casualties. The
unit is small— 83 cases of supplies and
equipment; it is light-weight— 234 tons,-
it is mobile— it can be transported in
four station wagons or two pickup
trucks. Its ability to go to the injured
means that victims with slight injuries
can be treated on the scene and
released. Victims with grave injuries
can be given essential treatment before
being moved to permanent hospitals.
If necessary, the NDH can provide sur-
gery in the field.
The Public Health Service plans to
position 24 additional NDH's in high-
risk natural disaster areas this year.
The first group will be placed in the
middle west in anticipation of the
tornado season. The second group will
be placed in the hurricane-prone areas
of the coastal regions before fall.
THE HEALTH BULLETIN
First Published — April 1886
The official publication of the North Caro-
lina State Board of Health, 608 Cooper
Memorial Health Building, 225 North Mc-
Dowell Street, Raleigh, N. C. Published
monthly. Second Class Postage paid at
Raleigh, X. C. Sent free upon request.
Charles M, Cameron. Jr.. M D,, M.P.H.
John C Lumsden. B.C.H.E.
Jacob Koomen, Jr.. M.D., M.P.H.
John Andrews, B.S.
Glenn A. Flinchum. B S.
H W. STEVENS, M.D., M.P.H.. ASHEVILLE
Guest Ed.— Edwin S. Preston, M.A.,LL.D.
THE HEALTH BULLETIN
The parents of creative boys treat
them like responsible adults; they
regard their adolescent sons with
respect and let them make their own
decisions, according to the youngsters
These facts were reported by scien-
tists of the National Institute of Mental
Health, U.S. Public Health Service.
Dr. Lois-ellin Datta and Morris Parloff,
Institute psychologists, asked 1,039
teen-age boys who had scored high in
the Westinghouse Science Talent Search
to describe how their parents had
treated them from childhood to the
present. The boys were divided into
two groups— the more and the less cre-
ative—according to how the judges had
rated the originality of their science
The two groups of boys appeared
to be similar in many ways. Slightly
more than half had fathers who were
employed in professional occupations,
they did not differ in scientific aptitude,
reported similar interest in becoming
scientists and had equally high scores
on the scholastic aptitude test.
However, the more creative students
were more likely to come from the
Northeastern States (44 versus 38 per-
cent), from metropolitan areas (51
versus 41 percent), and from Jewish
families (46 versus 38 percent).
In answer to NIMH questionnaires,
both the creative young scientists and
the controls said their parents were
moderately affectionate, non-rejecting,
and encouraged their intellectual inde-
But replies from the more creative
boys shows that they had been given
much more latitude and subjected to
considerably less discipline than the
less creative teen-agers. One boy said
"They allowed me as much responsibili-
ty as they felt I could handle ... I
felt I was trusted." Another said "Rules,
what rules? I was treated as a respon-
sible adult." A third remarked, "I was
simply allowed to make my own deci-
In contrast, one of the less creative
boys complained that "My father has a
THE HEALTH BULLETIN
set of rules that makes the penal code
look like a picnic."
The study also showed that the more
creative students considered their moth-
ers as somewhat less rejecting and
authoritarian than the less creative boys
However, relationships with fathers
appeared to be more important to early
scientific creativity in the boys than
that with the mothers.
One creative boy suggested that his
group may have represented fewer dis-
ciplinary problems than the average
teenager, making the parent's task an
easier one. He said "As ! never had any
desire to smoke, drink, stay out late,
ride in a fast car, or do any other unde-
sirable things, my mother never found
it necessary to condemn my avocations
However, Dr. Datta emphasized that
the parents did not appear to practice
a disinterested hands-off policy. She
explained that the more creative boy
was "more likely to perceive both
parents as providing a 'no-rules' situa-
tion in which his integrity and respon-
sibility were assumed rather than one
in which expectations were enforced
by authoritarian control and punish-
ment. The results suggest that creative
behavior may be significantly related to
expectations communicated in ways
that the child sees as trust in his ability
to choose rationally, thus enhancing his
ability and desire to achieve by in-
Dr. Datta noted that 41 percent of
the more creative boys but only 26
percent of the less creative ones later
enrolled in six top colleges— M.I.T.,
Harvard, Princeton, Yale, Columbia Uni-
versity, and California Institute of Tech-
The report by Drs. Datta and Par-
loff appears in the Proceedings of the
75th Annual Convention of the Amer-
ican Psychological Association.
Three cities have been selected as
the first sites of Federal aftercare con-
tract negotiating offices for narcotic ad-
dicts. The cities are Los Angeles, Chi-
cago, and New York.
These metropolitan area offices are
the first of a proposed national net-
work which will arrange for the treat-
ment of narcotic addicts discharged
from the inpatient units of the NIMH
Clinical Research Centers at Fort Worth,
Texas and Lexington, Kentucky.
NIMH officials said these cities were
selected because of their large addict
populations. Additional cities will soon
be added to complete the network.
The purpose of the program is to
reduce the high relapse rate of patients
who have been treated for narcotic drug
Better Health Care
Providing better health services to
migratory agricultural workers is the
concern of over 200 persons who at-
tended the Eastern States Migrant
Health Conference in Orlando, Florida.
Sponsored by the U.S. Public Health
Service, the meeting focused on the
problem of making health care avail-
able to the 80,000 migrants who har-
vest crops along the Eastern Seaboard.
Participants from eleven States in-
cluded representatives of national. State
and local governments, voluntary or-
ganizations, migrant health projects and
THE HEALTH BULLETIN
And then there was the 39-year-old
waitress who complained for six months
about her "cold."
She had a low-grade fever almost
every day. She suffered from chills,
lack of sleep, and irritability. After
losing 20 pounds, she weighed 107
when admitted to a Philadelphia hos-
Her trouble? Too much coffee-drink-
She drank 15 to 18 cups a day, the
woman told her physician. Her cold
symptoms disappeared after five days
in a hospital, during which she was
limited to one cup of coffee a day.
A report on this case of caffeinism
appears in a recent (Dec. 18) Journal of
the American Medical Association. The
author is Hobart A. Reimann, M.D., of
Hahnemann Medical College and Hos-
Several common household items can
cause illness if used excessively. Dr.
Reimann points out, and the illness can
be mistaken for other disease.
Coffee, tea, dentifrices, and even
peanuts contain chemicals called xan-
thine alkaloids and can induce illness
sometimes mistaken for other disease,
A cup of coffee contains about one-
tenth gram of caffeine. A single one-
gram dose of caffeine causes mental
confuision, shivering, tremor, vomit-
ing, and diarrhea. Ten grams of caf-
feine is said to be fatal.
The waitress's caffeine intake was
probably more than 1 V2 grams a day.
The intake was spread over several
hours, however— probably the reason
she was not more seriously ill.
The woman also smoked more than
a pack of cigarettes a day, and reg-
ularly took sleeping pills. The nicotine
and drugs also may have affected her
reactions to caffeine. Dr. Reimann said.
A main point of his report is that
great effort can be wasted on testing
for diseases which a patient does not
have, but whose symptoms are similar
to those caused by excessive use of
caffeine and other stimulants. In the
waitress's case. Dr. Reimann happened
to note that her fever rose after that
daily cup of hospital coffee, but de-
clined later. It was then that further
questioning disclosed how much coffee
"The cause (of illness) is easily over-
looked unless a patient's habits are dis-
covered," Dr. Reimann said. "Prompt
recognition (eliminates the need for)
much clinical effort, laboratory testing,
unnecessary therapy, and expense."
Reactions to caffeine are influenced
by a person's age, emotional or nervous
state, "or by the idiosyncrasies of peo-
ple," Dr. Reimann said. Its effect is
widely variable, often opposite in dif-
ferent people or even in the same per-
son at different times.
"Caffeinism is said to be current
among intellectual workers, actresses,
vyaitresses, nocturnal employees, and
long-distance automobile drivers," Dr.
Reimann said. "Illness otherwise un-
explained may be caused by excessive
intake of the xanthine alkaloids (caf-
feine), including those in coffee, tea,
cocoa, and those in other popular
"Removal of the cause is the cure,"
THE HEALTH BULLETIN
Created by J. Daatselaar under a com-
mission from the Dollinger Corporation
of Rochester, New York, this sculptured
work signifies the newly established
Lewis L. Dollinger Pure Environment
Award. According to the artist, "The
burnished aluminum in its simplicity of
geometric shape symbolizes modern
day industrial technology. The ceramic
representation of the human embryo
within the industrial society suggests
purity and life support.
"The boldness of industrial strength,"
Mr. Daatselaar points out, "surrounds
and supports all of contemporary life.
Thus, the motion of the sculpture is
generated by this contrast of strength
with huddled dependence, giving way
to man's realization that his natural en-
vironment must be protected if his
future life is to be maintained."
The world's scientific, industrial and