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History of the Military company of the Massachusetts, now called the Ancient and honorable artillery company of Massachusetts. 1637-1888 (Volume 1) online

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not seem possible to decide which became a mem- all affairs so raised and fixed his character in the

ber of the Company. esteem of the people of Connecticut that they

John Haynes arrived in America in the ship always, when the Constitution would permit, placed

"Griffin," Sept. 3, 1633, coming from Copford Hall, him in the chief seat of government, and continued

in Essex, England. He became a freeman May 14, him in it until his death."

1634, was elected an assistant in 1634 and 1636, June 5, 1638, Gov. Haynes came to Boston

and governor in 1635. Mzy 2, 1637, he removed with Unkus, the Monahegan sachem, and thirly-

to Hartford, Conn., was elected the first governor seven men, to consult in regard to Indian affaiis.

of that colony in April, 1639, and continued to hold — St^e IViiit/trop's Journal, Vol. I., p. 265.

that office every second year afterward until his Toward the last of May, 1639, Gov. Haynes, of

decease, March i, 1654. Connecticut, visited Boston again, with Rev. Mr.

He seems to have been interested in military Hooker, and coming into the bay, staid near a

affairs. Sept. 25, 1634, he was appointed by the month. They came to renew the treaty of confed-

General Court " to ouersee the amunicon house, to eration with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Gov.

be builte att Newe Towne"; May 6, 1635, was Haynes was therefore in Boston the first Monday

appointed a commissioner of military affairs, and in June, 1639, at which lime he may have joined

Dec. 13, 1636, was made colonel of the Middlesex the Artillery Company.

Regiment. John Haynes. Authorities: Savage's Gen.

He was married first in England. His two Diet.; Paige's Hist, of Cambridge; Trumbull's

eldest sons remained in England, and took part in Hist, of Conn.; Bridgman's Pilgrims of Boston,
the civil war; another son, by his first wife.


at the age of eighty, and Joshua Haynes, who was killed at Bunker Hill. Sergt. Walter
Haynes — for he is so called on the town records — was prominent in all town matters,
and, with Brian Pendleton (1646), was active in founding a church and erecting the first
meeting-house in Sudbury. He died Feb. 14, 1665.

John Leverett (1639), of Boston, was a son of Thomas Leverett, the ruling eider
of the First Church, who resigned his office of alderman of the borough of Boston,
England, just previous to his sailing from London, and arrived, Sept. 4, 1633, at Boston,
Mass. John Leverett (1639), ^o^^ J"ly 7. 1616, came over with his parents, Rev. Mr.
Cotton, Mr. Haynes (1639), afterward governor, and other eminent persons, in the
"Griffin." He joined the First Church July 14, 1639, when Rev. Mr. Cotton, the
spiritual teacher of his boyhood, was pastor, and was admitted a freeman May 13, 1640.
" No man in our country," says Savage, " ever filled more important offices, nor with
happier repute."

He was clerk of the Artillery Company in 1641, junior sergeant in 1642, senior
sergeant in 1643, heutenant in 1648, and was elected commander three times, viz.: in
1652, 1663, and 1670. He is called "Sergeant" Sept. 27, 1642, in the Records of
Massachusetts Bay; was appointed captain under Sergt.-Major Gibbons (1637), Aug. 12,
1645, to t^-l^s the field against the Narraganset Indians; in 1652 was captain of a troop
of horse, and the same year the South Company in Boston chose him as its captain. In
1662, he was granted one thousand acres of land in consideration of his services to the
colony, and five hundred more in 1671. May 23, 1666, he was voted "thanks" by
the General Court, and one hundred pounds as a gratuity, for his care and pains in
completing the batteries of Boston and mounting the great artillery. In 1663, he was
chosen major-general of the colony, and held that office ten years.

He was concerned in trade with Gen. Gibbons (1637), wherein several ships and
cargoes were lost. Ten thousand dollars were lost by the wrecking of one vessel. He
was appointed one of the commissioners to the Dutch Governor of New York, and was
made commander of the forces contemplated to be raised in 1653, in case of war with
the Dutch. He was also captain of a troop of horse in Cromwell's service, in 1656.

He seems to have spent most of his life in the service of the colony, for he was
chosen deputy for Boston in 1651, 1652, and 1653, and again, 1663, 1664, and 1665.
He was speaker of the House part of the year 165 1, and also in 1663 and 1664. In
1665, he was chosen from the House of Deputies to be an assistant, and was continued
in that office until 1670. He was elected deputy-governor in 1671 and 1672, and
governor from r673 to 1678, and died March 16, 1679, while holding that office. May
28, 1679, the General Court appropriated one hundred pounds towards the interment
of his remains.

Mr. Leverett (1639) went to England in 1644-5, ^nd was appointed a captain in
the regiment of Col. Rainsburrow (1639), but soon returned to Boston. In August,
1676, the King, Charles II., conferred the order of knighthood upon him. He sup-
pressed that title, or the knowledge of it, during life ; his previous republican employ-
ments, and the genius of our colonial government, made him wisely conceal it. He
was in England at the Restoration, advocating the interest of the colony, which may have

John Leverelt (1639"'. Authorities: Sav- Bridgman's Pilgrims of Boston; New Eng. Hist,

age's Edilion of Winthrop's Hist, of New Eng.; His- and Gen. Reg., 1850, 1S51, 1876; Drake's Hist, of

tories of Harv. Coll.; Savage's Gen. Diet.; Reports Boston; Records of Mass. Bay, 1640-1679.
of Boston Rec. Com., 1634-1660, 1660-1701;


made his talents and influence known to the King, who afterwards, when Mr. Leverett
(1639) was in his highest colonial dignity, honored him.

He was one of the four persons to whom, in 1664, the patent, or first charter, was
delivered by the General Court, to be kept safe and secret, together with a duplicate.
They were directed to dispose of them as might be safest for the country. The other
three persons were Gov. Bellingham, Capt. Thomas Clarke (1638), and Capt. Edward

Johnson (1637).

His son, Hudson, joined the Artillery Company in 1658, and his grandson, John, in
1704; and several other of his descendants have been members of the Company. His
will and codicil are dated March 15, 1678 9, wherein he names his grandson, John
(1704), "to be brought up to learning." His son, Hudson (1658), the father of John
(1704), was given a double portion. He left, also, six daughters, and had a very large
landed estate. His mansion-house, during the life of his father. Elder Thomas, was at
the southeast corner of Court Street, and his father's, which he afterwards occupied,
with a garden on the east side of the original site of the old or first meeting-house,
had State Street on the north and the marsh of Mr. Winthrop on the south. That part
of Con'^ress Street north of Water Street was called Leverett's Lane for many years, in
remembrance of the father and his son. The disease of which he died was the stone,
as appears by an interleaved almanac of that year. His picture, representing him in
the military costume of that day, with sword, collar, gloves, etc., is preserved in the
Essex Historical Library, at Salem, Mass. That society possesses his sword, and other
relics. Another portrait of the good old man, in civil attire, with a mild and benignant
expression of countenance, adorns the State House of Massachusetts.

" The Governor, under the old Charter," says Hutchinson, " although he carried
great porte (so does the Doge of Venice), yet his share in the administration was little
more than any one of his Assistants. The weighty affairs of the war, and the agency,
during his administration, conducted with prudence and steadiness, caused him to be
greatly respected. . . . His funeral was splendid, as appears by the order of pro-
cession, and was not unlike that of royalty in England."

He was sent, with Edward Hutchinson (1638), on an embassy to Miantonomoh,
sachem of the Narragansets, in 1642. He also had a military command under Gen.
Sedgwick (1637) in expelling the French from Penobscot, in 1654. He also served as
a commissioner, with Lusher (1638) and Danforth, to repair to Dover, N. H. Harvard
College Records, " 3*^ mo. 10"' day, 1649," contains the paper drawn up by the Governor
and magistrates, against " long hair." The following is the preamble : " Forasmuch as
the wearing of long hair, after the manner of ruffians and barbarous Indians, has begun
to invade New England, contrary to the rule of God's word, which says it is a shame
for a man to wear long hair, as also the commendable custom generally of all the godly
of our nation, until within these few years," etc. "He wore long hair, but is the first
Governor that is painted without a long beard. He laid it aside at Cromwell's court."

"Order of march at the funeral of Gov. Leverett [1639], who died 16"' March
1678 and was buried the first day of the next year, 25"" March, 1679. — •

"Mr. John Joyhff, Mr. James Whitcomb, Mr. WiUiam Taller [17 12], Mr. Richard
Middlecot — to carry each a Banner Roll at the four corners of the Hearse.

" To march next before the Hearse, as followeth :

"Mr. Samuel Shrimpton [1670], or in his absence, Capt. Clap — to carry the


" Mr. John Fairweather — to carry the Gorget.

"Mr. E. Hutchinson [1670] — Brest.

"Mr. Charles Lidget [1679] — Back.

" Mr. Sampson Sheafe — one tace.

" Mr. John Pinchon — one tace.

"Mr. Dummer [1671], in case.

"Capt Nich. Paige [1693] — One Gauntlet, Capt J Carwin — one Gauntlet.

"Lt. Edw. Willys — the Target. Capt. Edw Tyng [1668] — the Sword.

" Mr. Hezekiah Usher [1665] — one Spur. Mr Peter Sargeant — one Spur.

" Capt William Gerrish, to lead the Hearse per the Racis — and Return Waite
[1662] (as Groom) per the headstall.

"Mr. Lynde [1658], Mr. Saffin, Mr. Rock [1658], N. Green — to carry Banners
mixt with the Banner Roles above."

The names mentioned above clearly indicate the prominence given to the Artillery
Company in the funeral honors of its late commander, Major-Gen. Sir John Leverett


Gov. Leverett's (1639) second wife, who outlived him many years, was a daughter of
Major-Gen. Sedgwick (1637). She became a member of the First Church Oct. 12,
1656, and died Jan. 2, 1704, having arrived at the age of seventy-four years. She was
buried on the 8th of January, and Rev. Cotton Mather preached her funeral sermon.

Robert Long (1639), of Charlestown, came from Dunstable, England, in the
" Defence," in 1635, at the age of forty-five years, bringing his wife, Elizabeth, and ten
children. He had been an innholder at Dunstable, Bedford County, England, where Rev.
Zechariah Synimes, of Charlestown, Mass., had formerly preached. He was an innkeeper in
Charlestown, and his house was situated " on the south of Mill hill — his houselot being
bounded by the market place, meeting house lane and High Street." He was licensed
Sept. 3, 1635, "to keepe a house of intertainment att Charles Towne for horse and man."
In 1640, Charlestown chose him to sell wine, and the General Court approved the choice.
Dec. II, 1648, Robert Keayne (1637) and James Penn, deputies of the General Court,
and in behalf of said court, signed articles of agreement with William Phillips (164-4),
Robert Long (1639), Hugh Gunnison ( 1646), William Hudson (1640), and Robert
Turner (1640), vintners, by which the latter had the exclusive right to sell and retail all
kind of wines in Boston and Charlestown for five years, by paying to the treasurer of the
jurisdiction of Massachusetts one hundred and sixty pounds yearly, in current money.
He owned, according to the Book of Charlestown Land Records, twelve other pieces of
real estate, containing above one hundred and fifty acres. He died Jan. 9, 1664.

"The Great House, first used as the official residence of the Governor, was pur-
chased in 1633, by the town, of John Winthrop and other gentlemen, for ;£io, and used
as a meeting-house until it was sold, for jQt,o, to Robert Long [1639] in 1635, when it
became a tavern or ' ordinary,' sometimes known as the ' Three Cranes ' from its sign.
It stood wholly in the market-place, in front of the building lately the City Hall, at the
corner of Harvard Street. The tavern was kept by Mr. Long [1639] and his descendants
till 171 1, when it was sold to Eben Breed, in whose family it remained until the land
was bought by the town to enlarge the Square after the Revolution."

Robert Long (1639). AuxHORrriES: Sav- Frothingham's Hist, of Chailestowii; Records of
age's Gen, Diet.; Mem. Hist, of Boston, VoL L; Mass. Bay.



John Musselwhite (1639), of Newbury, yeoman, came in the "James" in 1635
from Southampton. He is called, in the custom-house records, " of Longford," Wilts
County, England. He was first of Ipswich, and became a freeman March 22, 1639. He
is named in the division of lands in Newbury, March 17, 1642, and Jan. 11, 1644. He
died Tan. 30, 1671, leaving property to one sister and two brothers in Beaverstock,
Wiltshire, England.

Thomas Owen (1639), of Boston in 1639, when he joined the Artillery Company,
and in 1 64 1, when he escaped from the Boston jail. Whitman recites the story from Win-
throp Vol. n., p. 5 I : " Owen [ 1 639] was in Boston jail, for notorious suspicion of adultery.
He was sentenced 'at a Quarter Court at Boston, 7th of 7th mo. 1641, for his
adulterous practices [and] was censured to be sent to the gallows with a rope about his
neck, and to sit upon the ladder an hour, the rope's end thrown over the gallows, and so
■ to return to prison.' Sarah Hale, wife of William Hale, his paramour, was sentenced to
the like, and after to be banished. Several men and women, who were concerned in his
escape to Noddles Island, especially Maverick [1658], were severely fined. Owen
[1639] also was fined £10, and if not paid in a week, to be severely whipped. Among
other things, Hale, the husband, was admonished to take heed of the like concealment.
Seven of the persons censured have the tide or prefix of respect. This suspicion must
therefore have originated among the better sort of people."

Herbert Pelham (1639), of Cambridge, came over in 1638, bringing his daughter,
Penelope, after he had befriended the cause of the colony as a member of the company
in London for ten years. He was educated at Magdalen Hall, 0.xford, graduating in
1619, when he was eighteen years of age. By profession a lawyer, he is called "gent,"
and Gov. Hutchinson says, " He was of that family which attained the highest rank in the
peerage one hundred years ago, as Duke of Newcastle."

He settled in Cambridge, and resided at the northwest corner of Dunster and South
streets, the same estate having been previously occupied by Gov. Thomas Dudley and by
Roger Harlakenden. The widow of the latter became the second wife of Herbert Pel-
ham (1639). He was a freeman in 1645, selectman and commissioner of the United
Colonies the same year, and assistant from 1645 — when Col. Stoughton (1638) had gone
to England — to 1649 inclusive. In the latter year he returned to England, and resided at
Buer's Hamlet, in Essex County. He was a commissioner of the United Colonies in
1645 and 1646, and was intrusted with much important public business. He also was
the first treasurer of Harvard College, chosen Dec. 27, 1643, and the second person
named in the act incorporating the Society for Propagating the Gospel among the Indians
in 1649. Another incorporator of this society was Major Robert Thompson (1639).

Edward Johnson (1637) styles him "a man of courteous behaviour, humble and
heavenly-minded." He was one of the Company in England in 1629, and contributed
to the common stock one hundred pounds. The year following his settlement at Cam-
John Musselwhite (1639). Authorities: "Thomas Owen for escaping out of prison, was
Savage's Gen. Diet.; Coffin's Hist, of Newbury. lined 20 pounds to be paid within a week or to be

Thomas' Owen (1639). Authorities: severely whipped." — Records of Mass. Bay.
Savage's Edition of Winthrop's Hist, of New Eng. Herbert Pelham (1639). Authorities:

Whitman's Hist. A. and H. A. Company; Savage's Paige's Hist, of Cambridge; Savage's Gen. Diet.;
Gen. Diet.; Records of Mass. Bay. Hurd's Hist. Middlesex Co.; New Eng. Hist, and

"Thomas Owen, Boston, Ar, Co. 1639, impris- Gen. Reg., 1S64, 1879; Savage's Edition of Win-
oned, 1641, perhaps unjustly, for Samuel Maverick throp's Hist, of New Eng. Whitman's Hist. A. and
befriended him." — Savage's Gen. Diet. H. .V. Company.


bridge his house was burned down, from which he and his family narrowly escaped.
Winthrop calls the discovery of the fire, by a neighbor's wife, who heard her hens making
a noise at midnight, and awakened her husband, "a special providence of God."

After his return to England, he became a member of Parliament, rendered fretjuent
and important services to the colony, and died in June, 1673, being buried "in County
Suffolk, July I."

After his return to England, he might have again visited this country, if the extract
from the Boston News-Letter, Aug. 19, 1826, quoted in Whitman's (1810) History of the
Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, be true. It says, " This gentleman was one
of the early settlers in Cambridge, prior to 1660, and a large proprietor to the first
division of the lands there, in 1665. A few acres of it were called Pelham's Island.
Subsequently he made larger purchases of real estate, and permitted the poorer people
to cut off the original growth of timber on one hundred acres of it. He must have been
considered as holding high rank in society ; for his son Edward, who graduated at college
in 1673, was placed at the head of his class; and this same son inherited all his estate
in the then colony of Massachusetts. He returned to England before 1672, for his will
was dated, in January of that year, at Ferrer's, in Buer's Hamlet, in the County of
Essex, where he died. His will was proved at London, in March, 1676. Some of his
posterity are citizens of the United States, at this day."

William Rainsburrow (1639), of Charlestown in 1639, in which year he joined the
Artillery Company, had, the next year, property in Watertown. He probably intended to
live in America, for he purchased, in the first year of his residence here, the old meeting-
house, as Mr. Budington, in the History of Charlestown, p. 195, has shown; but he
returned to England before the civil war, in which he acquired distinction. He was
related to Gov. John Winthrop by marriage. Col. Rainsburrow's sister, Judith, married
Stephen (1641), a son of Gov John Winthrop.

On his return to England, he was appointed to be captain of a troop of horse
intended for Ireland, and also governor of Worcester. He was highly favored by Crom-
well, and was appointed colonel of a regiment in the Parliament's service, with Israel
Stoughton (1637) as lieutenant-colonel, Nehemiah Bourne (1638) as major, John
Leverett (1639) as captain, and William Hudson (1640) as ensign, — all of whom were
citizens of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, and members of the Military Company of the
Massachusetts. He was assassinated in Ireland, Oct. 29, 1648. ^ His daughter, Martha,

William Rainsburrow (1639). Authoiuties: and, going to London, entered upon his last service

Savage's Gen. Diet.; Savage's Edition of Winthrop's in Yorkshire. At the head of the Parliament army,

Hist, of New Eng. ; Records of Mass. Bay, II.; he established his headquarters at Doncaster, near

Clarendon's Hist, of RebeUion; Bond's Watertown. Pumfret. The Royalists planned the surprise and

'Samuel Adams Drake, in his New Plngland capture of Rainsburrow [1639]. Twenty-two picked
Legends and Folk-Lore, tells the story of the "Death men, well mounted, under the Royalist Capt. Paul-
of Rainsburrow. Col. Rainsburrow (1639) was den, passed through the besiegers lines into Don-
repeatedly promoted by Cromwell, and at the ininie- caster undiscovered. Four troopers forced an
diate storming of Bristol, commanded a brigade. entrance into the colonel's lodgings. Rainsl)urrow
Mow well he planned and fought the Protector tells ['639] was arrested; brought out of his house, and
in an official letter. For his bravery, the Earl of ordered to mount ahorse, which stood ready saddled.
Fairfax deputed Col. Rainsburrow (1639) as one The colonel, at first, seemed willing to mount, but,
of the officers to receive the surrender of the place; on reflection for a moment, he determined to fight
and Cromwell appointed him as one of the commis- his four enemies. The colonel's lieutenant

sioners to treat with the King. slain while entUavoring to assist his superior officer.

"When the insurrection preceding the second Though wounded and bleeding, the fight waged

civil war broke out, Rainsburrow [1639] was in com- fiercely until one of the party run his sword through

mand, and on board the English fleet. lie is there his body, when the brave Gen. Rainsburrow [1639]

called Admiral Rainsburrow [1639]. The sailors fell dead upon the pavement of the courtyard."
embracing the Royalist side put the admiral ashore,


was married three times: (i) Thomas Coitmore (1639); (2) Gov. John Winthrop ;
(3) JohnCoggan (1638).

"The Great House," in Charlestown, once occupied by Robert Long (1639) as an
inn, was used by the Charlestown church, Oct. 14, 1632, for a place of meeting. In
1636, another building was occupied by that congregation, but its precise location is not
known. The Memorial History of Boston, Vol. I., p. 394, says, "November 26, 1639,
William Rainsborough bought the old meeting-house for ;i^ioo, which was used towards
paying for ' the new meeting house newly built in the town on the south side of the
Town Hill.' "

Henry Saltonstall (1639), of Watertown, youngest son of Sir Richard Saltonstall,
was born in England, and came to America, probably with his father, in 1630. He
graduated in the first class in Harvard College in 1642, and therefore must have become
a member of the Company before he entered, or while a student there. He went to
England and thence to Holland with his father, in 1644, Sir Richard being ambassador
from England at that time. It was during this visit that a portrait of Sir Richard was
painted by Rembrandt. Henry studied medicine, and in October, 1649, received the
degree of M. D. from the university in Padua, and June 24, 1652, a degree at Oxford,
England. He and William Stoughton, chief-justice, son of Israel Stoughton (1637),
were, by order of Parliament, created fellows of the New College, O.xford, England.

Robert Sampson (1639), of Boston in 1630, son of John and Bridget (Clopton)
Sampson, came in the same ship with Gov. Winthrop, who calls the former " cousin," in
a letter to his wife. Mr. Sampson's (1639) mother was a sister of Gov. Winthrop's second
wife. Savage says that Robert Sampson's " family was ancient in the rank of knights,
residing at Sampson's Hall, in the parish of Kersey, near Groton."

He probably returned to England soon after becoming a member of the Company.
He was one of the sureties for Mr. David Yale, when he joined the Company in the
year 1640.

Anthony Stoddard (1639), of Boston in 1639, a linen-draper, joined the First Church
Sept. 28, 1639, was admitted a townsman the 26th of August preceding, and became a
freeman May 13, 1640. His first wife was Mary Downing, of Salem, a niece of Gov.
Winthrop; his second wife was the widow of Capt. Joseph Weld (1637), of Roxbury.

She died in 1654, and he married Christian , after whose decease he married

Mary, widow of Major Thomas Savage (1637). The remark of Sewall (1679) in his
Diary seems to be true, — Anthony Stoddard was " the ancientest shop-keeper in town."
He was a man of great influence in Boston. As early as 1641 he was a constable.
Winthrop (Vol. II., p. 39) relates a story of the constable's scruple to obey the Gov-
Henry Saltonstall (1639). Authorities: "[16S6-7] March 16, About 1, aclock Mr.
New Eng. Hist, and Gen. Reg., 1879; Bond's Anlhony Stoddard dyes, was the ancientest shop-
Watertown ; Whitman's Hist. A. and H. A. Com- keeper in Town." — SewalFs Papers, Vol. I., p.
pany, Ed. 1842. 170.

Robert Sampson (1639). Authorities: Sav- " May 31, 1660, Capt Edward fohnson [1637]

age's Gen. Diet.; Savage's Edition of Winthrop's Mr. .\nthony Stoddard [1639] and beacon William
Hist, of New Eng., Vol. I., p. 445, Appendix. Parkes [1638] were nominated and appointed a

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