Oliver J. (Oliver Joseph) Thatcher.

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Venetian, may conclude our list of supreme and repre-
sentative names.

Lionardo da Vinci (145 2-1 5 19) was one of those uni-
versal geniuses in the production of whom the Renaissance
was so prodigal, and in the many-sidedness of his talents



The Italian Renaissance 293

perhaps he excelled them all. Celebrated especially as a
painter, he was besides proficient, sometimes even to the
degree to rank him with the innovators and discoverers, as
an architect, sculptor, musician, engineer, and physicist.
And as if nature had been pleased to make in him an ideal
man, these powers were joined to a human form of hercu-
lean strength and divine mould. And yet few creations of
this man's genius have come down to us. Time and fort-
une have been particularly severe with him, and many
works of his that once shone in splendor are now destroyed
or marred. At the same time it must be acknowledged too
that he was never eagerly productive. He had so much
intellectual curiosity about the principle behind appear-
ance, he was so conscientiously set upon dismissing noth- Causes of his
ing which was not perfect from his workshop, that lie spent ness™
(one dare not say wasted) whole months in following some
curious speculation or studying some elaborate effect.

Lionardo was an illegitimate child. He was put to
study with Verrocchio. Still a young man he was drawn His life,
to the brilliant court of Milan. Later we find him in the
employ of Caesar Borgia, whom he served as engineer, then
at Rome and at various places, and, finally in France,
where he died, nobly provided for by that truly royal mon-
arch, Francis I.

The Louvre at Paris has the best of his easel pictures —
the Mona Lisa (or La Gioconda) and a Holy Family; more
than one critic has ventured to assign to the former the
first place in its class as " the portrait of portraits." His His works.
Last Supper at Milan has been more often rejiroduced than
any other composition of the Renaissance. Of Lionardo's
school at Milan, Luini (d. 1533) is the most famous name.
At Florence many artists took their clue from him, notably His followers.
Fra Bartolommeo (d. 15 17), whose paintings are especially
celebrated for their architectonic beauties, and, indirectly,



294 ^ SJiort History of McdicBval Europe



Andrea del Sarto (d. 1531), who might have rivalled Raf-
faelle but that he wanted Raffaelle's soul.

That Michel Angelo became a painter is owing to an ac-
cident. He was in the employ of the Pope and the Pope
commanded him to paint. He was assigned the ceiling of
the Sistine Chapel, the walls of which were already covered
with the works of Umbrian and Florentine mastei-s, and
though he prayed that he be allowed to continue the sculpt-
ures for the tomb of the Pope, Julius II. was obdurate.
The labor lasted from 1508 to 151 2, and for its magnitude
alone is an almost incredible production. Around the bor-
der runs a wreath of twelve sibyls and prophets. The long
space in the middle is divided into rectangular compart-
ments and filled with representations (nine in number) from
the Old Testament (Acts of Creation, the Fall, etc.). The
lunettes over the windows are adorned with Old Testament
family groups, and the numerous spaces between the archi-
tectural framework are filled with a whole world of decora-
tive figures. The contemporaries immediately accorded
this monumental achievement that enthusiastic tribute of
praise which no succeeding generation has refused. The
beings which Michel Angelo portrayed upon the Sistine
ceiUng are without a model. They are, in the boldest
sense of the word, the titanic children of his titanic mind.
All that was ungovernable and superhuman in this mys-
terious soul is recorded there. Later (1534-41) he paint-
ed upon the back wall of the chapel the Last Judgment.
Christ is enthroned above. The graves have opened and
the saved are floating up to heaven on one side, while on
the other, the servants of I^ucifer are reaching for their
prey. It is a vast composition, perhaps too vast, and is
therefore more successful in its details than in its general
effect.

Raffaelle (1485-15 20) probably represents to the major-



The Italian Renaissance 295



ity of our generation the essence of the Renaissance. Un-
doubtedly he was its most mellow product. If Lionardo
was more magical in his effects, and Michel Angelo more
titanic, Raffaelle was more eminently human by his fuller
comprehension of the range of human feelings. Living
closely in contact with mankind, he was enabled to create a
world of men and women among whom we move with ease
and delight. Raffaelle was born at Urbino, in Umbria.
His father, himself a painter of some renown, died before
the son was ready to receive instruction. At about the
age of fifteen the boy was bound as apprentice to Peru- His life,
gino at Perugia. In 1504 he removed to Florence, and
thence he passed in 1508, upon the call of the Pope, to
Rome, where he resided till he died. These stages in his
life are interesting. Each contributed an important ele-
ment to his completion. From Perugino he took what His develop-
was serious and honest in the religion of the Umbrian
school, in Florence he came under the influence of the
realistic movement with its accumulated experiences of a
hundred years, and at Rome the grandeur of the city lent
his work its monumental character. Every healthy art-
impulse which he encountered was welcomed and assimi-
lated to his nature. Nothing undid him, nothing destroyed
that splendid harmony of his faculties, which gives him
his inimitable joyousness and freedom.

Raffaelle was an astonishingly fertile artist. The works His best-
Ijy which he is best known arc the various Madonnas and
the Vatican frescoes.

His Madonna-ideal differs greatly froni that of his prede- His Madon-
cessors. He does not give us the handmaiden of the Lord,
spirit-crushed with present or expected burdens, but typical
women rather, who have no necessary connection with the
thread of Christian story. Two kinds of madonnas ])re- Two ideals,
vail; the one is the human mother, the other the heavenly



296 A Short History of Mediceval Europe

queen. Very excellent representatives of the two classes
are the Madonnas of the Chair (Florence) and the Sistine
Madonna (Dresden). The former shows us a Roman
woman such as Raffaelle must have encountered often in
his daily walks. There is no attempt made to spiritualize
her ; she is the happy and goodly human mother of the
round child which she holds in her lap. This conception
is strengthened by the local Roman costume in which the
Madonna is presented. The Sistine Madonna, on the other
hand, is the expression of another ideal. She has nothing
of the earth, she is the Lady of Heaven, and as she floats
along upon clouds, with the Son of God upon her arm,
she bids the troubles of earth cease and mankind fall upon
its knees and worship.

The frescoes of the Vatican, the residence of the Popes,
rank with those of Michel Angelo in the Sistine Chapel as
the most splendid monuments of the Renaissance. They
represent a colossal labor, the walls and ceilings of four
large rooms being covered with allegorical and historical
scenes. The most celebrated allegories are the Dispute
and the School of Athens. In the former Raffaelle gave
his conception of the nature and ends of theology, and in
the latter of the nature and ends of philosophy. The world
has never ceased expressing its admiration at the way in
which these pure abstractions have been rendered into liv-
ing and pictorial images. The best of the historical
scenes is the expulsion of the Syrian general Heliodorus
from the temple at Jerusalem. The composition is mas-
terly. Three stages of the story are brought before our
eyes within the same frame, the danger of the Church, the
punishment of the robber, and the triumph, but a single
glance suffices to harmonize these elements into a whole of
incomparable impressiveness.

Titian (147 7-1 5 7 6) is the most representative name of



The Italian Renaissance 297

the Venetian school. Perhaps no other painter has carried Titian and

. -r. -J 1 tlie later Ve-

the art of portraiture to so great a perfection. Besides, lie netian..
produced a great number of biblical scenes and Holy
Families, all alike distinguished by the rare Venetian color-
harmony, but lacking perhaps in spiritual seriousness.
Titian was a mundane artist, though a very noble one.
The School of Venice preserved itself longest from the late
Renaissance infection, and such capable artists as Tintoret-
to (1519-94) and Veronese (1528-86) continued their far-
shining labors well into the modern era.

It was worth our while to study the movement of the
Italian Renaissance so much in detail, because, as has Importance of

. . the Italian Re-

already been made clear during its gradual development, naissance.
the thought-content of the Middle Age Avas destroyed and
a new thought-content grew up in its place. The new aims
and ideals of the Renaissance form the foundation of our
modern period. To Italy belongs the honor of having sup- it lays the
ported the better part of the labor of this intellectual revo- the modern
lution. Primarily, of course, she struggled for herself, but
by the nature of her connection with Europe, her efforts
turned to the benefit of the civilized world as well. That
during the progress of the evolution she gave expression to
her new ambitions in the creation of a noble and enduring
art, is, from the point of view of the philosophy of history,
only incidental to the central fact, the widening of civiliza-
tion. From Italy the movement of liberation spread across
the Alps, and we have in the sixteenth century, in all the
northern countries, in France, Germany, and England, a
French, German, and English Renaissance, all of w^hich,
although exhibiting national modifications in each case, un-
mistakably proclaim their derivation from the south. Even
the German Reformation, with which Modern History be-
gins, is only the liberating movement of the Renaissance as
it manifested itself under the altered conditions of the north.



era.



298 A Short History of Mediceval Europe



The Renais-
sance not only
an intellectual
and artistic
movement.

Expansion of
industry and
commerce.



Age of discov-
eries.



Inventions.
Gunpowder.

Printing.



So the Italian Renaissance tolled the death-knell of the
old order. We have largely confined our attention to its
intellectual and aesthetic aspects. But it is interesting to
follow out the consequences of the mental revolution for
the dependent and ramified departments of human labor.
We have already shown that the beginnings of the Renais-
sance were accompanied by an expansion of commerce
and industry. This movement continued uninterruptedly,
new resources being gradually developed and new territories
being constantly drawn into the circle of international
intercourse. There followed as a natural consequence the
Age of Discoveries, culminating in the discovery of America
(1492), by which the contemporary widening of the men-
tal horizon was supplemented by a fortunate widening of
the physical world. A large number of practical inven-
tions, made about the same time, contributed their share to
the overthrow of mediaeval conditions. Gunpowder (invent-
ed during the fourteenth, but not used generally until the
fifteenth century) put an end to the military superiority of
the mounted nobility, while printing, which began to mul-
tiply books during the fifteenth century, destroyed the
monopoly of learning hitherto maintained by the universi-
ties. By these changes mankind had put itself, practically
and theoretically, upon a different basis and was prepared
to enter upon a new stage of its existence.



INDEX



INDEX



Aachen, 85
Abbassides, 191
Abelard, 152, 172, 201
Abu Bekr, 186, 191
Acco, siege of, 203 ; taken by Mo-
hammedans, 206
Adrianople, battle of, 24
Adelaide, 87
Adolf of Nassau, 262
Aelfred the Great, 96-98
Aethelstan, 98

Aethelberht, King of Kent, 41
Aethelred the Redeless, 99, 100
Aethelwulf, 96

Aetius, 30 ; defeats Attila, 31
Agincourt, battle of, 245
Alamanni, 30, 52
Alani, 26, 28

Alaric, 25-27 ; sacks Rome, 26
Anastasius, 43
Alberic, 89/
Alberti, 282

Albigenses, 165, 166, 230
Alcuin, 63

Alexander II., 106, 140, 141
Alexander III., 158/.; 160/".
Alexander V. , 274
Alexander VI., 228
Alexius, 197

Albornoz wins Papal States, 227
Ali Khalif, 186, 191
Angles, 37
Anglo-Saxons, 37 ff. ; missionaries,

132
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 98
Almorovides, 253/!
Andrew of Longjumeau, 211



Angelico, Fra, 290

Angelo, Michel, 283, 287/, / Sistine
Chapel, 294

Anselm, 106

Antioch, 130, 198, 206

Arabic Civilization, 192^ / civiliza-
tion destroyed, 195

Arabs, 185, 190

Arcadius, 33

Architecture, Arabic, 192 ; of Mid-
dle Age, 277, 280/

Arianism, 47

Aristotle, 193

Arnold of Brescia, 152 jf! / 201

Arnold of Winkelried, 265

Arnulf, Crowned, 74 ; acknowledged
Emperor, 82

Art, Byzantine, 45 ; of Middle Age,
277 ; Italian, 280 jf.

Assize of Clarendon, 240

Athaulf, 27/

Athanasius, 178

Athanarich, 24

Athens, University of, 45/

Attila, 31/.

Augustine, St., 41, 178

Austrasia, 53, 54

Austria, 261

Avars, 49, 56

Avignon, 227, 234 ; Curia removed
to, 272

Bagdad, seat of Khalifate, 191
Baldwin I., 196, 199 /I
Bannockburn, battle of, 243
Bartolommeo, Fra, 293

Bavaria, 52, 55



302



Index



Bavarians, 49

Bede, 42, 98

Bedford, Duke of, 245/

Begging Friars, 171

Beket, Thomas, 241

Belgium, 255

Belisarius, 30, 48

Bellini, Jacopo, Gentile, Giovanni,

291/
Benedict II., 271
Benedict of Nursia, 178/.
Benedictine Rule, 179/.
Benevento, Duchy of, 50, 87
Beowulf, 38
Berengar of Friuli, 74
Bernhard of Clairvaux, 149, 201
Bertha of Kent, 41
Besan(;on episode, 154
Bishoprics, established by Karl the

Great, 56; by Otto I., 87
Black Prince, 244/.
Blanche of Castile, 231
Boccaccio, 279

Boemund, 112, ig&f., 198, 199, 200
Boethius, 35, 193 ; translated, 98
Bohemia, 56, 87, 263, 266-267
Boniface, 29, 133, 134/., 179
Boniface VIII., 234, 270
Boso, 74

Bosworth, battle of, 251
Botticelli, Sandro, 290, 291
Bouvines, battle of, 167, 230
Bramante, 282 /I
Bretigny, Treaty of, 245
Britain, 37
Bruce, David, 244
Brunellesco, 281/, 285
Brunhilda, 53
Bulgarians, 49

Burgundy, 52, 74, 92, 256, 267
Burgundians, ^of.

Caedmon, 38
Cairo, 192, 193
Canossa, 146
Capetian dynasty, 78



Caracalla, 10

Cardinals, 139 ; College of, 140

Cassiodorus, 35, 179

Catalaunian Fields, 31

Charles of Anjou, 173

Charles the Bald, 70 _^.

Charles the Bold, 252, 256, 267

Charles the Simple, 73, 74, 75, 76

Charles IV. of Bohemia, 263

Charles V. , Emperor, 256, 268

Charles VI., 245 —

Charles VII., 245^.

Charles VIII. invades Italy, 228, 252

Chivalry, 125, 126

Childeric, 36

Chioggia, battle of, 225

Chlodwig, 28, 36, 52

Christianity, legalized, 20/. ; in Ire-
land, 39, 40 ; in England, 40 ff. ;
in Hungary, 257 /. ; in Poland,
258/.

Church, friendly to Empire, 19 ;
under Gratian, 21 ; Constantine
and, 20 ; under Justinian, 45 ; in
England, 41; and Chlodwig, 52;
under Karl the Great, 55, 65 ; un-
der Otto I., 86 ; under Henry III.,
93/; and Feudalism, 118, 127;
organization, 129 ; Conquest of the
West, 134 ; worldliness of, 176 ;
and Louis IX., 233; and Wyclif,
249 ; in Middle Age, 276
Cities, 124 ; growth of, 212 ; in
France, 214^^, 221 ; in England,
215/. ; in Germany, 216 ; charters
of, 218; government of, 219; in
Netherlands, 255^ ; in Germany,
265/ ; in Italy, 223/., 278
Clarendon, Constitutions of, 240
Classification, Philological, Ethno-
logical, 19
Clement III., 160, 161
Clement V., 234 ; at Avignon, 272
Clergy, 127; celibacy of, 147; regu-
lar and secular, 180
Clermont, first crusade, 196



Index



303



Cluniac reforms, 89. 93, 94, 137, 180,

181
Columba, St., 40
Commerce and industry, 0.0% /., 213,

255

Conrad I., 83

Conrad II., g2/.

Conrad III., 150, 201

Conrad IV., 171, 172/1

Conradino, 173

Constance of Sicily, 160

Constance, Treaty of, 159

Constantino and the Church, 20/! ;
and the Goths, 23

Cortenuova, battle of, 169

Cosenza, 26

Council, of Nicasa, 65, 131 ; of
Altheim,83; of Sutri, 93; of Sar-
dica, 131 ; of Constantinople, 131 ;
of Chalcedon, 131 ; of Pavia, 137 ;
of Worms, 143 /. ; of Piacenza,
148 ; of Clermont, 148, 196 ; of
Constance, 227, 266, 274 ; of Clar-
endon, 239 ; of Pisa, 274 • of Basel,
274

Crdcy, battle of, 244

Crusade, Frederick Barbarossa, 160;
first, 196 ff. ; second, 200, 202 ;
third, 202 /. ; of Henry VI., 203 ;
fourth, 203; Children's, 205; last,
205, 206; a failure, 206 _^.

Crusaders, 196 y. / motives of, 197 ;
take Antioch, 198

Crusades, preached by Urban, 148 ;
effect of, 208 ff.

Curiales, 13, 14

Curia Regis, 239

Cuthbert, St., 40

Cycles of Legends, 209

Cyprus, 203, 206

Dagobert, 64
Damascus, 191
Danelaw, 97
Danes, 16, 96, 97, 99^
Decius, 20



Denmark, 256
Desiderius, 55

Diocletian's reform, 11 f. ; 20
Dionysius Exiguus, 132
Domesday Book, 238
Dominicans, 182
Dominic, St., 182
Donatello, 284, 285/.
Donation of Constantine, 280
Do-Nothing Kings, 54
Dunstan, 99

Eadgar Atheling, 107

Eadmund, 96, 98

Eadmund, Ironside, 100

Edward the Elder, 98

Edward the Confessor, 100

Edward I., 243

Edward II., 243

Edward III., 243 ; claims French

Crown, 237/ ; 244/
Edward IV. and V., 250/.
Ecgberht, 38, 95, 96
Edessa, taken by Baldwin, 199;

taken by Mohammedans, 200
Einhard, biographer of Karl, 67
Ekkehard, 91
Eleanor of Aquitaine, 229
Emma, 99, 100
England, 37-42 ; and the Norsemen,

95 ; under Aelfred the Great, 97 ;

cities of, 215 ff. ; after 1070, 23°

ff. ; constitutional changes, 247 ;

War of Roses, 250/".
Enzio, 171, 173
Eric, 257
Esthonians, iZf.
Eudoxia, 29
Europe, physical character of, 6, 7, 8

Fatimites, 192

Feudal, armies, 120 ; dues, 120/ ;

justice, 122 ; society, 122 ; castles,

126
Feudalism in France and Germ.nny,

81; defined, 114; origin of, ii8;



304



Index



and the Church, ii8 ; terms, ii8 ;
and serfs, 123 ; and citizens, 124 ;
chivalry, 126; clergy, 127; decay
of, 128

Fief, 118

Finnic-Turkish tribes, 18/

Florence, 226, 227 ; and the Renais-
sance, 280 ; Cathedral of, 282 ; art
in, 292

France, beginning of, 71 ; cities of,
214 ff., 221 ; after 1108, 229 ff. ;
English wars with, 244 ff. ; army
of, 252 ; unification of, 252

Francesca, 291

Francis, St., of Assisi, 181/.

Franciscans, iZi/., 272

Franks, 16 ; divisions of, 2:^ ; and
West Goths, 28 ; conquer Ala-
manni, 30; Burgundians, 31 ; King-
dom divided, 52

Fredegonda, 53

Frederick I., 150, 151 ; and Hadrian
IV., T.S3f- ! ifi Lombardy, 156/". ;
crowned Emperor, 158 ; at Leg-
nano, 159 ; crusade, 160, 202 ; and
cities, 223

Frederick II., 163, 164; crowned,
167 ; and the Papacy, 168, 169 _^.;
in Sicily, 169 ; character of, 172 ;
on crusade, 205, 230

Friesians, 37

Gaul, invasions of barbarians, 26,

27. 31
Gefolge, 16/, 116
Geiseric, 29
Genoa, 225
Gepidae, 37
Gerbert, 92, 193
Germans, 15, 16, 17; reaction

against, 43/. ; Christianized, 133
German, Order of Knights, 184 ;

language, 19
Germany, 60, 71 ; expansion of, 87 ;

under Hohenstanfen, 150 - 173 ;

after struggle with Papacy, 174/! ;



conquests, 184; Great interreg-
num in, 261 ; cities of, 216, 265

Ghengis Khan, 191

Ghibellines, 130, 159, 224

Ghiberti, Lorenzo, 284, 285

Ghirlandajo, 287, 290

Giotto, 28

Godfrey of Boulogne, 196, 200

Godwin, Earl, 101

Golden Bull, 263

Goths, Divisions of, 22 f. ; at Coun-
cil of Nicaea, 23 ; development of
kingship, 23

Goths, East, conquered by Huns,
24; invade Italy, 25; second in-
vasion, 34 ; Kingdom destroyed,

36
Goths, West, 24, 25, 27, 28, 52
Gratian and the Church, 21, 24
Gregory the Great, 41, 179
Gregory II., 135, 136
Gregory VII., 80, iii, 112, 137, 141-

148 ; results of his work, 147, 181,

201
Gregory IX., 168, 170
Gregory X., 206
Gregory XL, 273
Grimoald, 54
Guelfs, 150, 159, 162, 224
Guido of Spoleto, 74
Guilds, 213, 5i8, 221, 265
Guridobad, 30
Gunhild, 100
Guthrum, 97

Haco VI. , 257
Hadrian, 66
Hadrian IV., 153-158
Hapsburgs, 256, 261/ ; 264, 267 /C
Harold, elected King of England,

102 ; and William, 106/.
Hegira, 187
Heliand, 91
Henry I. of France, 80
Henry I. of Germany, 83, 84
Henry I. of England, 238^^



v/



Index



305



Henry II. of Germany, 92

Henry II. of England, 133, 239/". ;
and Beket, 241

Henry III. of Germany, 93 /, 117;
and Papacy, 137 ; d. , 138

Henry III. of England, 242/

Henry IV. of Germany, 94, iii, 112,
139, 140-143 ; struggle with Greg-
ory VII., 144-147 ; last yrs., 148

Henry IV. of England, 245

Henry V. of Germany, 148-149

Henry V. of England, 245, 250

Henry VI. of Germany, 160, 161/,
203

Henry VI. of England, 245, 250

Henry VII. of Germany, 262

Henry VII. of England, 251

Henry the Lion, 150, 151, 159/., 161,
162

Hermits, 177

Herulians, 37

Hildebrand, 138, 139, 140 ; Pope,
141 ; strengthens Papacy, 142-143

HohenzoUern, 266

Holland, 255

Honorius, 33

Honorius III., 168

House of Commons, beginning of,
243; separated from House of
Lords, 247

Hugo Capet, 76-79

Hundred Years' War, 243^.

Hungary, 86, 87, 257/., 267

Hunneric, 29 y.

Huns, 19, 24, 31, 32, 84, 85

Huss, John, 258 ; burned, 266

Illyria, 25

Innocent II., 149/!

Innocent III., 161; his policy, 163,
165 ; and Otto IV. , 164 ; his pon-
tificate, 166/., 203, 242

Innocent IV., 170, 171, 172/'.. 269

Interregnum in Germany, 174, 261

lolanthe, 168

lona, Isle of, 40



Ireland, 39/!, 241

Irene, Empress, 57, 58; calls CjUH-
cil of Nicaea, 65/.

Irish missionaries, 133

Isabella, 254

Italy, in time of Otto I., 87/ ; and
Normans, 110-113 ; before 1494,
223 ; various powers in, 224 ; hope-
lessly divided, 269 ; Renaissance,
276/:

Ivan III., 260

Jeanne D'Arc, 246

Jerome, St., 178

Jerusalem, 130; taken by Crusaders,

199 ; lost, 202 ; taken by Turks,

205
John of England, 165, 241/.
John X., 89
John XL, 89
John XII., 90
Jubilee of 1300, 271
Justin I., 43
Justin II., 50
Justinian, 30, 36, 43-48
Jutes, 37

Karlings, origin of, 54 ; last of, 78
Karl the Great, 55-67 ; as law-giver
and builder, 63 ; his attitude tow-
ard learning, 63 ; toward the
Church, 65 /. ; and Ecgberht,
95; and feudalism, 115, 116; his
military system, 119; and the
Papacy, 136 ; and the cities, 213
Karl the Fat, 73/
Karl Martel, 54/., 133, 136
Kelts, 14, 15, 37
Kcrbogha, 198/
Khalifs, 191, 253
Knights of St. John, 184, 206
KniglUs Templars, 184, 234, 272
Knights, German Order of, 208
Knnt, 100, 256
Koran, 189



3o6



Index



Lanfranc, io6

Langton, Stephen, 165, 242

Lateran Council, 165

Laws, Anglo-Saxon, 38, 98 ; codi-
fication of Roman, 44

Leagues, Rhenish, 261, 263 ; Sua-
bian, 265 ; Hanseatic, 265/

Legnano, battle of, 159, 223

Leo the Great, 32, 131, 132, 136

Leo III., 57, ^56,69, 13s

Leo IX., Ill, 137

Leofric of Mercia, loi, 102

Letts, 18, 17s

Lindisfarne, 40

Lippi, Fra Filippo, 290

Literature, of Middle Ages, 277, 279,
280; in England, 251; Arabic,
193 ; in Germany, 91

Liutprand, 91

Lombard League, 159

Lombards in Italy, 50/. ; and Karl,
55 ; and the Papacy, 135

Lombardy, 87/, 148, 224

Lothaire, 77, 78

Loihar, 70/!

Lothar the Saxon, \\^f.

Lotharingia, 72, 77

Louis the Stammerer, 73

Louis IV. (d'Outremer), 77

Louis VI., 81, 201, 229

Louis VII., 201, 229

Louis VIII., 231

Louis IX., 205/, 221, 231,2^, 237

Louis XL, 228, 252

Luca della Robbia, 284, 286/".

Ludvvig of Bavaria, 262/, 272

Ludwig the Child, 82

Ludwig the German, 70^.

Ludwig the Pious, 69/!

Magdeburg, 86

Magna Charta, 242

Magyars, 19, 84^, 175

Major Domus, 53, 54 ; Karl Martel,

54 ; Pippin, 55
Manfred, 172/



Mantegna, 291

Marco Polo, 211

Marozia, 89

Mary of Burgundy, 256

Masaccio, 289

Mathematics, 193/

Matilda of England, 239

Matilda of Scotland, 239

Matilda of Tuscany, 144

Maximilian of Austria, 256

Mayfields, 61

Mecca, 185, 188

Medici, zidf. ; Lorenzo de', 227;

favor art, 280
Merovingian Kings, 55
Migrations, causes of, 22
Milan, 151 ; destroyed, 157 ; rebuilt,

159 ; after 1300, 224, 226, 228 ; art,

293

Missi Dominici, 62

Missionaries, Anglo-Saxon, 132;
Irish, 40, 133

Mohammed, 185/ ; at Medina, 187 ;
resorts to arms, 188 ; his character,
189/

Mohammedanism, 185 ff. ; Turkish,
190 ; in Spain, 191 /. ; in Africa,
192

Mohammedans, cross Straits of Gib-
raltar, 286 / ; and Karl, 55, 56 ;
in Sicily, 87 ; and Venetians, 204 ;


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Online LibraryOliver J. (Oliver Joseph) ThatcherA short history of mediæval Europe → online text (page 24 of 25)