opposite this the Hotel Bellevue, and next beyond this the massive
brownstone Unitarian House. Here are the denominational book
salesrooms, offices and committee rooms of the American Unitarian
Association, the Unitarian Sunday School Society, which compre-
hends the whole country, and the Benevolent Fraternity of Churches;
and on the upper floor, " Channing Hall." Cotigregatio7ial House,
containing " Pilgrim Hall," is opposite it.
At the corner of Beacon and Park streets is the Raymotid Build-
ing, formerly one of the finest houses in the city. It was built, in
1804, by Thomas Amory, and was called "Amory's Folly," because of
its great size and costliness. It was at a later period divided into
four dwellings. Among the distinguished people who have, at differ-
ent times, been its tenants, were Gov. Christopher Gore, Samuel
Dexter, the great lawyer and statesman, and Edward' G. Malbone,
the miniature painter. Lafayette stayed here for two weeks, in 1824,
as the guest of the city, the house having been rented for this pur-
pose by Mayor Quincy.
The Shaiv Mo7iument is immediately opposite this corner, on the
edge of the Common.
The next object to claim our attention is the State House, on
the highest point of Beacon Hill. This fine old building is
approached by a broad flight of stone steps. In the yard, on the
right, is a bronze statue of Webster, by Hiram Powers; on the
left, one of Horace Mann, by Emma Stebbins. The State House,
with its gilded dome, is visible from many parts of the city and
harbor. The land on which it stands was Governor Hancock's
cow pasture, and was purchased from his heirs by the* town and
A TOUR OF THE CITY. 165
given to the State. The building was designed by Bnlfinch, the
first and one of the greatest of American architects. The corner-
stone was laid by the Free Masons (Paul Revere, Grand Master),
July 4, 1795. It was first occupied by the Legislature in January,
1798. In 1S53-56, it was extended northerly to Mount Vernon
Street, and, a few years later, its interior was remodeled. In 1874, it
was extensively repaired, and its dome was gilded, and in 1889,
the State's business having outgrown it, the Legislature authorized
the construction of the ''State House Exte?iswjt'' in the rear of
the original building.
The extension is of yellow brick, with trimmings of white
marble, simulating the familiar yellow and white of the " Colonial "
style. Its design was intended to harmonize with that by Bulfinch,
but the result is generally regarded as infelicitous, being severely
criticised as out of scale and weak in effect, though having the
merit of considerable good detail.
The entrance halls of the State House are magnificent apartments
of marble, the interior one, admitting by splendid staircases to the
Legislative Halls above being particularly imposing.
The front, or " Doric," hall contains two statues, one of Washing-
ton, by Chan trey, and one of Governor Andrew, by Thomas Ball.
The interior of the extension is pleasant, cheerful, well ven-
tilated, and, for the most part, convenient. It is occupied by the
various administrative and executive departments of the common-
wealth, and includes two large and handsome halls â€” that of the
House of Representatives and the State Library, besides various
legislative committee-rooms, etc. The Senate remains in its
chamber in the old building.
The new Hall of Representatives is a handsome and richly
decorated room, considerably larger than the old hall, but lacking
the stately beauty of the latter, which is one of Bulfinch's finest
interiors. The acoustic properties of the old hall are perfect, but
those of the former turn out to be very defective.
The decorations of the new hall, by Mr. Frank Hill Smith, are
very handsome. Its amphitheater shape, with domed ceiling,
lends itself well to fine decorative effects. The treatment is in the
Italian Renaissance. Prominent features of the scheme are the
names of fifty-three men, eminent in Massachusetts history,
inscribed on the frieze, beginning with John Carver and ending
166 HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
with Phillips Brooks; the names of the counties in the stained-
glass skylight, and the symbols of Â»Statecraft, Law, Commerce,
Science, Industry, the Arts, etc., that occupy panels in the coving
Grounds of considerable extent have been taken east of the State
House to form open gardens. These have a fine outlook, and are
adorned by two monuments. One is a heroic bronze statue to Major-
General Charles Devens, famous in the Civil War, modeled by the
late Olin T. Warner. The other is a lofty granite column, bearing a
great bronze spread eagle, which is "to commemorate that train of
events which led to the American Revolution, and finally secured
Liberty and Independence to the United States." It was "erected
by the voluntary subscriptions of the citizens of Boston." It is
further interesting from the following facts: "In 1634 the General
Court caused a beacon [whence the name Beacon Hill and Street]
to be placed on the top of this hill. In 1790 a brick and stone
monument, designed by Charles Bulfinch, replaced the beacon, but
was removed in 181 1, when the hill was cut down. It is now repro-
duced in stone by the Bunker Hill Monument Association, 1898."
Just beyond the State House, in the fence in front of a modern
brownstone house, is a tablet announcing that here once stood
the Hancock Mansion, which, in its day, was one of the finest
mansions in the town. Built, in 1737, by Thomas Hancock, it was
inherited by his nephew, John Hancock. It was taken down, in
1863, to make room for modern improvements.
At the corner of Beacon and Joy streets is the lofty Hotel Tudor,
one of the largest and finest apartment houses in Boston. In its
rear. No. i Joy Street, is the Diocesan House, used by the various
organizations of the Protestant Episcopal Church. The house be-
longs to the Episcopal Church Association.
Through the Common and Public Garden.
Now, let us cross Beacon Street and enter the Com7non by way of
the Joy Street gate. By taking the path to the right and skirting the
Frog Pond to its western extremity, we shall strike a path leading to
the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument. [See The Co?n7non, in Chap-
ter III.] Leaving the Common by the Charles Street gate, and
crossing the street, we are at once in the midst of the beauties of the
Public Garden. [See The Public (}arden, in Chapter III.] If W3
leS HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
follow the main walk across the bridge to the Arlington Street gate,
we shall have time to view the beautiful equestrian statue of Wash-
ington, and the fountain and Ether Monument to our right.
We now cross Arlington Street and enter the stately boulevard,
Commoiiwealth Avenue, with a shady parkway through its center,
and palatial homes lining it on either side. We will follow the shady
central path and, quite near Arlington Street, we pass the granite
statue of Alexander Hamilton, the work of Dr. William Rimmer.
This was the gift to the city of Thomas Lee, the donor of the " Ether
Monument " in the Public Garden. Just beyond Berkeley Street is
the bronze statue of Gen. John Glover, commander of the Marble-
head Marine Regiment in the Continental Army. This is Martin
Milmore's work, and was presented to the city by Benjamin T. Reed.
Grossing Clarendon Street, at the left is the beautiful First Bap-
tist Church, described in Chapter VII. On the southeast corner
of Dartmouth Street is the Vendome, its white marble front
extending along the avenue a distance of 240 feet. In front of
the Vendome in the parkway is a bronze statue of William Lloyd
Garrison, the great anti-slavery agitator. The statue is the work of
Olin L. Warner of New York. This is one of the best portrait
statues in the city. On one side of the pedestal is cut Garrison's
daring declaration :
" I am in earnest; I will not equivocate; I will not excuse; I will
not retreat a single inch; and I will be heard,"
And on the other side:
" My country is the world; my countrymen are all mankind."
We will now turn back to the corner of Dartmouth Street, and
keep on the right side of that street to Copley Square. On the
corner of Newbury we pass the Boston Art Club's home, and opposite,
on our left, the Victoria Hotel, a brick building with crenelated trim-
mings and battlemented top.
Here we catch a glimpse of Copley Square, the center of artistic,
literary, and educational life in Boston. At our right, on the corner
of Boylston and Dartmouth, is the new Old South Church. Facing the
square is the chaste and classic front of the new Public Library, with
170 HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
its enormous pedestals at either side of the entrance, waiting for
St. Gaudens' groups, and much of the expanse of its pale walls
covered richly with the names of the world's greatest men.
On the south side is the Museum of Fine Arts, with matchless
treasures of Oriental art, and at the east stands Trinity, with its
beautiful central tower and its quiet cloisters. On the north side of
the square are the Second Unitarian Church, Girls' Latin School,
and two apartment houses. A recent writer, in speaking of this
most attractive part of the town, says:
" Copley Square, at certain hours of the day, presents the aspects
of a new Latin quarter, so conspicuously does the student element
predominate in the throngs that cover its pavements. Here the
currents intermingle and cross, now tending toward the Massa-
chusetts Institute of Technology, on Boylston Street (' Tech ' is the
only name ever given this great scientific school in Boston); now
hurrying toward the Harvard Medical School; now making for the
three busy art schools in the neighborhood â€” those of the Museum
of Fine Arts, the Massachusetts Normal Art School, the Cowles Art
School; and, eddying aside from the main currents, go the thou-
sands of school-boys and school-girls, bound for the countless public
and private schools of the Back Bay and the South End â€” one build-
ing alone, that of the public Latin and English High Schools, con-
taining nearly 2,000 boys, who come to it from all parts of Greater
To Cambridge via Harvard Bridge.
And now we will take an electric car going south on Boylston
Street, with " Harvard Square" on end sign, and visit Harvard Col-
lege, in Cambridge, but which, in reality, spreads all over Boston. Our
route is along Boylston Street to Massachusetts Avenue and west-
ward across Harvard Bridge. As we cross Commonwealth Avenue
we catch a fleeting glimpse of Miss "Whitney's statute of Leif Ericsson
and the Fens. From the bridge we can look back on our right and
see the houses of the Back Bay region. While speeding along Massa-
chusetts Avenue, we must notice on our right, at the corner of Inman
Street, the City Hall, a gift to the city from a former resident. [See
Ca7nb ridge, in Chapter H, and Harvard University, in Chapter VL]
In returning to Boston, we take the Bowdoin Square car, which,
starting from Harvard Square, passes along Kirkland, Cambridge,
A TOUR OF THE CITY.
and Bridge streets; Craigie Bridge, which affords a good view of
Charlesbank [see Charlesbaiik, in Chapter III], Leverett, Causeway,
Portland, and Sudbury streets to Bowdoin Square. Here we willleave
this car and board another, which passes along the famous old Corn-
hill to Adams Square, where Washington Street is entered.
Cliarlestown and Bunker Hill.
The car crosses Hanover Street to Haymarket Square; passes
through Beverly Street, and then across the broad bridge to Charles-
town. On the right, as we cross the bridge, we have glimpses of the
harbor and shipping, while on our left are the railroad bridges.
Crossing City Square, with the Waverly Hotel on one side, and the
old City Hall of Charlestown ahead, the car runs off on Park Street.
As it enters Warren Street, the Navy Yard can be seen down a long
street to the right, and just ahead is the Charlestown Soldiers' Monu-
ment, the work of Martin Milmore. Three squares beyond, on look-
ing up Monument Street to the right, and at its head, we see the
granite obelisk of Bunker Hill Monument. [See Charlestown and
Bunker Hill Monument , in Chapter II.]
Returning by the same route, we shall find ourselves back at the
point from whence we started, having covered much of the territory
and noted many of the points which, from historical or other fame, are
most attractive to visitors.
HARVARD GATE, CAMBRIDGE.
BOSTON HARBOR AND SEASIDE
The Harbor. â€” The advantages of Boston Harbor have often been
recounted by scientists, and are constantly experienced by those who
go down to the sea in ships. The facihty and safety of its approaches,
the ample width and depth of its entrance, and the shelter and tran-
quility of its roadsteads, are not surpassed by those of any harbor in
the world. Her interior water-space is divided by chains of islands
into basins, Avhich offer sufficient room for 500 ships of the largest
class to ride freely at anchor, and sufficient tranquility for the frailest
pleasure craft. But it is not of these things that the average tourist
will think as he stands on the deck of one of the harbor steamboats
that ply between the city, and the towns, and the resorts that line
the shores on either hand. The surpassing loveliness of the harbor,
its surface dotted with numberless islands of fantastic shape, and its
irregular and picturesque shores, will hold him spell-bound, and for-
getful of scientific data and historical legend.
And Boston has nothing better, in the way of entertainment, to
offer to her guests than a sail on the blue waters of her bay. Most of
the islands have a history whicl? it would be interesting to review,
and those who are tracing resemblances will find amusing the fol-
lowing description by Doctor Shurtleff : "Noddle's Island, or East
Boston, as it is now called, very much resembles a great polar bear,
with its head north and its feet east. Governor's Island has much
the form of a ham, and Castle Island looks like a shoulder of pork,
both with their shanks at the south. Apple Island was, probably, so
named on account of its shape ; and Snake Island may be likened to
a kidney ; Deer Island is very like a whale facing Point Shirley ;
BOSTON HARBOR AND SEASIDE RESORTS. 173
Thompson's Island, like a very young unfledged chicken ; Spectacle
Island, like a pair of spectacles ; Long Island, like a high-top mili-
tary boot ; Rainsford's Island, like a mink ; Moon Island, like a leg
of venison ; Gallop's (not Galloupe's), like a leg of mutton ; Lovell's,
like a dried salt fish ; George's, like a fortress, as it is ; Peddock's,
like a young sea monster ; and Half Moon, like the new or the old
moon, as you view it from the south or the north. The other small
islands resemble pumpkins, grapes, and nuts, as much as anything;
hence the names of them."
Two defunct forts slumber in Boston Harbor â€” Fort Independetice,
on Castle Island, and Fort Winthrop, on Governor's Island. A third,
Fort Warren, alive and armed with several hundred watchful
eyes, stands guard at the entrance to the harbor, on George's Island.
Castle Island was the first fortified island in the country. Here,
in 1634, the Colonists erected rude fortifications, which were replaced,
in i7oi,by Castle William, a brick fort. This was burned by the
British when they evacuated Boston in March, 1776. The Provincial
forces then took possession of the island and repaired the fort. In
1797, its name was formally changed to Fort Independence, President
John Adams attending the ceremonies. The island was ceded to
the General Government in 1798. This island was the scene of many
fatal duels in the early days, and a memorial stone of such an event
is still standing, which relates that " near this spot, on the 25th of
Dec, 1817, fell Lieut. Robert F. Massie, aged 21," and bears these
" Here Honor comes, a Pilgrim gray,
To deck the turf, that wraps his clay.'
From 1785 to 1805, it was the place of confinement of prisoners
sentenced to hard labor, provision that this privilege should be retained
having been made in the act of cession to the Federal Government.
The present fort was built about the year 1855, ^^^ ^ small portion
of the wall of the old castle remains in the rear part of the fortifica-
tion. Castle Island, as we have seen in Chapter III, is now a part of
the public park system, connected with the I\^arine Park on South
Governor's Island, just north Oi. Castle Island, was granted to
Governor Winthropin 1632, and was, subsequently, confirmed to bis
174 HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
heirs, in 1640 the condition was made that its owner should pay one
bushel of apples to the general court, and one to the Governor, every
winter. The island continued in the sole possession of the Winthrop
family until 1808, when part of it was sold to the Government, for the
purpose of erecting a fort, which was named Fort "VVarren. This name
was subsequently changed to Fort Winthrop, in honor of the Governor
and the early owners of the island. The uncompleted fortifications
on this island may sleep on forever, for modern warfare, with its far-
reaching bolts, must be waged many miles from this old stronghold.
Thompson's Island, to the south of Castle Island, contains the
Boston Asylum and Farm School for Indigent Boys.
Long Island is about five miles from the city. It contains 182
acres, and has belonged to the city since 1885. ' Here are a United
States lighthouse and a battery. The city almshouse for female
paupers, which has accommodations for 500 inmates, is on the island,
and other public institutions are to be erected in time. The light-
house, which was built in 1819, is an iron tower 35 feet in height,
and stands on the highest bluff in the harbor The fixed light is 80
feet above the level of the sea, and can be seen, in a clear night,
about fifteen miles. The lantern has nine burners.
Nix's Mate. â€” East of Long Island Head is a low, rocky island, on
which stands a solid structure of stone, 12 feet in height and 40 feet
square. All the stones in this piece of masonry are securely fastened
together with copper. Upon it rests an octagonal pjTamid of wood,
20 feet high and painted black. It is supposed that this monument
was erected in the earlier years of the present century, though the
date is not known. Its purpose was to warn vessels of the dangerous
shoals in the harbor. Why the island is called Nix's Mate is uncer-
tain. There is a tradition that the mate of a vessel, of which one
Captain Nix was master, was executed upon the island for killing the
latter. But it was known as "Nix's Island" as long ago as 1636,
before any execution for murder or piracy had taken place in the
Colony, and this would seem to unsettle this theory. It is a part of
the tradition that Nix's mate protested his innocence, and prophesied
that the island would be washed away. If such a prophecy was
made, it has been fulfilled, for the records show that, in 1636, it con-
tained in the neighborhood of twelve acres. There is now not more
than one acre of shoal, and there is not a vestige of soil remaining.
Several pirates have since been hanged there.
BOSTON HARBOR AND SEASIDE RESORTS. 175
Deer Island, north of Long Island, is where the Houses of Indus-
try and Reformation, the city correctional institutions, are located.
The island contains 182 acres. Deer Island Beacon, the little light-
house off the southern extremity of Deer Island, is the newest light
in the harbor, having been established in 1890. It is a conical frame
tower, in which is a fixed white light, varied by a red flash every
thirty seconds. It is visible twelve nautical miles.
George's Island, on which Fo7't Warren is built, lies amid the
currents of the harbor, and commands the main ship channel, Nan-
tucket Roads, and the approach to the harbor. Occupied by the only
United States garrison in Massachusetts, it is, undoubtedly, the most
interesting spot in the harbor. It has not the Puritan traditions of
Castle and Governor's islands, for in those early days it was thought
too far away to be of much interest. The island was claimed as the
property of James Pemberton of Hull, as early as 1622. His pos-
session of it was confirmed, and it was bought, sold, and inherited by
various parties until 1825, when it became the property of the city of
Boston, It is now, of course, under the jurisdiction of the United
States Government. Earthworks were erected on the eastern side
of the island, in 1778, for the protection of the French fleet, com-
manded by Count d' Estaing, then lying in the roadstead, against
the attack of British cruisers. In 1833 work on the present formida-
ble fortress was begun, and it was completed in 1850. The granite
fortress, designed by General Thayer of Braintree, is built in the shape
of a five-pointed star, each point being a bastion. Close to the walls
is a deep ditch, the main work being surrounded by a moat, beyond
which are other works. The six-acre inclosure is entered through a
postern gate, an arch of about five feet in height, opening into another
arched portal. When the Civil War broke out there wexe no guns
mounted at Fort Warren and no garrison. Governor Andrew, how-
ever, sent the Second Battalion of Massachusetts to the island, can-
non were placed in position, and the deserted fortress became a strong
During the Civil War Fort Warren was used for confinement for
noted Confederate prisoners. One empty apartment is pointed out
as the residence of Mason and Slidell, the Confederate commissioners
to Great Britain and France, who were taken from a British vessel
bound from Havana to England, and brought here for safe-keeping.
They were well treated and enjoyed life in spite of their confinement.
17(5 . HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
On the morning of January i, 1862, the emissaries were escorted,
with their secretaries, to the wharf and took passage to Provincetown,
where they embarked in a British war-vessel and proceeded to Eng-
land. Alexander Stevens, vice-president of the Confederate States,
was also tinder guard here for five months, in 1865. Generals Gault
and Hanson, and Harry Gilmour ; Major-General Johnson, captured,
with his whole division, at Spottsylvania, were also among the dis-
Since .the Civil War, Fort Warren has not slept. The guns bristle
on her battlements to warn off the foreign invader ; up and down
strides the ever-watchful sentinel ; inside the walls the men are
being trained in the tactics of modern warfare. The only guns that
are fired are those to welcom.e his excellency, the Governor of the
Commonwealth, when he visits the post, and at the sunset hour,
when their booming resounds across the waters to the neighboring
The fortifications are undergoing changes, to meet the require-
ments of present methods of warfare, and on the northern and east-
ern sides of Fort Warren, those sides that look out on the broad
sweep of the Atlantic, works of solid concrete are being built that
will, when finished and manned with 12-inch guns, make a
defense that will practically intercept the entrance of foreign war-
ships to the harbor. These parapets are to be covered with earth,
which, when sodded, will present a beautiful and innocent exterior,
conveying no hint of the smoldering volcano within. In time, the
walls of the southern and western sides will be leveled, to make
way for the newer system, hastened by the events of 1898.
Fort Warren is reached by the trim little steamer Resolute, which
runs between Boston and the island,
Lovell's Island, lying to the north of George's Island, belongs to
the United States, and is a Government buoy station. It contains
Gallop's Island, to the southwest of Lovell's Island, has belonged
to the city since i860. The main ship channel lies between Lovell's
and Gallop's islands. ^
Other islands belonging to the city are : Rainsford 's I sland, contain-
ing seventeen acres, on which is located one of the city institutions ;
Spectacle Island, containing sixty-one acres ; Apple Island, contain-
ing nine acres, and Moon Island, containing about thirty acres,
BOS TON HA RB OR A ND SEA SIDE RE SOR TS. 177
which was taken, by right of eminent domain, in 1S79, and constitutes
the point of discharge of the great sewer.
Boston Light is about two miles east of Fort Warren, at the
entrance of the harbor. Brewster's Island, on which it stands, has