Oliver Ayer Roberts.

History of the Military company of the Massachusetts, now called the Ancient and honorable artillery company of Massachusetts. 1637-1888 (Volume 1) online

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to the Boston Records, " April 2, 1638, William Hudson [1640], called ' the Younger,'
was granted a lot at Muddy River for 3 heads; July 2, 1639, Richard Carter carpenter
may buy a house and ground of William Hudson [1640] the Yoimger, next Thos
Oliver's new house plot; condition, inoffensive carriage; March 30, 1640, he was
allowed by the General Court to keep an ordinary, and was elected a surveyor at Boston
in 1647." He sold his house and garden, on Washington Street, between West and
Boylston streets, to Richard Carter, in 1639. By Boston Records, City Doc. 46, p. 94, it
appears that William Hudson (1640) owned property at the corner of "Hudson's Lane
now Elm Street." This was known as the "Castle Tavern," and Hudson (1640) and
his wife Anne conveyed it, in 1674, to John Wing (167 i).

The two hundred soldiers to be raised in Massachusetts in 1664, for the Dutch

John Friend (1640). Authorities: New 1S79, 18S0; King's Chapel Burial-Grouiid, by

Eng. Hist, and Gen. Reg., 1847, 1852; Quincy's Bridgman.

Hist. Harv. Coll.; Report of Boston Rec. Com., ' Mr. Savage believes that John Friend (1640)

1634-1660; Savage's Gen. Diet. was at Saybrouk, Conn., prior to his being at Salem.

John Gutteridge (1640). Authorities : Sav- His opinion was probably based upon the following

age's Gen. Diet.; Report of Boston Rec. Com.. paragraph in a letter of Gov. Winthrop to his son

1634-1660. John, Governor of Connecticut, over date of " 10 of

William Hudson (1640). Authorities: the 4. 1656": " I pray deliver this letter enclosed
Whitman's Hist. A. and II. A. Company, Ed. 1842: to John Friend, and if he pay you the money, de-
Savage's Gen. Diet.; Report of Boston Rec. Com., liver him his bill, (which is here also enclosed;) if
1634-1660; New Eng. Hist, and Gen. Reg., 1S47, not, I pray return it to me."



expedition, were to be commanded by Capt. Hugh Mason and Capt. William Hudson
(1640). William Hudson (1640) was appointed a commissioner to King Philip, at
Taunton, in 1670, in company with William Davis (1643) and Thomas Brattle (1675).

William Hudson (1640) was a lieutenant in a militia company in Boston, in 1654,
captain of the same in 1661, fourth sergeant of the Artillery Company in 1646, third
sergeant in 1647, second sergeant in 1650, first sergeant in 165 1, ensign in 1653,
lieutenant in 1656 and 1660, and captain in 1661.

Administration on his estate was granted Sept. 9, 1681, to Col. Samuel Shrimpton
(1670). Bridgman describes the gravestone of Capt. William " Hutson," in King's
Chapel Burial-Ground. At the top, it bears representations of "cross-bones" and an
"hour glass", under them respectively the words "Memento mori'' and "Fi/git hori,"
and beneath are the following words : "Memento esse morialium. Here lyeth buried ye
body of Capt William Hutson aged 67 years departed this life December ye 6, 1680."

John Humfrey (1640), of Lynn, was "a gentleman of great merit for his services
and affection to our country in its first attempts." At the second meeting of the
Massachusetts Company in London, in 1629, he was chosen deputy governor, but did
not come over before July, 1634.' The company's interest demanding that he should
remain in England, Thomas Dudley was chosen to serve in his place, and came over
with Winthrop in 1630. Expecting the arrival of Mr. John Humfrey (1640), he was
chosen assistant in 1632 and 1633, and on and after his arrival, until 1642. He was
bred a lawyer, and married Susan, daughter of the third Earl of Lincoln. When Mr.
Humfrey (1640) came over he brought not only his wife and children, but, says Win-
throp, "more ordnance, muskets and powder."

He was one of the six original purchasers of Massachusetts Bay, March 19, 1627,
from the Council of Plymouth. A royal charter was necessary. This passed the seals
March 4, 1628-9. The annual election of officers under the charter took place on the
13th of May, 1629, when the governor, deputy governor, and assistants were chosen,
Mr. Humfrey (1640) being the fifth assistant named. Mr. Endicott, who had been
designated, April 30, 1629, as governor of the plantation, had already arrived at Salem
on the 6th of September preceding. His instructions, dated London, April 30, 1629,
were signed by the members of the Company of the Massachusetts Bay, including Mr.
Humfrey (1640), who was elected deputy governor in 1629.

On his arrival, he settled in Lynn. His residence was on the east side of Nahant
Street, and overlooked the sea, Nahant, and the beach. He owned land in Swampscott,
granted him in 1632 and in 1635 ; he had another five hundred acres in what is now
Lynnfield, including the little pond still known as Humfrey's Pond. He was admitted
a member of the Salem church Jan. 16, 1638. In 1641, the General Court made him a
grant of two hundred and fifty pounds, probably on account of his having had his house,
barn, hay, etc., burned in 1640. The servant by whose carelessness it occurred was
severely punished, being doomed to serve his master twenty-one years, without wages.-

John Humfrey (1640). Authorities: New sisters, arrived here." — Savage's Winthrop, Vol. I.,

Eng. Hist, and Gen. Reg., 1S77; Whitman's Hist. /. 160.

A. and H. A. Company, Ed. of 1842; Savage's *" Henry Stevens, for firing the barn of his

Winthrop, Vols. I. and II.; Savage's Gen. Diet.; master, Mr. John Humfrey [1640], he was ordered

Boston Commercial Gawlte, Aug. 31, 1826; Lewis's to be servant to Mr. Humfrey for 21 years from this

Hist, of Lynn. day, towards recom]iensing the loss." — Records of

' " [July, 1634.] Mr. Humfrey [1640] and the Mass. Bay, /., 295, Nozk i, 1640.
lady Susan, his wife, one of the Earl of Lincoln's



At the General Court held April 2, 1641, it was ordered that John Humfrey (1640)
be " Sergeant-Major General." He was, therefore, the first person who held that office,
and none other is mentioned until the organization of the militia in 1C44, when Thomas
Dudley was chosen to that office by the Legislature. He was appointed in 1636, with
Capt. Nathaniel Turner (1637), to lay out the bounds of Ipswich. His eldest son, John,
joined the Artillery Company in 164 1. He returned to England Oct. 26, 1641, and died
in 1661. Gov. Winthrop says, "Among the chief was John Humphrey, Esq., a gentle-
man of special parts of learning and activity, and a godly man, who had been one of the
first beginners in promoting of this plantation and had labored very much therein. He,
being brought low in his estate, and having many children, and being known to Lords of
Providence [Isle], and offering himself to their service, was accepted to be the next

During his official terms as assistant, Mr. Humfrey (1640) was granted two tracts of
land, — one in "Marble Head" and one in Saugus ; was appointed to divide the land
in Ipswich, and to lay out Mr. Dunster's farm ; was one of the committee on military
affairs ; a commissioner concerning the will of William Paine, Sr., and was appointed to
hold courts in Salem and Saugus.

Mr. Lewis, in his History of Lynn, portrays at length the character of Mr. Humfrey
(1640). He says, "He was a native of Dorchester, England, — a lawyer and a man of
considerable wealth and good reputation : an original patentee of the colony and treasurer
of the Company. ... It is not improbable that he experienced a secret chagrin at
seeing the young and uninformed Henry Vane promoted to the office of Governor, above
one whose years, knowledge, and services entitled him to precedence. It is probable, like-
wise, that his affection for his wife, whose hopes were in the land of her nativity, had
some influence in determining his conduct. Living so far from the elegant circles in
which she had delighted, and having lost the sister (Lady Arbella) who might have been
the companion of her solitude, the Lady Susan was weary of the privations of the wilder-
ness, the howling of wild beasts, and the uncouth manners of the savages, and had
become lonely, disconsolate, and homesick. She had been the delight of her father's
home, and had glittered in all the pride of youth and beauty, in the court of the first
monarch in Europe [but] was now solitary and sad, separated by a wide ocean from her
father's home. . . . What the misfortunes and disappointments of Mrs. Humfrey had
begun, her importunities completed. He sold the principal part of his farm to Lady
Moody and returned to England with his wife on the 26th of October, 1641. . . .
The misfortunes which afterward befell some of his children, inflicted a wound on
the heart of the affectionate father from which he never recovered."

John Hurd (1640), of Boston, was a tailor, admitted, with his wife, Mary, to the
First Church July 7, 1639, and to be a freeman May 13, 1640.^ "A great lot at the
Mount" was granted him July 29, 1639, one house lot Feb. 24, 1639-40, and another
Jan. 31, 1641-2. John Leverett (1639) granted to John Hurd (1640) a house lot in
exchange for a lot in the New Field. This property of Hurd's (1640), including house

John Hurd (1640). Authorities: Savage's ' "John Ilord, tailor having served Mr William

Cen. Diet.; Report of Boston Rec. Com.; New Hutchinson in this Town divers years is allowed to

Eng. Hist, and Gen. Reg., 1S65; see the Diary of be an inhabitant." — Boston Records, March 25,

John Hull, p. 193, with note quoting the Records 1639.
of the First Church.


and garden, was situated about midway between Summer and Bedford streets, on
Washington Street, and was mortgaged by Mr. Hurd (1640) in 1649, to Gov. Dudley,
for twenty-three pounds. John Hurd (1640) died Sept. 23, i6go.

Thomas Lechford (1640), of Boston, a lawyer from Clement's Inn, London, came
over in 1637. He was the first attorney who emigrated to New England. He found
it difficult to earn his bread. "Attorneys were discountenanced, though not actually
forbidden, and a prisoner or suitor might plead his own cause, or a friend might appear
for him, but not for a fee Lechford, for going to a jury and pleading with them out
of Court was debarred from pleading any man's cause hereafter unless his own, and
admonished not to presume to meddle beyond what he shall be called to by the Court."

At a court held Dec. i, 1640, "Mr. Thomas Lechford [1640], acknowledging he
had overshot himself, and is very sorry for it, promising to attend to his calling, and
not to meddle with controversies, was dismissed." He tried to maintain himself as a
scrivener, but obtained little employment, and his doctrinal positions were prejudicial to
his success. "I am kept," he wrote, "from the Sacrament and all place of preferment
in the Commonwealth, and forced to get my living by writing petty things which scarce
finds me bread ; and therefore sometimes I look to planting of corn, but have not yet
here an house of my own to put my head in, or any stock going." Having become
thoroughly discouraged, he returned to England in 1 641, in the same ship with Hugh
Peter, Thomas Welde, and John Winthrop, Jr.

In 1642, he issued in London a pamphlet of forty pages, entitled " Plain Dealing or
Newes from New England." He gives therein minute accounts of methods in Massa-
chusetts Bay, such as conducting elections, trials, etc. The forms of trial which so
much concerned him, he thus describes: "Twice a year, in the said great Quarter
Courts, held before the General Courts, are two grand juries sworn for the jurisdiction,
one for one Court and the other for the other ; and they are charged to inquire and
present offences, reduced by the Governor, who gives the charge, (generally) under the
heads of the ten commandments. Matters of debt, trespass, and upon the case, and
equity, yea, and of heresy also, are tried by a jury, which, although it may seem to be
indifferent, and the magistrates may judge what is law and what is equal, and some of
the chief ministers inform what is heresy, yet the jury may find a general verdict, if they
please ; and seldom is there any special verdict found by them, with deliberate argu-
ments made thereupon, which breeds many inconveniences. The parties be warned
to challenge any juryman, but because there is but one jury in court for trial of cases,
and all parties not present at their swearing, the liberty of the challenge is much
hindered, and some inconveniences do happen thereby. Juries are returned by the
Marshal ; he was at first called the Beadle of the Society. Seldom is there any matter
of record, saving the verdict, many times at random taken and entered, which is also
called the judgment. The parties in all cases speak themselves, for the most part ; and
some of the magistrates, where they think cause requireth, do the part of advocates,
without fee or reward."

Hutchinson calls him " a discontented attorney," and adds, " He left England
about the year 1637, being dissatisfied with the ecclesiastical government, and having

Thomas Lechford (1640). Auihouitif.s: Ed. 1842; Hutchinson's Hist, of New Eng.; Rec-
Savage's Gen .Diet.; Savage's Edition of Winthrop's ords of Mass. Bay, I., 294; Mem. Hist, of Boston,
Hist, of New Eng. ; Hist. .\. and H. A. Company, Vol.1.


made himself obnoxious by his opposition to Episcopacy. When he came to New
England, he found every church-member a bishop ; and not incHning to become
one himself, he could not be admitted a freeman among them. The court took advan-
tage of an offence of another nature, his going to the jury and pleading with them out
of court, and debarred him from pleading any man's cause besides his own. lie became
in England, a zealous Episcopalian." Mr. Cotton says that Mr. Lechford (1640) died
soon after he published his book.

Lawrence Litchfield (1640), of Barnstable, whence he removed after 1643, and, in
1646, is found in Scituate. He died in Scituate in 1650. He was sent to Boston to
study the art of war, that he might command an offshoot of the Barnstable train-band
about to swarm in a new location, at Sippican, on the south shore. He settled in Barn-
stable, near what is now called the " Great Pond," and adjoined to the estate of Gov.
Hinckley. Mr. Litchfield (1640) is believed to be the progenitor of the families in New
England of this name.

Henry Looker (1640), of Sudbury, On the oldest roll-book this name is spelled
Lucar. He was admitted to be a freeman May 10, 1643. He sustained a loss of one
hundred pounds by the attack of the Indians on Sudbury, April 21, 1676. Families by
the name of Loker have lived within the ancient limits of Sudbury since the time of its
settlement, dwelling, for the most part, in the territory now Wayland.

Francis Lyall (1640), of Boston in 1638, was a barber-surgeon, admitted to be an
inhabitant .of the town Aug. 7, 1638. He joined the First Church Sept. 29, 1639, and
became a freeman May 13, 1640. The house and garden of Francis Lyle, or Lyall
(1640), which he bought in 1641 of the widow of Walter Blackborne (1638), were on
(the present) Washington Street, nearly opposite the head of Milk Street. Previous to
this, March 25, 1639, leave was granted to " Brother Valentine Hill [1638] to build a
fitting-house and a shopp upon the house plott which he hath bought that was our
brother M'" William Aspinvi'alls [1643] ^-^d to let it to Francis Lysle [1640] Barber."
This place was on State Street, opposite Merchants' Exchange.

Mr. Lyall (1640) went to England with Leverett (1639) and others, to serve in the
cause of Parliament, and became surgeon in the life-guard of the Earl of Manchester.
"He returned, like most of his townsmen, to New England in 1645," says Mr. Savage;
but Winthrop, II., 245, states that " three of them went to England again about the end
of this year, but came back again and settled themselves here, all save the surgeon."

Surgeon Lyall (1640) was in Boston, Aug. 12, 1645, for '" the Records of the Colony
of Massachusetts Bay, after the appointment of Capt. Leverett (1639) to be captain in an
expedition against the Narragansets, it says : " The Cort conceive that Mr Loyall, the
surgeon, lately come out of that impliment [employment] of the Earle of Manchester, in
England, may be fit to be sent forth with our present forces, in that impliment." The
same day the General Court ordered " that a ioyner should be pressed to make a
surgeon's boxe for Mr Lisle & the constable to pvide ould linnen for the surgeon's use."

Lawrence Litchfield (1640). Authorities: Francis Lyall (1640). Authorities : Sav-

New Eng. Hist, and Oen. Reg., 1855; Savage's Gen. age's Gen. Diet.; Report of Boston Rec. Com.,

Diet; Gen. Notes of Bavnstalile Families, Vol. IL 1634-1660; Snow's Hist, of Boston, p. iiS; Sav-

Henry Looker (1640). Authorities: Hud- age's Edition of Winthmp's Hist, of New Eng.
son's Hist, of Sudbury; Records of Mass. Bay, H.


His wife, Alice, died in 1666, and her son-in-law, Freegrace Bendall (1667), admin-
istered on her estate.

Thomas Marshall (1640), of Lynn in 1635, was admitted to be a freeman in 1641.
Whitman says he was a tailor, but he is best known as the landlord of Anchor Tavern.
This renowned hostelry stood on the west side of Saugus River, on the road leading from
Salem to Boston. Mr. Armitage, its first landlord, was succeeded in 1652 by Mr. John
Hathorne, who was succeeded by Capt. Thomas Marshall (1640). "He was one of the
most jolly and hospitable landlords, and during his administration no wayside inn
throughout the colonies enjoyed a more enviable reputation." Previous to this time,
however, when the reign and the life of Charles I. had reached the culminating point,
his military spirit was aroused, and he went to England, and received from Cromwell a
captain's commission in the Parliamentary army. He served faithfully, was honorably
discharged, and returned safely to his home. Nov. 29, 1659, the Quarterly Court ordered :
" Thomas Marshall of Lynn is allowed by this Court, to sell strong water to travillers,
and alsoe other meet provisions." John Dunton, the London bookseller, who visited
Lynn in 1 686, thus wrote in his journal : " About two of the clock, I reached Captain
Marshall's house, which is half-way between Boston and Salem ; here I staid to refresh
nature with a pint of sack and a good fowl. Capt Marshall is a hearty old gentleman,
formerly one of Oliver's soldiers, upon which he very much values himself. He had all
the history of the civil wars at his finger's ends, and if we may believe him, Oliver did
hardly anything that was considerable without his assistance ; and if I 'd have staid as
long as he 'd have talked, he 'd have spoiled my ramble to Salem."

His fellow-townsmen elected him six times, first in 1659, and last in 1668, as their
representative to the General Court, besides conferring upon him minor positions of
honor and respectability. On the iSth of October, 1659, Capt. Marshall (1640) was
authorized by the General Court to join in marriage such persons in Lynn as conformed
to the legal requirements. In 1670, he was discharged from " ofificyating in that im])loy-
ment," because his " overmuch credulity " led him into the error of marrying some
whose " intentions " had not been properly published.

It was at Capt. Marshall's (1640) tavern that Judge Sewall (1679) tarried in 1686,
on his way from Newbury to Boston, where he learned that Benjamin Davis (1673)
had been elected captain of the Artillery Company June 7, 1686.

Capt. Marshall (1640) commanded the military company of Lynn at the time of
King Philip's War, in 1675. He dispensed the hospitalities of Anchor Tavern for forty
years. He was a model landlord, active, attentive, pleasing, and instructive, well versed
in the affairs of church and state, both in England and Massachusetts Bay. He died
Dec. 23, 1689, at the age of seventy-three years.

James Oliver (1640), of Boston, was the son of 'the ruling elder, Thomas Oliver,
and brother of John Oliver (1638). James was brought by his father, in 1632, from
Bristol, Somerset County, England, in the " William and Francis." He was admitted
to be a freeman Oct. 12, 1640. He was captain of one of the Boston companies in
1673, and during King Philip's War was in the great fight of Dec. 19, 1675. He served

Thomas Marshall (1640). Authorities: James Oliver (1640). Autikirities: New

Ilurd's Hist, of MiilillcscxCo., Vol. I., pp. 322-324, Eng. Hist, and flen. Keg., 1865, 1SS5; Mem. Hist.

50S; New Eng. Hist, and Gen. Reg., 1872, 1S79; of IJoston; Sav.ige's Gen. Diet.; Hill's Hist, of Old

Records of Mass. Bay. South Church; Records of Mass. Bay.



as a selectman of Boston from 1653 to 1656 inclusive, and from 1662 to 1678 inclusive,
making a total of twenty-one years in that office. In 1653, he had the title of cornet.
He held office in the militia until 16S0, when, as captain, he was discharged at his own
request. He was third sergeant of the Artillery Company in 1646, first sergeant in 1648,
ensign in 1651, lieutenant in 1653, and captain in 1656 and 1666.

On the 3d of April, 1652, the selectmen voted that "Ensign James Oliver [1640]
and Sarjt Petter Oliver [1643] are granted libertie for to set up a wind mile one the tope
of the hile between the towne and the hile Called Foxhile," etc. Fox Hill was formerly
a small hill in the marshes at the bottom of the Common. The oft-recurrence of the
name of James Oliver (1640) in the early records of Boston, and the conferring upon
him of so" many positions of responsibility, prove that he was a practical, faithful, and
trusted citizen. His house and yard were on State Street, next below Francis I^yall's
(1640), and opposite Merchants' Exchange.

Mr. Whitman (1810) relates, "In 1675 many Indians, 'who had subjected them-
selves to the English, were hurried down to Deer Island, where they remained during
the winter' and suffered severely. 'On the loth of September, at nine o'clock at night,
(such was the alarm of the people) there gathered together about forty men, some of
note, and came to the house of Capt James Oliver [1640] ; two or three of them went
into his entry to desire to speak with him, which was to desire him to be their leader,
and they should join together, and go and break open the prison, and take one Indian
out thence and hang him. Capt Oliver [1640], hearing their request, took his cane and
cudgeled them stoutly, and so for that time, dismissed the company, which had he in
the least countenanced, it might have been accompanied with ill events in the end.'
He was a member of the Old South Church," and died in 1682, without children.

Ralph Ory (1640).

Henry Phillips (1640), of Dedham in 1637, of Boston in 1656, and of Hadley in
1672, was a butcher, and was admitted to be a freeman March 13, 1639. He married
(i), "5' of the I'*' mo. 1639," Mary Brock, who died Aug. i, 1640; and he married (2),
May I, 1641, Ann Hunting. She died in a very few years, and he married for his third
wife Mary Dwight.' In the winter of 1638-9, "Henry Phillips who appeared to ye
church a tender and broken hearted Christian," was admitted to the church.

Mr. Worthington says, "He came to Dedham from Watertown and was solicited to
become a candidate for the ministry ; he chose, however, to be a candidate in another
place, but some events prevented his settlement in any town, and he became as our Church
Records say, 'a discouraged and broken-hearted Christian.' Mather inserts his name
among the ministers, as a resident of Dedham." Henry Phillips was ensign of the
Dedham company in 1648, and clerk of the Boston market in 1658. He removed to

Henry Phillips (1640). Authorities: Whil- deep. Snow very deep: so in the New-burial Place

man's Hist. A. and H. A. Company, Ed. 1842; Sav- [Copp's HillJ, 3 Paths, 2 for the 2 Files of Sould-

age's Gen. Diet. ; Dedham Town Records; Dedham iers, middlemost for the Relations. Edw. Cowel

Hist. Reg., 1892. and Mr Winchcoml) go before the Governour. Re-

" [16S5-6] Feb. 3, Wednesday, Mr. Henry tm-n Wait is refused though I see he ivas there." —

Phillips is buried with Arms, he having been an Sruuill Pnpeis, Vol. I., p. 121.
Ensign at Dedham, and in Boston several years of ' In Suffolk Deeds, Lib. II., p. 155, is recorded

Capt Oliver's Company. Capt Hutchinson led the a marriage contract, dated June 24, 1653, in which

Souldiers, his and Capt Townsends' Company spring- he makes over to Mary Dwight his dwelling-house

ing of said Oliver's, Capt Townsend and Capt Hill in Dedham, with barns, orchards, and gardens, with

each of them Trailed a Pike : were about 24 Files 4 ten acres of upland and six of meadow.

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