powers of the mind into operation, nor to qualifying a youth to
fill, usefully and respectably, many of those stations,- both public
and private, in which he may be placed. A parent who wishes to
give a child an education that shall fit him for active life, and
shall serve as a foundation for eminence in his profession, whether
mercantile or mechanical, is under the necessity of giving him a
different education from any which our public schools can now
furnish. Hence, many children are separated from their parents
and sent to private academies in this vicinity to acquire that
instruction which can not be obtained at the public seminaries."
The school more than fulfilled the hopes of its projectors, and is
to-day one of the "model" schools of the United States.
The Girls' Latin and High School, formerly in its own building at
West Newton and Pembroke streets, now occupies what was formerly
the Chauncy Hall School, on Boylston Street. The Girls' High
School was established in 1855, in connection with the Normal School.
In 1872 the two were separated. The Girls' Latin School was estab-
lished in 1878, to provide a training school for girls similar to that given
the boys at the old Latin School. The building is well ventilated and
roomy, and every facility is afforded for thorough work in the different
103 HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
departments. A large collection of casts of sculpture and statuary,
the gifts of admiring friends, is among the treasures of the school,
and is of especial service to this institution, a large proportion of
whose pupils devote themselves to educational or professional work.
Among the Grammar Schools which are especially worthy of
notice are the Dwight, the Everett, and the Prmce. The last
named was the first school-house in New England arranged on the
German and Austrian plan. By this plan the rooms on each floor are
placed on one side of a long corridor, instead of around a common
hall in the middle. Among the advantages claimed for this method
of construction are better ventilation, better light, and a more direct
connection between the corridors and street entrances.
The Horace Mann School for Deaf Mutes is on the east side of
Newbury Street, next to the South Congregational Church, which
stands at the corner of Exeter Street. It is in an attractive building
of face-brick and block free-stone fagade, with a high -arched entrance-
way. The pupils are here taught to communicate by articulation
rather than by signs. They are also trained in Sloyd carving, in
drawing and penmanship, and other useful arts.
The Boston Normal School is in the third story of the Rice School
Building, on Dartmouth Street. It was established in the city of
Boston in 1852, by the city council, on the recommendation of the
school committee. It is interesting to note the ground on which this
action was based. In the language of a member of the school com-
mittee : ' ' The friends for further opportunities for the graduates of
our girls' grammar schools," fearing to revive an old controversy,
hesitated to move for a high school ; and, therefore, in the faith that
they should find no opposition to the preparation of female teachers,
established a normal school.
"It was found, however, that girls tresh from the grammar
schools were not fit candidates for normal training." So, in 1854, the
school committee, with the view of adapting the school to the double
purpose of giving its pupils high school and normal instruction,
caused " the introduction of a few additional branches of study, and
a slight alteration in the arrangement of the course," and called it
the Girls' High and Normal School. But the normal features were
soon quite overshadowed by the high school work.
To remedy this defect, a training department was organized in
1864, and located in Somerset Street; but in 1870 this department
EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS, LIBRARIES, ETC. 103
was transferred to the then new building, on West Newton Street,
occupied by the Girls' High and Normal School.
The school was continued under the double name of Girls' High
and Normal School till 1872. At this time the school committee,
finding that the normal element had again been crowded out by the
high school work, and that the school had almost lost its distinctively
professional character, " separated the two courses, and returned the
normal school to its original condition, as a separate school. Since
then its work has been ' ' giving professional instruction to young
women who intend to become teachers in the public schools of Boston. "
Boston University. — This institution, for the liberal education of
both sexes, was incorporated in 1869 by Lee Claflin, Isaac Rich, and
Jacob Sleeper. Its headquarters are in Jacob Sleeper Hall, on Som-
erset Street, near Beacon. It embraces three colleges, three profes-
sional schools, and a post-graduate department of universal science.
In Jacob Sleeper Hall are the College of Liberal Arts and the School
of All Sciences; near at hand, in Ashburton Place, is the Law School
Building; at 72 Mount Vernon Street is the Theological School
(Methodist), and the School of Medicine, connected with the Massa-
chusetts Homoeopathic Hospital, is at the south end. The College of
Music was, in 1891, adopted by the New England Conservatory of
Music, and constitutes the graduate department of that institution.
The College of Agriculture was established in 1875 by an agreement
with the Massachusetts Agricultural College at Amherst. The
School of Law was the first in this country to present a three-years'
course of study. The School of Medicine was also the first to estab-
lish a four-years' course of instruction, and which, at the end of three-
year courses, confers the degree of Bachelor of Medicine or Bachelor
of Surgery. Most of the faculty of the School of Medicine are homoeo-
pathic in theor>^ but its statutes provide for the cooperation of any
incorported State medical society in the United States in the testing
and graduation of students. The School of All Sciences was organ-
ized in 1874, and it is open to graduates only. It is designed, first,
for the benefit of bachelors of arts, philosophy, or science, of whatso-
ever college, who may desire to receive post-graduate instruction;
and, secondly, to meet the wants of graduates in law, theology, medi-
cine, or other professional courses, who may wish to supplement
their studies with higher education. It has about twelve hundred
matriculated students, nearly one-third of whom are women.
104 HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
Boston College, on Harrison Avenue, adjoining the Church of the
Immaculate Conception, was founded, in i860, by the Fathers of the
Society of Jesus, and it is conducted by that organization. It has power
to confer all degrees usually conferred by colleges, except medical. It
presents a long and thorough course of instruction, in which classical
studies occupy a prominent place. It enrolls about 400 students, and
has a corps of nineteen or twenty professors. The college buildings
are plain brick structures, covering quite a large area.
Chauncy Hall School, now quartered in the Young Men's Chris-
tian Association Building, is the oldest private school in Boston, and
was founded in 1828. It was first established in Chauncy Street,
from which circumstance it gained its name. It is for both sexes, and
carries the pupil from the kindergarten, through all the departments,
to the college preparatory. It was the first school in Boston to adopt
the military drill. Its former building, on Boylston Street, near
Dartmouth, is now occupied by the Girls' Latin School, for which it is
well adapted by its careful arrangement for sanitary conditions and
the convenience of teachers and pupils.
Harvard University. — On October 28, 1636, the General Court of
Massachusetts Bay voted "to give ;^4oo towards a schoole or col-
ledge." This sum represented an amount equal to the whole years'
tax of the entire colony. In 1637 the college was ordered established
at Newton, and the name was changed to Cambridge. In this same
year Nathaniel Eaton was appointed master of the school, and under
his superintendence a small wooden house was built near the site of
the present Wadsworth House. It had about an acre of land around
it and some thirty apple trees. Eaton proved to be a harsh and
penurious manager, and the scholars rebelled at the bad food.
As a result, Eaton was discharged. In 1638, the institution received
the liberal bequest of about ;^78o, and also 260 books, from the Rev.
John Harvard, late of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, England, who
died at Charlestown in that year. The General Court, in memory of
the noble benefactor, gave the college his name. The college was
thus placed on a secure financial foundation, which has been
strengthened and maintained by good management and the gener-
osity of the alumni and other friends. Though connected with
Colonial and State governments, the university has been from the
first a private rather than a public institution, supported, in the main,
by the fees paid by its students and the income from gifts.
106 HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
Harvard is not only the oldest, but one of the richest, of American
colleges. She possesses property worth $12,000,000; her roll of
graduates, living and dead, contains nearly 20,000 names ; and, in
round numbers, her 3,000 students are taught by 300 professors
and instructors. Her list of eminent sons comprises the names of
John Adams, John Quincy Adams, W. E. Channing, Edward Ever-
ett, W. H. Prescott, George Bancroft, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Oliver
Wendell Holmes, Charles Sumner, John Lothrop Motley, James
Russell Lowell, E. E. Hale, and Henry D. Thoreau.
In Cambridge, Harvard has the college, the graduate school, the
Divinity school, the Lawrence scientific school, and the law school ;
in Boston proper are the dental school, the medical school, and the
school of veterinary medicine ; and in Jamaica Plain are the Bussey
Institution and the Arnold Arboretum. Each of these departments
is endowed with its own funds, and independent of all others, except
that all are under one management. The scientific departments
include the astronomical observatory, laboratories of chemistry,
physics, natural history, psychology, and physiology ; museums of
comparative zoology, botany, geology, mineralogy, and archaeology ;
botanic gardens, and herbaria. The university museum has four
acres of floor space, and the collections of the museum of compara-
tive zoology alone cost $350,000.
The College Yard is entered by a gateway built of granite, brick,
sandstone, and iron. It was erected with funds left by Mr. Samuel
Johnson of the class of 1855. On its panels are carved the shields of
the State, city, and college, an emblem to the donor and the nation,
and quotations from the early college history and Colonial records.
The Yard contains about twenty-two acres, and nearly all the avail-
able space is occupied by the buildings necessary to an institution of
such magnitude. Massachusetts Hall is the most ancient structure
about the Yard; it was built in 1820. Harvard Hall dates from
1766. Then, there are University Hall, Gore //«//, containing the
University Library ; the Boylston Chemical Laboratory , Sever Hall,
Holden Chapel, Appletoji Chapel, Mathews Hall, Grays Hall,
Weld Hall, etc., all in the Yard.
To the northward the university has encroached on the old play-
grounds, Holmes and Jarvis fields, and is rapidly spreading all over
that part of Cambridge, with its vast group of halls, laboratories,
museums, gymnasiums, and professional schools, its botanical gardens
108 HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
and observatory, forming a small city in themselves. Some of the
recently erected dormitories are fine specimens of architecture, and
deserve special notice. Among these are Thayer Hall, containing
sixty-eight suites of rooms, built in 1870, at a cost of $115,000, by
Nathaniel Thayer, of a wealthy Boston family, in memory of his
father, a minister of the same name, and of his brother, John Eliot
Thayer; Grays Hall, erected in 1863, commemorating the generous
gifts of the well-known Gray family of Boston ; Mathews Hall, a
Gothic brick building, erected in 1870, containing sixty suites of rooms,
and Hastmgs Hall, one of the finest of the college dormitories, built
in 1890, costing $243,000, the bequest of Walter Hastings.
Memorial Hall, architecturally the most imposing of the univer-
sity buildings, was erected by the alumni, in 1870-77, as a memorial
to the Harvard men who died in the Civil War. The building is of
brick and sandstone, 310 feet long and 115 feet wide. The central
division is the solemn Memorial Transept, lined with marble tablets,
set in black walnut screens, bearing the names of the fallen heroes, and
the places and times of their deaths. The transept is 1 1 5 feet long and
58 feet high to the handsome vaulted roof. Over this transept a
sturdy tower rises to the height of 200 feet, and forms a conspicuous
landmark. The huge Gothic dining-hall, seating 1,000 students,
opens from the transept. It is 164 feet long, 60 feet wide, and 80 feet
high to its timber roof, with galleries at either end, and at the
west end an immense stained-glass window, with the arms of the
Republic, the State, and the university. The walls are adorned with
fine old portraits and busts, the works of Copley, Stuart, Trumbull,
Hunt, Harding, Powers, Crawford, Story, Greenough, and other
eminent artists. Directly opposite this hall, on the right of the
transept, is the entrance to Sanders' Theater, a semi-circular hall,
with graded seats, accommodating 1,500 persons. This is where
class-day and graduation exercises are held. The story of the found-
ing of Harvard College is told in the Latin inscriptions over the stage.
The wall back of the stage is ornamented with the college seal, three
books bearing the word *' Veritas'' (truth). Josiah Quincy, a statue
of whom in marble, by Story, stands near the stage, was the sixteenth
president of the college. He was born in Boston in 1772, of a famous
family, which gave its name tc John Quincy Adams and to the town
of Quincy, and is still represented by the same old-fashioned baptis-
mal name. He was for eight years in Congress, for six years mayor
EDUCA TIONAL INSTITUTIONS, LIBRARIES, ETC. 109
of Boston — known as the "Great Mayor" — and for sixteen years
president of Harvard, and died in 1864, at'the age of 93.
The statue of JoJm Harvard, which stands on "The Delta," was
designed by Daniel G. French of Concord. It was given to the univer-
sity by Samuel J. Bridge. There is no likeness of John Harvard in
existence; but this statue, representing a young Puritan scholar, is em-
blematic of the courage and manhood of the founders of New England.
Libraries. — In addition to the various society libraries, the uni-
versity has twenty-nine minor libraries connected with the various
departments, containing nearly 100,000 volumes, while the Univer-
sity Library has over 350,000 volumes and 300,000 pamphlets. There
are but two libraries in America larger than this one, the Public
Library of Boston and the Congressional Library.
The Fogg Museum is the University's art-museum, housed in
a handsome little building opposite Memorial Hall, open to the
public, and of considerable interest.
The Annex is on the southeast corner of Garden and Mason
streets. The main building is known as Fay House. This is the
institution of the " Society for the Collegiate Instruction of Women,"
established in 1879 by Mr. Arthur Gilman. It has for its object the
obtaining for women the best instruction given in Harvard. At the
opening of the Annex there were twenty-seven women instructed by
Harvard professors, forty of whom offered their services. The stu-
dents come from all parts of the country ; from the Pacific coast and
Sandwich Islands. They board in the various Cambridge homes,
and recite at Fay House. The entrance examinations are the same
as those at Harvard," and the certificates given to the graduates state
that the holders have performed the work required by Harvard
College for its B. A. degree. The certificates are awarded upon the
recommendations of an academic board, composed almost exclusively
of Harvard professors. Fay House contains recitation rooms, a
reference library, and the botanical laboratory. In other buildings
are laboratories of chemistry, physics, and biology. The collections
of the college library and museums are open to the students, and
opportunities for study in the Botanic Garden and Herbarium and
the Astronomical Observatory are afforded.
Departments of Harvard Outside of Cambridg-e.
The Bussey Institution is a school of agriculture, horticulture,
and veterinary science. Its grounds and buildings are in the
no HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
Jamaica Plain District of the city, near Forest Hills Station of the
Providence division of the New York, New Haven & Hartford
Railroad. They occupy a part of the noble estate bequeathed to
the university by Benjamin Bussey, who also left funds in trust
for the school. The Institute was opened in 1870. The building
is a tasteful structure, in the Victoria Gothic architecture, of Rox-
bury pudding-stone, 112 feet long and 73 feet wide. (See Arnold
Arboretum, Chapter III.)
The Harvard Dental School is located on North Grove Street, in
a building formerly occupied by the Harvard Medical vSchool.
The Harvard Medical School occupies the magnificent building
on the southeast corner of Boylston and Exeter streets. This
school was established at Cambridge, in the old Holden Chapel,
in 1783. It was removed to Boston in 1810. The present build-
ing, completed in 1883, is of brick and red sandstone, four stories
in height. The features of its broad front, which faces Boylston
Street, are the three pavilions, and the sky-line of stone balus-
trades, and low gables surrounding the flat roof. The interior is
admirably arranged. The spacious class-rooms, lecture-rooms, and
laboratories are thoroughly equipped. On the third floor is the
Museum of Comparative Anatomy, founded in 1846. The original
collection of this museum was given by Dr. John Collins Warren,
professor of anatomy and surgery in the school from 181 5 to 1847.
The full course at this school is four years, but on the completion
of three years' study, and satisfactory examinations, the degree of
Doctor of Medicine is conferred. The school numbers about 500
students, and has a corps of seventy-five professors, instructors, and
assistants. The standard of the school is one of the highest in the
The School of Veterinary Medicine is on Village and Lucas
streets. Besides the school building, there is a hospital, and at
the Bussey Farm there are pastures and buildings pertaining to
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology. — This, the leading
technical school in this country, is located on Boylston Street, between
Berkeley and Clarendon. It was founded in 1861, and its develop-
ment has been broad and rapid. Its prominent feature is the
ED UCA TIONA L INS TITU TIONS, LIBRA RIES^E TC. Ill
School of Industrial Science, devoted to the teaching of science as
applied to the various engineering professions — civil, mechanical,
mining, electrical, chemical, and sanitary engineering — as well as
to architecture, chemistry, metallurgy, physics, and geology.
Courses of a less technical n^i'-'ire, designed as a preparation for
business callings, and in biology, preparatory to the professional
study of medicine, are also given; and the Lowell School of Prac-
tical Design is maintained by the corporation. The main building
of the Institute of Technology, known as the Rogers Building,
is the oldest and most attractive of the buildings, and contains
over fifty rooms, most of them being laboratories or lecture -rooms.
This building was named in honor of Prof. William B. Rogers,
the first president, and one of the founders of the school. Here
are the principal offices of the school. The Walker Building,
next beyond, toward Clarendon Street, erected in 1884, is devoted,
mainly, to the departments of physics, chemistry, and electricity.
Other buildings are the Architectural Building and the Eiigi-
neering Building, on Trinity Place; the Workshops, on Garrison
Street, with a section devoted to the Lowell School of Design,
and the Gytnnasium and Drill Hall on Exeter Street.
The Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. — The College of
Pharmacy is on the corner of St. Botolph and Garrison streets. It
was instituted in 1823 and chartered in 1852. Women are admitted
to this institution on the same conditions as men. Graduates receive
the degree of Ph. G. The college building was erected in 1866, and
is well arranged, with large lecture halls and laboratories, cabinets of
botanical and chemical drugs, and a great herbarium. The Shepard
Library is a valuable collection of pharmaceutical, chemical, and
botanical works, the nucleus of which was the gift of Dr. A. B.
Shepard. The college is under the direction of a board of trustees,
and it has ten professors and instructors.
The Perkins Institution and Massachusetts School for the Blind
is on East Broadway, South Boston. It is a semi-public institution,
organized, in 1831, by the late Dr. Samuel G. Howe. Beginning with
six blind children as the nucleus of the school, Doctor Howe continued
as its director until his death, in 1877. Much of the success of the
school is ascribed to his devotion to it, and his eminent fitness for the
work. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, Dr. Michael Anagnos,
who was for many years his faithful co-worker, and who established
the kindergarten in the West Roxbury District (corner of Perkins and
ED UCA TIONAL INS TITUTIONS, LIBRARIES, E TC. 113
Day streets). The pupils use, in reading, the system of raised letters
invented by Doctor Howe. The library, containing ii,ooo volumes in
raised type, is the largest general library for the blind in the world.
The asylum also possesses an interesting museum and a complete gym-
nasium. The institution is partly self-supporting, such of the pupils
as are able to pay maintaining themselves at a boarding-school. All
the pupils are taught some useful trade or profession. Several of the
States pay for a large number of beneficiaries. In the arrangement
of the establishment the family system is followed, and the girls
occupy dwelling-houses by themselves, the sexes being separated.
It is named the Perkins Institution, in honor of Col. Thomas W.
Perkins, a Bostonian in his day distinguished for good deeds, and
one of the most generous benefactors of the institution.
The Normal Art School is on the southeast corner of Exeter and
Newbury streets. This school is well equipped in every way.
The New England Conservatory of Music, George W. Chadwick,
Musical Director, is now occupying its new building on Huntington
Avenue, one block west of Symphony Hall. This building, which is
devoted entirely to educational purposes, was constructed especially
to meet the needs of this school, and contains seventy class rooms,
two auditoriums, offices, library, and music store. The larger audi-
torium, with the great organ it contains, is the gift of Mr. Eben D.
Jordan. The Conservatory provides the most thorough instruction
in all departments of music, also in pianoforte and organ tuning,
literature and expression, and modern languages. The organ school
is especially complete in its equipment, and offers opportunities for
the study of this instrument that can not be procured in any other
school in the world, twelve pipe organs (in addition to the large organ
in Jordan Hall) having been provided for the use of the pupils. The
vocal school has also been greatly enlarged, and now includes a
finely appointed school of opera, under the direction of a conductor
of wide reputation, Sig. Oreste Bimboni.
The Conservatory residences, on Hemenway Street, opposite
Gainsborough, ofi:er an attractive modern home for more than two
hundred young women students.
The Conservatory, which is under the control of a board of trus-
tees, has about eighty teachers, and the number of pupils in daily
attendance is about thirteen hundred.
The Protestant Episcopal Theological School in Cambridge was
founded, in 1867, on an endowment from Benjamin T. Reed of Boston.
114 HANDY GUIDE TO BOSTON.
It has eight professors and one instructor, and the number of students
averages about forty. The stone buildings form a noble and harmo-