ether, the Angal of Mercy descending to relieve suffering humanity,
THE CITY'S PARKS AND SQUARES. 61
a field hospital, with a wounded soldier in the care of the surgeons,
and an allegory of the Triumph of Science. On the Beacon Street
side of the garden is the Statue of Edward Everett, by W. W.
Story, The fund for this statue was raised by a public subscription
in 1865, and the statue was presented to the city in 1867. The sculp-
tor has endeavored to represent Everett in the attitude of the orator as
he spoke the words, " Washington, the guiding star."
The bronze statue of Charles Sumner, on the Boylston Street side,
represents the statesman in the act of speaking, with a roll of manu-
script in the left hand, the right hand extended downward in a ges-
ture. This statue is also the work of Thomas Ball, the sculptor of the
Washington. It was erected in 1878, at a cost of $15,000, raised by
subscription. Near the Sumner Statue is one of Thomas Cass, the
brave colonel of the 9th Massachusetts Volunteers. This is the work
of Stephen O'Kelley, and it was presented to the city by the Society
of the 9th Regiment.
The New Public Park System.
One of the grandest features of Boston is her " Public Park Sys-
tem," which, when completed, will form an almost unbroken chain of
parks and parkways from Craigie's Bridge, at the north end, to City
Point, South Boston. The park commissioners have expended over
$11,000,000 upon the city's parks, squares, and parkways, and no peo-
ple in the world are so bountifully supplied with beautiful and ac-
cessible pleasure-grounds. Every section of the city is included in
this provision, and the neighboring cities and towns are not to be
left behind. Thus, Cambridge is building a system of riverside and
other parks; Newton, Maiden, Waltham, Brookline, Quincy, and
Hyde Park have fine park works in construction; Lynn has a public
forest of 2,000 acres in Lynn Woods, and, in addition to these, there
is the great Metropolitan system. This includes 3,200 acres of wilder-
ness at Middlesex Fells, 4,000 acres at the Blue Hills, 475 acres at
Stony Brook Woods, a small reservation at Beaver Brook, the pro-
jected Mystic Valley Parkway, the banks of the Charles to be pre-
served and improved, and a magnificent ocean shore reservation
partly finished at Revere Beach and Winthrop. Altogether, in the
Metropolitan Parks District, Greater Boston already has between
13,000 and 14,000 acres devoted to public uses for park and water sup-
62 HANDY GUIDE J U BOSTON.
The first link in the green chain encircling the city is Charlesbank,
which lies along the river front on Charles Street, between Cragie's
and West Boston bridges. It is a broad promenade, about 600 feet
long, bordered by trees and shrubs, and provided wnth public
gymnasiums and baths for the people's use, and with playground and
sand courts for the children. Charlesbank is ultimately to be
extended for miles along the river and past the Fens.
The Fens.â€” The area of the Fens is about 115 acres, artistically
laid out with roads, bridle-paths, and footpaths along the waterway.
The main entrance to the Fens is by the w^ay of Commonwealth
Avenue beyond Massachusetts Avenue. Here is Miss Whitney's ideal
statue of Leif Ericsson, the Norse discoverer of America. The
inscription reads :
Son of Erik,
Who sailed from Iceland
And landed on this continent
A. D. 1000.
The farther end of the Fens affords wide expanses of meadows,
trees, and shrub-planted slopes. Of the bridges which span the
waterway, the stone Boylston Street bridge was designed by the late
H. H. Richardson. The Fens opens the parkway, which under va-
rious names â€” as Audubon Road, Fenway, Riverway, Jamaicaway, and
Arborway â€” winds through Longwood and Brookline, along the
Muddy River, Leverett Pond, Ward's Pond, and Jamaica Pond, to the
Arnold Arboretum and Franklin Park.
Leverett Park. â€” This section of the parkway, lying between Tre-
mont and Perkins streets, comprises sixty acres of land in Boston
and fifteen acres in Brookline, and contains Leverett Pond, of twelve
acres. Ward's Pond, of 2.7 acres. Willow Pond, and a number of
smaller ponds or pools, most of the latter being provided for the
proposed Natural History Garden which it is expected that the
Boston Society of Natural History will sometime establish here. The
practical completion of this park opens to use a most varied and
attractive pleasure-resort, with the scenery of a sloping valley rising
gradually from the lake at its lower end to a considerable eminence
at its head, with numerous smaller ponds compassed with verdant
banks and woodsides, among which wind the paths, ending in the
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THE CITY'S PARKS AND SQUARES. 65
sylvan seclusion of Ward's Pond, which nestles in a deep depression
between the wooded knoll and the high ridge of Perkins Street.
Jamaica Park, comprising about 120 acres, which encircles
Jamaica Pond, is one of the loveliest stretches of landscape in the park
system. The pond covers seventy acres, and affords an ideal place
for boating in the summei and for skating in the winter. The
grounds are laid out in walks and drives, shelters are provided, and
the Pinebank Refectory is a delightful place for refreshment. The
views across the water, with its gently curving, wooded shores, are
enchanting and worth traveling many rniles to enjoy. And all this
beauty is within a half-hour's drive of the center of the city. Take
the electric cars for Jamaica Plain, and, leaving the car at the corner
of Center and Pond streets, walk a short distance to the west to the
beautiful Jamaicaway and revel in the charms of this lovely park.
The Arnold Arboretum, the largest and finest tree museum in the
world, is a place of great natural beauty. It was formerly a part of
the estate of Benjamin Bussey, which he bequeathed to Harvard Uni-
versity for aschoolof agriculture, horticulture, and veterinar}^ science.
The Bussey Institute was opened in 1870, and two years later the
Arboretum was established. It was named in honor of James Arnold,
a wealthy merchant of New Bedford, who left the Arboretum $100,000.
The Arboretum contains 167 acres, of which 122 belonged to the
Bussey estate. Under an agreement between the university and the
city (to hold for 999 years), the university maintains and develops the
Arboretum, and the city constructs and cares for its roads and paths
and polices it. It has broad, pleasant driveways, winding footpaths,
and a magnificent piece of the primeval forest.
Franklin Park embraces about 600 acres of picturesque country,
whose natural beauties have not been disturbed in the process of
opening and developing the territory for public use. The broad
drives wind among woods and glades, through quiet valleys, and
along breezy uplands from w^hich delightful views of town and
country can be enjoyed. Among its attractive features are, on one
side, the great " Playstead," the " Greetmg," and the " Deer Park";
on another side the "Wilderness," and on the "Country" side
" Ellicottdale," the " Dairy," and " Sheepfold."
Roomy and comfortable carriages stand near the theater at Blue
Hill entrance, and for 25 cents one may take a seven-mile drive over
perfect roads, which take in all the points of interest in the park. A
66 HANDY GUIDE 7^0 BOSTON.
bridge to carry the Forest Hills entrance over the traffic road, leading
from Forest Hills Street to the cemetery, has been built, thus making
the connection of the Arborway with the drives of Franklin Park
Ellicott House, at the entrance to the playgrounds of Ellicottdale,
has been opened to the public since 1895, Toilet, bath, dressing, and
check rooms are provided for use in connection with the tennis courts
to be laid out at Ellicottdale. A long expected branch of the electric
railroad has been extended from Washington Street, through
Williams Street to a point near Ellicott House, and thence through
Forest Hills Street and the new traffic road to Forest Hills Cemetery;
thence by w^ay of Morton Street to Washington Street, near the
Forest Hills Station. This loop now brings passengers to the gates
of the park on its western border, where are situated its most
picturesque picnic grounds and rambles, and the new playground,
and has proved a great convenience to visitors. These cars may be
taken in the Subway,
A refectory has been built on the hill near the junction of Bliie
Hill Avenue and Glen Lane, where the old Gleason House formerly
stood. The plans provide for a brick and terra-cotta structure, 121
feet long by 69 feet wide, containing on the ground level a large
restaurant, private dining-room, service-rooms, toilet-rooms, and
staircases leading to a roof -garden, which forms, in effect, a second
story, having pavilions 21 feet square upon each corner, con-
taining stairs, serving, and toilet room. These pavilions are con-
nected by covered galleries on three sides, the remainder of the
space being open to the sky.
A collection of fancy pigeons, including archangels, blondinettes,
English owls, fantails, tumblers, magpies, nuns, and turbits, from
the estate of the late Edmund Quincy at Isle au Haute, was presented
to the department by Dr. H. P. Quincy, and are domiciled at the
propagating house in the nursery at the southerly end of the park.
They are a source of much attraction to visitors. A flock of about
200 sheep also attracts considerable notice, and is a popular
feature of the park, the herding of the sheep "by the shepherd
dogs being an interesting sight.
Scarboro Pond, seven acres in area, adds very materially to the
attractiveness of the park. Its summer level, which gives it a depth
of eight feet, is in winter lowered to a depth of about four feet to
68 HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
make it safe for skating. Eventually a boating and skating house
will be built here.
The beautiful parkway drive ends at Franklin Park, but begins
again in the Dorchesterivay, which, in Connection with the proposed
strandway, will open into Marine Park.
Marine Park, on South Boston Po*nt, includes historic Castle
Island, and is connected with the latter by bridge. From its south-
eastern extremity an immense pier, 1,300 feet in length, has been
built out into the bay, and is a crowded resort on pleasant Sundays.
A head-house was built at the shore end of the point. This build-
ing is flanked on two sides by raised platforms to serve as prome-
nades, which will extend to the iron pier, and below and between
which 500 bath-houses will be located. The house will contain
a general waiting-room on the ground or terrazzo floor, with
men's and women's waiting and dressing rooms and bath toilets, the
spaces under the promenades being devoted to offices for the police
and a foreman's and workmen's room. On the second floor two large
cafes, connected by a corridor and service-rooms, adjoin the prome-
nades, the rest of this floor being occupied with the upper part of
the general waiting-room and the stairway to the restaurant, which
is on the third floor above the waiting-room. Over the cafes are the
kitchen and store-room, and the attic contains the laundry. i"
Castle Island has been a fortified spot since 1634. Castle William,
which stood here when the Revolutionary War broke out, was burned
by the British when they evacuated Boston. The Continentals then
took possession of the island and restored the fort. In 1798 its name
was formally changed to Fort Independence, and the following year
it was ceded to the United States. From 1785 to 1805 it was the place
of confinement for prisoners sentenced to hard labor, provision having
been made in the act of cession to the United States that this privi-
lege should be retained. The present fort was built about the year
A Park for the North End. â€” The agitation for a park for the
thickly populated region north of Hanover Street resulted, in 1894, in
the passage of an act by the Legislature authorizing the park board to
take lands to a limit of $300,000 in assessed values, and providing
$50,000 for construction. Soon after its passage the board examined
the locality with a view of determining the most suitable location for
the proposed pleasure-ground, with regard both to natural advantages
THE CITY'S PARKS AND SQUARES. 69
and a fair amount of territory for the desired purposes. As a result of
this examination the commission secured a small tract for which a
complete plan has been prepared, which may be described as follows:
The land to be devoted to purposes of recreation lies between the an-
cient Copps Hill Burying Ground and the sheet of water which is the
confluence of the Charles and Mystic rivers. It is separated from the
burying ground by Charter Street, and it is crossed by the busy
waterside thoroughfare called Commercial Street. Between the two
streets the narrow public domain slopes steeply down between two
ranks of tenement houses, thus opening a prospect from the already
frequented Copps Hill. Between Commercial Street and the water
the original shore-line has disappeared under a tangle of more or less
ancient sea-walls, fillings, and pile structures.
The plan is designed to make this confined space afford oppor-
tunity for the greatest possible variety of modes of recreation. Thus,
a resting-place commanding a view of the water is provided upon a
broad terrace on a level with the upper street; an ample promenade
adjacent to the water is provided upon a pier, the upper deck of
which wnll be reached from the terrace by a bridge which will span
Commercial Street; a good place for children to play is provided on
a beach, which will form the shore of the small haven to-be formed by
the pier; dressing-rooms will be provided for the use of bathers, floats,
and other conveniences for boatmen. The stone terrace and its ac-
companying flights of steps will be plainly, but substantially, con-
structed, while the steep earth-slopes at the ends and below the high
wall will be planted with low shrubbery. The foot-bridge spanning
Commercial Street will be a light steel truss. The new or restored
beach will terminate against sea-walled piers of solid filling, from the
end of one of which the long and substantial pleasure pier will run
out to and along the harbor commissioners' line. Between the beach
and Commercial Street there is room for a little greensw^ard and a
screening background of shrubbery.
To meet the requirements of a great and growing modern city,
many of the interesting old landmarks of Boston have been sacrificed.
But much remains for the edification and instruction of tourists who
are interested in historical relics. Faneuil Hall, the Old State House,
the Old South Church, Christ Church, and King's Chapel are shrines
which attract and inspire all true Americans, and many a pleasant
and profitable hour may be spent in reviewing their history and asso-
ciations as well as in visiting them.
In no other American city are there so many objects which will
awaken reverent regard for that past which is the birthright of
America's sons and daughters. Economy of time and strength should
be considered in all sight-seeing, and, as most of the interesting his-
torical landmarks of Boston are in the north part of the town, this is
not difficult to attain. A pleasant half-day may be spent in doing the
Old State House, Fanueil Hall, Quincy Market, which is just across
Merchants' Row from Faneuil Hall ; Christ Church, and Copps Hill
Burying Ground. Another half -day should be given to the Old South
Meeting-House, King's Chapel, King's Chapel Burying Ground, the
Old Granary Burying Ground, and the Central Burying Ground on
the Common. In the following pages will be found a brief historical
and descriptive sketch of each of these places.
Faneuil Hall, in Faneuil Hall Square, is the " Cradle of Liberty"
to all who have studied the history of the United States. The first
Faneuil Hall was built in 1742, and was a market-house. It was
given to the town by Peter Faneuil, a w^ealthy merchant of French
descent, who stipulated that it should be legally authorized and
maintained under proper regulations. The enlargement of the plan
to include a second story for a hall was a later thought. When the
people voted to accept the building they provided that it should be
OLD LANDMARKS. i\
called Faneuil Hall "forever." ^The first Faneuil Hall was a structure
only loo feet long by 40 feet wide. It was partially destroyed by fire
in 1761, only the walls remaining, but rebuilt by the town the follow-
ing year. Part of the funds used in rebuilding were raised by a
lottery authorized by the State. The second building was completed
and formally opened on March 14, 1763, and it was the patriot James
Otis, then the orator, who dedicated the hall to "the cause of
liberty." Here were held all the town meetings, and, in the dark
days before the Revolution, the patriot orators of the time often spoke
the words which inspired and kept moving the spirit of Liberty.
This building, which was only about half the size of the presen^
one, and two stories high, remained so until 1805. Then, under the
direction of Bulfinch, it was much enlarged and improved. Its
width was increased to 80 feet; the third story was added; the
hall was made 78 feet square and 28 feet high; large galleries, rest-'
ing on Doric columns, were put in, and the large platform was built.
The large painting which hangs at the back of the platform repre-
sents Webster addressing the United States Senate on the occasion
of his celebrated reply to Hayne. It is by Healy, and is interesting
because of the portraits of some of the leading public men of that
day. Other portraits hanging on the walls of Washington by Stuart,
Faneuil by Col. Henry Sargent, Hancock (Copley), Samuel Adams,
John and John Quincy Adams, and Warren (all b}^ Copley), Commo-
dore Preble, Andrew, Lincoln, and Everett, by modern artists, are
mostly copies, the originals having been removed from the hall to the
Art Museum for safe-keeping.
Until the town became a city, in 1822, the town offices were estab-
lished here, and it was the regular place of town meetings. Some of
the greatest orators and agitators of the country have been heard
from its platform. It was here, in 1837, that Wendell Phillips made
his first anti-slavery speech.
The hall is never let for money, but is at the disposal of the people
whenever a sufficient number of persons, complying with certain
regulations, ask to have it opened. The city charter contains a wise
provision forbidding its sale or lease. It is freely opened to visitors.
On the upper floor of the building is the armory of the Ancient and
Honorable Artillery Company, the oldest military organization in the
country. It contains a museum of colonial and provincial relics,
which is also open to visitors. The building was re-roofed in 1899.
72 HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
Old State House. â€” On Washington Street, at the head of State
Street, is the Old Staie House, one of the few survivals of the ante-
Revolutionary buildings in the city. It is, undoubtedly, the most
interesting historical building in this country, for it was here that
"the child Independence was born." On this site, where had been
the earliest market-place of the town, the first town house was built
in 1657. This house was destroyed by fire in 171 1, rebuilt a year
later, and again burned in 1747. The present structure was built in
1748, and within and without the building many stirring events have
occurred. It was in turn town house, court house, province court
house. State house, and city hall. On the first floor was, in early
times, the merchants' walk or exchange. In the eastern room of the
second story, with an outlook down King Street, was the council
chamber, where the royal governors of the province and the royal
council sat. The western chamber was the general court-room.
Over the entrance to one of these two rooms is placed the seal of the
city, and over the other that of the State.
During the Stamp-Act excitement the stamped clearances were
burned in front of its doors. The British troops were quartered
within the building in 1768, and within a few feet of its eastern
porch occurred the Boston massacre, on March 5, 1770. The next
day Sam Adams stood in the council chamber and made his suc-
cessful demand upon the royal representatives for the immediate
removal of the troops from Boston. Frothingham, in describing this
event, says: " On the walls of the chamber were representatives of
the two elements now in conflict â€” of the Absolutism that was pass-
ing away, in full-length portraits of Charles II and James II robed
in the royal ermine; and of a Republicanism which had grown robust
and self-reliant, in the heads of Endicott, and Winthrop,and Brad-
street, and Belcher. Around a long table were seated the lieutenant-
governor (Hutchinson) and the members of the council, with the
military officers ; the scrupulous and sumptuous costumes of the civil-
ians in authority â€” gold and silver lace, scarlet cloaks, and large
wigs â€” mingling with the brilliant uniforms of the British army and
navy. Into such imposing presence were now ushered the plainly-
attired committee of the town." In the same room Generals Clinton,
Howe, and Gage held a council of war just before the battle of
From the balcony on the State Street side, where the royal procla-
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OLD LANDMARKS. 75
mations had been delivered, the news of the Declaration of Independ-
ence was proclaimed. Inside the house "the gentlemen stood up,
and each, repeating the words as they were spoken by an officer,
swore to uphold the rights of his country." The proclamation was
followed by a banquet in the council chamber. In 1789, at the west-
ern end of the building, Washington reviewed the great procession in
his honor on the occasion of his last memorable visit to Boston.
Here, in 1835, William Lloyd Garrison found refuge from a mob,
which had broken up an anti-slavery meeting and threatened the life
of the brave agitator.
When the State House was no longer needed as a public building
it was remodeled and turned into business offices. The original
architectural effect was wholly destroyed by the addition of a man-
sard roof and other changes. But in 1880-81 public-spirited citizens
began a movement which ended in the successful restoration of the
building. From the second story upward the exterior of the house
now has the appearance it wore in the Provincial period. The gilt
eagle, with the State and city arms spread over the western front,
was placed to appease over-sensitive citizens who were disturbed by
the restoration of the lion and unicorn, in copies, on the eastern gables.
Every effort has been made to reproduce the old interior, as well as
exterior, and restore, in every detail, the architecture of the Colonial