Oliver Ayer Roberts.

History of the Military company of the Massachusetts, now called the Ancient and honorable artillery company of Massachusetts. 1637-1888 (Volume 1) online

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nth of November, he resigned his commission, "on account of an order to put the
cross in the colors."

It does not appear that any new members were recruited in 1683.

Rev. Samuel Whiting, Jr. Authorities: '" 1682 June 5. I went to Artillery election.

Savage's Gen. Diet.; Sprague's Annals of American Mr. Whiting of Billerica preached, I dined with
Pulpit; Eliot's Biog. Diet. t.hema.t'Vi'mgs:' — Journal of Fev. Peter Thaeher.


Rev. John Hale, of Beverly, delivered the Artillery election sermon of 1683. He
was the eldest child of Deacon Robert Hale, of Charlestown, and was born June 3, 1636.
He graduated at Harvard College in 1657, and married, (i) Dec. 15, 1664, Mrs.
Rebecca Byles, of Salisbury, who died April 13, 1683. He married, (2) March 31, 1684,
Sarah Noyes, who died May 20, 1695, and on Aug 8, 1698, he took Elizabeth (Somerby)
Clark for his third wife. In 1664, he went to Beverly as a religious teacher, and, Sept.
20, 1667, a church was organized there. Mr. Hale became its first pastor. In 1690,
by order of the General Court, he accompanied the expedition against Canada, and
served as chaplain from June 4 to Nov. 20. He had a peaceful and successful ministry
of thirty-seven years, and died May 15, 1700.

Rev. John Hale was a great-grandfather of Nathan Hale, of Connecticut, one of
the martyrs of the Revolution.

^ The officers elected were: Elisha Hutchinson (1670), captain;

T Qq^- ^^ John Phillips (1680), lieutenant; Nathaniel Williams (1667), ensign.
' ^ Nathaniel Barnes (1676) was first sergeant; William Gibson (1675),
second sergeant; John Cutler (1681), third sergeant; Jabez Salter (1674), fourth ser-
geant; Henry Deering (1682), clerk ; John Marion, drummer; Edward Smith (1682),

Capt. Hutchinson (1670), who had held the office of captain of the Company, was
probably again chosen in these troublous times on account of his personal popularity,
o-ood judgment, and special fitness. John Phillips (1680) also enjoyed universal esteem.
While these two officers were not unfavorably disposed towards the King, the ensign,
Nathaniel Williams (1667), was more decidedly on the side of the colony.

On the 2ist of June, a decree was rendered in Westminster Hall, which abrogated
the charter granted by James I. to the Governor and Company of Massachusetts Bay.
Massachusetts, under the common law of England, again belonged to the King, by
virtue of the discovery of the Cabots.

A lieutenant and governor-general was appointed, but before he could be installed
Charles II. had surrendered his sceptre, as a "Merry Monarch," into the grasp of the
" King of Terrors." The Roman Catholic Duke of York ascended the throne of England,
with the title of James II., and the Prince of Orange awaited the turn of fortune's wheel.

On the day of the accession of King James II. to the throne, he issued a proclama-
tion, directing that all persons in authority in his kingdoms and colonies should continue
to exercise their functions till further order should be taken. A printed copy of the
proclamation was transmitted to Boston by Blathwayt, together with an order to
proclaim the new King.

The General Court was convened by the Governor to receive and register the edict.
The court was prepared to reply that the royal pleasure had been anticipated. A
fortnight before its meeting, on the reception of a less formal information to the same
effect, " the Governor and Council had ordered his Majesty, with all due solemnity, to
be proclaimed in the High street in Boston ; which was done April 20. The Honorable
Governor, Deputy-Governor, and Assistants, on horseback, with thousands of people, a
troop of horse, eight foot companies, drums beating, trumpets sounding, his Majesty

Rev. John Hale. Authorities; Sprague's .Annals of American rulpil; Savage's Gen. Diet.


was proclaimed by Edward Rawson, Secretary, on horseback, and John Green, Marshal-
General, taking it from him, to the great joy and loud acclamation of the people, and
a seventy piece of ordnance next after the volleys of horse and foot."

The new members recruited in 1684-5 v/ere : Roger Kilcup, Thomas Oakes, and
William Robie.

Roger Kilcup (1684), of Boston, a master-mariner, though in his will he calls
himself "merchant," was probably a son of William, of Boston. Roger (1684) was
admitted a freeman in 1690; married, July 4, 1695, Abigail Dudson, and died, according
to his gravestone in the Granary Burial-Ground, "October i, 1702, aged 52 years."
He was a constable of Boston in 1689-90, and third sergeant of the Artillery Company
in 1693. His widow married, Oct. 11, 1704, Ezekiel Lewis (1707).

Thomas Oakes (1684), of Boston, born June 18, 1644, was a son of Edward Oakes,
and a brother of Rev. Urian Oakes, of Cambridge, who was president of Harvard
College in 1675, and who delivered the Artillery election sermon in 1672. Thomas
(1684) graduated at Harvard College in 1662, and pursued the profession of a physician.
He was early interested in the militia, and became a lieutenant. He was representative
for Boston in 1689, being elected speaker the same year, and the next was an assistant.
He went to England with Elisha Cooke, Sr., to obtain the restitution of the old charter.
The attempt to revive it was fruitless, but finally he joined in the petition for the new
one. On the issuing of the new charter, William and Mary, " under dictation of Increase
Mather," left out Thomas Oakes (1684). In 1705, being again chosen speaker, the
Governor negatived the choice ; but he continued, notwithstanding, to hold that office.
He was also, the same year, chosen a member of the council, but Gov. Dudley (1677)
negatived that also. Mr. Oakes (1684) seems to have been a leader of the opposition.
He was elected to the House from 1704 to 1707, and speaker again in 1706. The
selection was negatived by Gov. Dudley (1677), who ordered the House to proceed to
a new election, which it refused to do. As often as he was elected into the council.
Gov. Dudley (1677) negatived the choice. He removed to Cape Cod, probably to be
with his son, Rev. Josiah, and died at Wellfleet, July 15, 17 19.

Mr. Dunton, the London bookseller, in his book of Travels thus speaks of Dr.
Thomas Oakes (1684) : "I was so happy as to find particular friends in Boston, whose
characters I shatl next give you, and I'll begin with Dr. Oakes [1684]. He is an
eminent physician, and a religious man ; at his first coming to a patient he persuades
him to put his trust in God, the fountain of health ; the want of this hath caused the
bad success of physicians ; for they that won't acknowledge God in all their applications,
God won't acknowledge them in that success which they might otherwise expect. He
was a great dissenter whilst he lived in London, and even in New England retains the
piety of the first planters."

We are told in Memorable Providences, p. 3, edition of 1691, in speaking of
matters connected with witchcraft: "Skilful physicians were consulted for their help,

Roger Kilcup (1684). Authorities : Foote's "Septr 6, 1703. Artil. Training, I train'd in

Annals of King's Chapel, Vol. I., p. 89; Savage's the Forenoon. . . . Tho. Oakes had a Tin Granado

Gen. Diet.; Boston Records. shell broke in his Hand, which has shattered his

Thomas Oakes (16S4). Authorities: Whit- hand miserably, his two last fingers are already cut

man's Hist. A. and H. A. Company, Ed. 1842; Mass. off: This was in the Afternoon, as came from

Hist. Coll., Vol. n.; Snow's Hist, of Boston, p. Council, was told of it." — .SV-kw// /'«/«•«, Vol. IL,

178. /. SS.


and particularly our worthy and prudent friend, Dr. Thomas Oakes [1684], who found
himself so affronted by the distempers of the children that he concluded nothing but
hellish witchcraft could be the original of these maladies."

William Robie (1684), of Boston, wharfinger ("Roby" on the roll), was born in
Yorkshire, England, April 26, 1648, and married at Boston, in 1686, Elizabeth, daughter
of William Greenough (1675), whose wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Nicholas Upshall
(1637). William Robie (1684) was a constable of Boston in 1684, and held town
office continuously until 1693; also in 1696-7. He died Jan. 23, 17 18, having served
the Artillery Company as clerk in 1685, and 1691 to 1696 inclusive, and as first
sergeant in 1693.

Rev. Samuel Cheever, of Marblehead, delivered the Artillery election sermon of
1684. He was a son of Ezekiel Cheever, the famous Boston school-master, and was
born in New Haven, Conn., Sept. 22, 1639; graduated at Harvard College in 1659;
became a freeman in 1669, and was the first settled minister in Marblehead. He was
ordained in 1684, having previously preached seven years in that town. He married,
June 28, 1671, Ruth Angler, of Cambridge, and died in Marblehead, May 29, 1724.

, p. ^ The officers elected were: John Phillips (1680), captain; James

JQQC-Q^Hill (1677), lieutenant; Benjamin Alford (1671), ensign. Henry
«-^ Deering (1682) was first sergeant; Edward Creeke (1674), second

sergeant; Seth Perry (1662), third sergeant; Samuel Checkley (1678), fourth sergeant;
William Robie (1684), clerk; John Marion, drummer, and Edward Smith (1682),

The frigate "Rose" arrived at Boston, May 15, 1686, having as passengers Mr.
Randolph, " the evil genius of New England," and Rev. Robert Ratcliffe, a minister of
the Church of England. Soon afterwards, a request was made to the council that Mr.
Ratcliffe might have the use of one of the Congregational meeting-houses of the town ;
which, being denied, "I got," says Randolph, "a little room in their town-house for
such as were of the Church of England to assemble in." In the town-house of Boston,
erected through the liberality of Capt. Robert Keayne (1637), the first Episcopal
church in New England was organized on the 15th of June, 1686.

The new members recruited in 1685-6 were: Thomas Bulkley, Thomas Clarke,
Nathaniel Crynes, Thomas Hunt, Thomas Mallard, Samuel Marshall, Samuel Wakefield.

Thomas Bulkley (1685), of Boston. There was a Thomas Buckley located in
Boston at this time, who, by his wife, Esther, had two children : Elinor, born Sept. 16,
1685, and Thomas, born Nov. i, 1686.

Thomas Clarke (1685), of Boston, pewterer, is mentioned in the Boston town
records, May 25, 1685. He was permitted to dig up the town ground near I^ieut.
Ephraim Sale's (1674) house.

Major Thomas (1638), according to Mr. Savage, had a son, Thomas (1644), who
left two daughters only.

William Robie (1684). Authorities: Bos- age's Gen. Diet.; Sprague's Annals of American
ton Records; .Savage's C.en. Diet. Pulpit; New Eng. Hist, and Gen. Reg., 1879, p.

Rev. Samuel Cheever. Authorities: Sav- 193.


Nathaniel Crynes (1685).

Thomas Hunt (1685), of Boston, anchor-smith, son of Ephraim, of Weymouth,
had children born in Boston, by wife, (i) Judith Torrey, from 1674 to 1688. He
married, (2) June 21, 1694, Susanna Saxton, and, (3) Nov. 17, 1709, Rachel Parker.

He was a member of Capt. Ephraim Savage's (1674) military company in 1685 and
1690, also a tithing-man; was selectman from 1696 to 1699, but declined to serve in
1699; in 1696 was lieutenant of a Boston company, and in 1699 was its captain. He
was fourth sergeant of the Artillery Company in 1691 ; ensign in 1695; lieutenant in
1698, and first sergeant in 1706.

He died Feb. 11, 1721-2, aged seventy-three years and seven months. His grave-
stone is on Copp's Hill. Mrs. Hunt (i) died Oct. 18, 1693, aged thirty-eight years.
" Daughter of William Torrey, of Weymouth," is inscribed on her gravestone.

The inventory of Capt. Hunt (1685), made Nov. 12, 1722, included house and
land on Linn Street, four hundred pounds ; smith-shop, wharf, etc., in Linn Street, three
hundred and fifty-five pounds ; negro man and woman, forty pounds.

His sons, John and Col. Ephraim, joined the Artillery Company in 1709 and 17 17

Thomas Mallard (1685) was of Boston in 1685. A Mr. Mallett was present at the
second meeting, July 4, 1686, of the first Episcopalian church in Boston, who is supposed
to be the same as Thomas Mallard (1685). Mr. Savage supposes that he soon moved
to New Hampshire, where the name occurs; but he is on the Boston tax lists of 1687-
91, and he contributed to the erection of the Episcopalian meeting-house in Boston
in 1689.

Samuel Marshall (1685), of Boston in 1681, a cooper, was active in the revival of
the Artillery Company in 1690, and was admitted to be a freeman in 1691. He was
third sergeant of the Company in 1691, and its ensign in 1698. He was clerk of the
market in 1681 ; a member of Capt. Townsend's (1674) military company in 1684; a
constable in 1685-6; assessor in 1698, and selectman in 1709 and 1710. He was sub-
sequently prominent in town matters. His will, of Oct. 25, 1739, was proved Feb. 22,
1742. He resided on the south side of Milk Street, near " Mackril Lane."

Samuel Wakefield (r68s), of Boston, probably the same as Samuel Wakefield
who joined the Artillery Company in 1676.

ReVi Joshua Moody, of Boston, delivered the Artillery sermon of 1685. He also
delivered the sermon before the Artillery Company in 1674, when he resided in Ports-
mouth, N. H. (See page 232.)

Thomas Hunt (1685). Authorities : Hunt Thomas Mallard (1685). Authority: An-

Genealogy, p. 317; Copp's Hill Burial-Ground, by nals of King's Chapel, by Foote.
Bridgman, p. 57.






The officers elected in 16S6-7 were: Benjamin Davis (1673), cap-
tain ; Tliomas Savage (1665), lieutenant, and Samuel Ravenscroft (1679),

Our knowledge of the anniversary day in June, 1686, is derived from the diary of
Judge Sevvall (1679), in which he wrote : —

"Satterday, June 5 [1686] I rode to Newbury to see my little Hull, and to keep out
of the way of the Artillery Election, on which day eat Strawberries and Cream with
Sister Longfellow at the Falls, visited Capt Richard Dummer, rode to Salem, where
lodged 2 nights for the sake of Mr. Noye's Lecture, who preached excellently of
Humility, from the woman's washing Christs feet. Was invited by Mr. Higginson to
dinner, but could not stay, came along to Capt Marshalls, from thence with Mr. Davie,
who gave me an account of B. Davis Capt. Thos Savage Lieut and Sam Ravenscroft,
Ensign of the Artillery ; Jno Wait was chosen but served not. Mr Hubbard preached
from Eccles : — There is no discharge in that war."

The Church of England was organized in Boston, June 15, 1686. At this first
meeting, there were, according to the records of King's Chapel, ten persons present,
besides the rector. Of these ten, the following were members of the Artillery Company :
Capt. Lidget (1679), Mr. Luscomb (1678), Mr. White (1678), Mr. Maccarty (1681),
and Mr. Ravenscroft (1679). July 4, 1686, at a second meeting, two others, Thomas
Brinley (1681) and Mr. Mallard (1685), were present. The above-named may be con-
sidered as among the fourteen founders of King's Chapel.

A memorandum, under date of July, 1689, "of sure, honest, and well-disposed
persons," who contributed to the erection of the first King's Chapel, is given in Annals
of King's Chapel, by Rev. H. W. Foote. It contains ninety-four names, with subscriptions
amounting to two hundred and forty- nine pounds nine shillings. Among these are the
following members of the Artillery Company : —

Benjamin Alford
Thomas Brinley .
Francis Burroughs
Duncan Campbell
Anthony Checkley
Thomas Clark .
John Coney . .
Edward Creeke .
Benjamin Davis .
Giles Dyer . .
Francis Foxcroft
John George . .
Robert Gutteridge

(1671), £r~

(1681), 5

(1686), 5

(1686), I

(1662), 3

(1685), I

(1662), 1

(i674)> ■

(1673). 3

(1680), 5

(1679), 10

(1702), 3

Roger Kilcup . .
Lt.-Col. Chas. Lidget
Samuel Lynde . .
Thaddeus Maccarty
Thomas Mallard
Benjamin Mountfort
John Nelson . .
Lt.-Col. Nicholas Paige
George Pordage
Samuel Ravenscroft
Edward Smith . .
Capt. Wm. White .

• (I6S4),


• (1679),


• (I69I),


. (I68I),



. (1685),


• (i679)>



. (1680),


?e (1693),


. (16S1),


• (1679),


. (1682),



• (1678),


Twenty-five persons gave one hundred and ten pounds and fifteen shillings, or
nearly a half of the entire amount.

The new members recruited in 1686-7 were: Francis Burroughs, Duncan Campbell,
and Stephen Mason.

"[1686] Monday, Sept 6. Artillery Training. Not an old Captain there." — Snvall Papers,
Vol. I., p. 151.



Francis Burroughs (1686), of Boston, a bookseller, who came from London in
1685, was a member of the Old South Church, but contributed to the building of
King's Chapel.

Mr. Dunton, the London bookseller, says, concerning Mr. Burroughs (1686),
"He heaped more civilities upon me than I can reckon up." Mr. Burroughs (1686)
furnished the necessary security that Mr. Dunton should not be "chargeable to the
town." He was elected constable of Boston in 1694, but declined to serve. His will
was proved Dec. 11, 17 13.

Duncan Campbell (1686), of Boston in 1685, was a bookseller from Scotland.
Dunton, in his Life and Errors, says of Duncan Campbell, a " Scotch bookseller, —
very industrious, dresses a-la-modc, and I am told a young lady of great fortune is fallen
in love with him." Under commission from Scotland, he was appointed postmaster
"for our side of the world." Administration was granted on his estate July 31, 1702,
wherein he is called " Merchant."

Stephen Mason (i5S6).

Rev. Nehemiah Hobart, of Newton, who delivered the Artillery election sermon
in 1686, — son of Rev. Peter Hobart, of Hingham, preacher of the Artillery sermon in
1655, — was born in Hingham, Nov. 21, 1648, and graduated at Harvard College in 1667.
He married, March 21, 1678, Sarah, daughter of Edward Jackson. He was ordained
pastor of the church at Cambridge village, Dec. 23, 1674, where he continued to labor
till his death, which occurred Aug. 25, 17 12.

Dec. 20, 1686, Sir Edmund Andros, "glittering in scarlet and lace," arrived at
Nantasket in the " Kingfisher," a fifty-gun ship, with a commission from James H. for
the government of all New England. One of the first "acts of his despotism" was the
taking possession of the South Congregational meeting-house for the use of the Episco-
palians. The two congregations occupied the South meeting-house by turns, — the
Episcopalians in the forenoon and the Congregationalists in the afternoon, or according
as it was more convenient for the Governor. On one occasion, when the Episcopal
service had lasted until after two o'clock. Judge Sewall (1679) notes in his diary: "It
was a sad sight to see how full the street was of people gazing and moving to and fro,
because they had not entrance into the house."

Francis Burroughs (1686). Authorities: " [1686] Monday Apr 5 Mr. Nehemiah Hobart

Hill's Hist, of Old South Church; Whitman's Hist. chosen to preach the next Artillery Election Sermon,

A. and H. A. Company, Ed. 1842; Foote's Annals hardly any other had Votes, though Mr. Cotton

of King's Chapel. Mather is even almost son-in-law to the Cap" and a

"Dec 10,1713. Mr. Francis Burroughs buried worthy Man." — SrioaWs Diary.
after Lecture. . . . He is Lamented as having been Judge Sewall (1679) says in his diary, under

an intelligent, Exemplary Christian. Buried in Mr. date of Sept. 13, 16S6, " Mr. Cotton Mather preaches

Heath's Tomb, New burying ■fXz.zt." — Sewall's the Election Sermon for the Artillery at Charles-

Diayy. town, from Ps cxliv-i. Made a very good discourse.

Duncan Campbell (1686). Authorities: President and Deputy there. . . . The Artillery

Foote's Annals of King's Chapel; Whitman's Hist. company had like to have been broken up — the

A. and H. A. Company, Ed. 1842; Thomas's Hist. animosity so high between Charlestown and Cam-

of Printing, Vol. II., p. 414. bridge about the place of training."

Rev. Nehemiah Hobart. Authorities : Sav- The " President " above mentioned was Joseph

age's Gen. Diet. ; Smith'sHist. of Newton; Sprague's Dudley (1677), and the "Deputy" was William

Annals of American Pulpit. Stoughton, son of Col. Israel Stoughton (1637).


Another of Sir Edmund's "acts" was the appointment of Randolph to be licenser
of the press. Under his " licensing," one almanac, one proclamation by Andros, and
five " reprints " constitute the entire issue of the Boston and Cambridge presses for the
year 1688. The restraint upon marriage was more "grievous" than that upon the
press, none being allowed to marry unless they gave bonds with sureties to the Governor.
Andros regarded the Congregational ministers as mere laymen, and Randolph wrote to
the Bishop of London, " One thing will mainly help, when no marriages hereafter shall
be allowed lawful but such as are made by the ministers of the Church of England."
At that time Mr. Ratcliffe was the only Episcopal minister in the country. Cotton
Mather, in his " Remarkables " of his father, furnishes the following graphic description
of the Andros "administration" : —

" The administration was almost a complication of shameless and matchless
villanies. The honest gentlemen in the council were overlooked and browbeaten and
rendered insignificant. Three or four finished villains did what they pleased. Among
other instances of the vile things in it, there was this comprehensive one : the banditti
gave out that, the charters being lost, all the title the people had unto their lands was
lost with them (for which a small defect in the legal and public settlements of them
was pretended), and therefore they began to compel the people everywhere to take
patents for their lands. Accordingly writs of intrusion were issued out against the chief
gentlemen of the territory, by the terror thereof many were driven to petition for patents
that they might enjoy lands which had been fifty or sixty years in their possession ; but
for these patents there were such exorbitant prices demanded that fifty pounds could
not purchase for its owner an estate not worth two hundred ; nor could all the money
and movables in the territory have defrayed the charges of patenting the lands at the
hands of the crocodiles, besides the considerable quit-rents for the King. Indeed,
the brutish things done by these wild beasts of the earth are too many to be related,
and would probably be too brutish to be believed."

The authority of Andros was supreme. He removed the members of the council
and appointed others ; with their consent, made laws, laid taxes, controlled the militia ;
tolerated no pubHc printing-press ; encouraged episcopacy, and sustained authority by
force. Schools were neglected, religious institutions impaired, tyrannical measures
instituted, and liberty disregarded. The rights and privileges of the people were
trampled under foot.

The last records of the state, under the old charter, appear to be May 12, 1686,
three days before Randolph's arrival. " Such was the baseness of the Andros govern-
ment, that the people were universally dissatisfied, and despised him and his confidential
associates. So sensible was he of this, that, by some means at this day unknown, he,
or his secretary, Randolph, destroyed or stole all the records of his administration, and
there is now no trace of them, or even a single paper relative thereto, left in the office
of the secretary " of state.

Judge Sewall (1679), in his diary,' speaks of the Artillery Company in 1687.
From that time until April, 1691, the Company seems to have been dormant. There
were no spring and fall trainings, and no election on the first Monday in June. It has
been stated that the meetings of the Company were suppressed by Gov. Andros. There

' "[1687] Monday April 4. Great Storm of not rained. Capt Wm White [1678] appoints the
Rain. Thunders several times. No Artillery Train- Sergeants and corporals to meet at Sergeant Bull's
ing; and I think would have been none if it had at 3 r. M. April 4." — Seumll Pafers,Vol. /., /. 172.




seems to be no direct evidence of this. The bitter quarrel which raged between the
churches from 1686 to 1690 divided the Company. Several prominent Episcopalians
united with the Company just previous to the arrival of Gov. Andros, and at the election
of ofilicers of the Artillery Company in 1686 the Episcopalians were triumphant. Prob-

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