dishes which were found on the shores of Singletary pond.* The
city was reached about five o'clock, and the party separated, well
pleased with their adventures, notwithstanding their partial disap-
The regular monthly meeting was held Tuesday
evening, September i.
. Present : Messrs. Crane, T. A. Dickinson, Estey,
Edwards, Meriam, J. A. Smith, Gould, C. Jillson,
Dodge, E. F. Thompson, J. A. Howland, Bartlett,
Maynard, Lee, Barrows, C. R. Johnson, Seagrave,
* Sometime early in the summer of 1885 some Indian soapstone dishes were
brought to Worcester from Millbury, and sold for a good price to a dealer in
antiques. These were found on Soapstone hill by the party who sold them,
â€” at least, such was his statement. .Soon after, he produced another lot, which
were also purchased by the aforesaid dealer, and placed on exhibition. The
collection was examined by President Crane and Messrs. T. A. Dickinson and
F. P. Rice of The Worcester Society of Antic|uity, and the larger portion was
pronounced by them to be spurious. Some three or four of the pots were
unquestionably genuine, and the difference in character and workmanship
between these and the others was plain, even to an unpracticed eye. Puit the
purchaser remained unconvinced, and stoutly maintained the genuineness of
his wares. In the course of the summer another Worcester party was drawn
into the net, and invested a large sum in counterfeit Indian pots and non-
descript soapstone ornaments. These articles were produced in astonishing
Pierce and Rice, members ; and William B. Earle,
Estey, and H. A. Sweet, visitors. â€” 22.
Mr. Abbot being absent, Mr. Rice acted as Sec-
George S. Adams, M. D., James Green, William
Woodward, and Daniel W. Niles, M. D., were
elected active members of the Society.
The Secretary read the following letter and in-
closure from Hon. Charles Adams, Jr., of North
North Brookfield, September i, 18S5.
To The Worcester Society of Antiquity :
I herewith inclose Copies of
Parish Records of the last century, which will show the difference
between the views entertained one hundred years ago by religious
societies, and those held at the present time, in regard to lotteries,
I also send by express, directed to the address of your Secretary,
an old gun, a part of the armament of the slave schooner "Amistad,"
confiscated and sold with all its appurtenances, at New London in
the year 1839, under a decree of the United States Court. The
slaves, so claimed, were declared to be free men, and, after being
quantity, ami tlie place of discovery was now claimed to be on the shores of
Singletary pond, in Sutton. The swinrlle lje_<(an to assume such proportions
that measures were taken to effectually expose it; and on the occasion of
the visit of Prof. V . W. Putnam to the locality of the mastodon discovery in
Northborouijh, on October 17th, he was, on his return to Worcester, taken
by the gentlemen above named to view the collection of the principal victim.
The validity of his judgment could not l)e questioned. Efforts were made to
bring the guilty party to justice, but he had escaped.
educated, were returned to their native country, Mendi, in Africa,
by anti-slavery friends. John Quincy Adams appeared as their
counsel. A very particular and interesting account of the case is
given in Henry Wilson's "Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in
America," vol. i., pp. 456 to 469. You will make such disposition
of the copies of the votes and of the old gun as you may see fit.
With great respect, your ob't S'v't,
Cha*. Adams, Jr.
From the Records of the Second Precinct in Brookheld.
Communicated by Charles Adams, Jr.
At a legal meeting of the Second Precinct in Brookfield (now
the First Congregational Society in North Brookfield), March 7,
1 79 1, it was "Voted : That the Treasurer be directed to sell the
old Continental money now in his hands amounting to $2,148,00,
to the best advantage he can, for specie ; and that Lieut. William
Ayres and Capt. John Waite be a committee to assist him in the
disposal thereof, and that they are jointly empowered and in-
structed to lay out the proceeds of the same in tickets in the
Massachusetts Monthly State Lottery, for the benefit of the Pre-
And at an adjourned meeting, March 30, 1791, it was "Voted,
That the Treasurer, with the Committee appointed to assist in the
disposal of the old Continental Money, be further directed to con-
tinue in the lottery the number of tickets that the said old money
shall purchase, provided the first drawing shall produce to the
precinct a sum sufficient for the purpose, until they shall receive
further orders from the Precinct, and that the overplus, if any,
shall, from time to time, be deposited in the treasury for the use
of the Precinct."
It appears from the report of Jason Bigelovv, Treasurer of the
Precinct, made at the next annual meeting, that the $2,148.00 of
"Old Continental Money" was sold for twelve shillings, New Eng-
land currency, equivalent to two dollars, or 9^, mills on the dollar !
And so ended the first, and probably the last, lottery speculation
of our religious society.
The thanks of the Society were voted for Mr.
Hon. Clark Jillson read the following Memorial
of^the late Manning Leonard, Esq., of Southbridge,
a life member of the Society :
BY CLARK JILLSON.
The Baptist Church of Sturbridge was established in 1747, and
then consisted of fifteen members. They were called "New
Lights," "Separatists," and various other names tending to show
or convey the impression that they were not "Regulars." It was
not then dangerous to be of the Orthodox faith, nor safe to be a
Baptist. In 1749 Rev. Ebenezer Moulton, of the Baptist Church
in Brimfield, baptised thirteen persons in Sturbridge. The increase
of this persecuted church was rapid, and in a few weeks sixty
others were baptised.
These persons refused to pay the "minister tax" levied by the
town for the support of the Orthodox minister. This was con-
trary to the laws of Massachusetts Bay. Property was seized to
satisfy the demands of the tax collector, and Dea. Daniel Fiske,
John Corey, Jeremiah Barstow, Josiah Perry and John Draper
were imprisoned in the jail at Worcester ; but individuality and
free thought finally trium[jl-ied, and the Baptist Church of Stur-
The Rev. Zenas Lockwood Leonard came from Bridgewater to
Worcester County about 1796, and settled in Sturbridge, where he
was pastor of this same Baptist Church for thirty-six years. Of
his parents I shall say but little. His father was uncultivated and
somewhat rude in his manners, but his mother was a woman of
rare quaUties, refined and intelligent. It was through her persis-
tent efforts that her son was enabled to obtain a liberal education
at Brown University. He was a faithful minister, and his long
service shows that his labor was tolerated to say the least.
In addition to his ministerial qualifications he exhibited con-
siderable enterprise in business affairs, being an owner in the first
cotton factory built in the vicinity of Sturbridge, erected in 1811.
His wife, the mother of the subject of this sketch, was Sally
Fiske, a descendant of one of the earliest settlers of Sturbridge.
They had a family of seven children. Manning, the fifth child,
was born in Sturbridge, June i, 18 14. His early years were spent
upon a farm, where he learned the art of husbandry as it was un-
derstood in New England before the introduction of the iron
plow, the mowing machine, the horse rake, and many other use-
ful farm implements. Here he patiently toiled during the long
summer days, attending school only in winter.
With such scanty facilities our young men of to-day would
hardly expect to equip themselves to enter any of the higher in-
stitutions of learning. But his time was not squandered in bar
rooms, in low-bred society or in unprofitable sports. He pursued
his studies after the labors of the day had ceased, by the open
fire, while around the hearthstone were gathered a numerous
family, whose merry voices mingled with the moan of the spinning
wheel, urged to its utmost speed by maternal hands. No primitive
lamp sent its gloomy haze among the dimly printed pages. No
gas jet poured its steady light over the unconquered problem. No
electric glare filled nook, corner and crevice of that humble dwell-
ing. But the pine knot, just under the forestick, sent its dancing
rays over the lesson of the hour and illumined the catch-word to
future success. Thus was this hopeful boy educated and fitted
for the sterner duties of life, more than half a century ago. His
meagre schooling in Sturbridge and at Amherst Academy con-
stituted his passport into the arena of business.
His desire to engage in mercantile pursuits turned his course
towards the great commercial metropolis, the city of New York.
Here lie was employed as a clerk in the dry goods house of Tiffany,
Anderson & Co., where he became familiar with city life and the
ways of trade. New York was not too small to allow his mind
legitimate scope, but the dry goods house was too thoroughly un-
derstood to afford further satisfaction to his ambition, and like
many other young men of his time, he went West.
In 1835 he commenced trade in Indiana where he did an ex-
tensive business, but his native town was still remembered, and it
ma.y be fairly presumed that the attractions of that vicinity were
never overlooked, for, at the age of twenty-six years he married
Mary F. Ammidown, daughter of Hon. Ebenezer D. Ammidown,
a prominent and much respected citizen of Southbridge,
Locality indicates that these young persons were not strangers
to each other, and their future lives confirmed the wisdom of both
in the selection they then so trustingly made. They had seven
children, five of whom are now living.
In 1844 Mr. Leonard returned to Massachusetts after closing
up his business in the West, He was now thirty years of age, with
a varied business experience, and was well qualified to make what-
ever he undertook a success. He was soon associated with his
life-long friend, Chester A Dresser, in running the Central Mills in
Southbridge, where they carried on a large business in the manu-
facture of cotton cloth and delaines. Mr. Leonard continued in
this business till failing health caused him to retire from active
service, at the age of fifty-nine years.
There were no glaring eccentricities or chance ventures con-
nected with the life of Mr. Leonard. He was always in earnest,
always conservative, sincere and truthful, never rash or impetuous.
Whenever his analytical mind had canvassed a given subject his
decision was final, and generally correct. He left but little room for
repentance. He had few dealings with the past except as a histo-
rian. He took no retrograde steps, for when he had completed a
deliberate purpose he had always done his best, and a review would
only waste time and accomplish nothing. The course he intended
to pursue was never undertaken without premeditation, conse-
quently he seldom achieved more then he had reason to expect
or less than he was prepared to reahze. Sincerity and truthfuhiess
were marked quaUties in his character, and when he made a ver-
bal promise no virtue could be added to it by appending his sig-
nature, seal or oath.
Mr. Leonard, with his wife, joined the Presbyterian Church at
Madison, Indiana, in 1842. The church was no worse after the
accession, and he was no better ; but possibly the example was a
benefit and gave encouragement to others less firmly grounded in
The eminent moral and Christian character of Mr. Leonard was
not overlooked by his fellow citizens. He enjoyed the confidence
of his neighbors and townsmen in a remarkable degree, being fre-
quently called to occupy places of trust and responsibility in the
administration of town affairs, and to fill numerous local offices.
He was a justice of the peace for more than thirty years, and in
1869 was a member of the Legislature. He was active, if not the
prime mover, in establishing the Southbridge Savings Bank, and
was clerk of the corporation thirt)'-seven years. He was a di-
rector of the Southbridge National Bank for a term of thirty-six
years, and his financial methods were of great service to both these
institutions. He was thoroughly interested in the Free Public
Library established in 18 71 by his friend, Hon. Holmes Ammidown,
and was a member of the committee from the establishment of
the library to the time of his death. Like Mr. Ammidown he was
a devoted student of local history and genealogy, being a life
member of The Worcester Society of Antiquity and of the New
England Historic Genealogical Society. He was made a life
member of our Society May 3, 1S81, and has never failed to ad-
vance our interests when it was possible for him to do so. For
several years he had been compiling a genealogical record of the
Leonard family, and at the time of his death the history of his own
branch was fully completed and ready for publication.
Mr. Leonard was a zealous advocate of our American institu-
tions, and during the late rebellion he stood firm by the Union,
always hoping and believing that the right would prevail. He had
but one political code â€” one religious creed â€” both based on
substantial common sense, upon a plane above the bickerings of
party strife or sectarian dogma. He was kind to the poor and
always in sympathy with the unfortunate, but made no parade of
his generosity nor sought public approval. It was enough for him
to quietly perform his duty as a good and loyal citizen, without
hope of reward.
On Friday, July 30, 1885, conscious of having lived a noble
life,Â«he passed on into the unknown future, his dust returning to
dust, "his spirit to God who gave it."
The Librarian presented his report showing that
the additions during the summer months had been
large, 'and that they included many valuable books
Mr. Dickinson then exhibited two machines for
making card teeth which were constructed in the
early part of the present century, one of which he
operated. He gave a brief sketch of the invention
of these machines and of the manufacture of card
clothing. Remarks in relation to this subject were
made by William B. Earle, engaged in the card
clothing business for more than sixty years ; and by
Joseph A. Howland and others.
The President gave some account of the recent
visit of certain members of the Society to the Indian
Soapstone Quarry at Millbury, and read some cor-
respondence pertaining thereto.
The meeting was then adjourned.
Regular monthly meeting, Tuesday evening,
Present : Messrs. Crane, T. A. Dickinson, Rice,
C. Jillson, Barrows, Stedman, Lyford, Gould, Sim-
mons, Jackson, H. M. Smith, Woodward, Meriam,
Seagrave, Taft, Pierce, Hubbard and Abbot, mem-
bers ; and Albert S. Brown and J. Gould, visitors.
Dr. Charles L. Nichols, Horatio L, Miller and
George H. Mellen of Worcester ; Henry D. Woods
of Boston, and Bernard A. Leonard of Southbridge,
were elected active members of the Society.
The Librarian reported additions to the library
and museum for the month of September of 5 vol-
umes, 195 pamphlets, 81 papers, and 10 miscella-
Mr. F. P. Rice gave notice of his intention to
offer certain amendments to the constitution at some
Mr. J. C. Lyford presented as the Report of the
Department of Coins, Relics and Curiosities, a val-
uable and interesting paper on "Medals."^
Remarks on the same subject were made by
Messrs. Crane, Smith, Jillson, Seagrave, Sumner
* See Department Reports.
The President mentioned in fitting terms the
death of David OHver Woodman, a member of the
Society ; and appointed Mr. T. A. Dickinson to pre-
pare a suitable memorial.
The meeting was then adjourned.
A special meeting of the Society was held Tues-
day evening, October 13th.
Present : Messrs. Crane, Rice, Dickinson, Lee,
C. Jillson, Meriam, Cutler, Staples, Simmons, Pierce,
Tucker, Starr and Abbot, members ; and Dr. W. H.
Raymenton and H. R. Cummings, visitors. â€” 15.
Mr. Frank F. Starr of Middletown, Connecticut,
read a paper entitled "Correspondence relative to
the Manufacture and Presentation of Two Swords
given by the State of Tennessee to Generals An-
drew Jackson and Edmund P. Gaines."* This
paper was especially valuable for the insight it gave
into the difficulties and delays of financial transac-
tions between the West and the East sixty or more
years ago. Mr. Starr exhibited the model of the
swords, which were made by his grandfather. On
motion the thanks of the Society were voted for the
reading of the paper.
*This paper was prepared for, ami had been read before the Connecticut
Historical Society at Hartford.
Dr. Raymenton exhibited a human skull found
that day in Northborough while excavating in fur-
ther search for mastodon remains on the farm of
William U. Maynard. The skull was discovered
firmly imbedded in peat at the bottom of the ditch,
within a few feet of the spot where the mastodon
fragments were found. Dr. Raymenton gave an
account of the discovery in detail, and stated that
he removed the skull from the peat with his own
Remarks were made by President Crane, Mr. T.
A. Dickinson and others. Some doubts were ex-
pressed as to the character and age of the skull,
and the probability of a hoax was discussed. Mr.
F. P. Rice said that Mr. F. W. Putnam, curator
of the Peabody Museum at Cambpidge, was well
qualified to decide in this matter, and suggested
that he be invited to visit the place of discovery,
and to make an examination of the skull. '^
The meeting was then adjourned.
* After some hesitation this suggestion was acted upon, and Dr. Raymen-
ton and Mr. Dickinson both wrote to Prof. Putnam, urging him to visit Wor-
cester. He responded favorably, and appointed Saturday, Oct. 17th, as the
time. Accordingly, on that day, in company with President Raymenton and
Vice-President fJillings of the Worcester Natural History Society; President
Crane, Librarian Dickinson, Messrs. H. M. Smith and F. P. Rice of The
Worcester .Society of Antiquity, he viewed the place of discovery in North-
borough. The skull has since undergone a careful examination at Cambridge,
and Prof. Putnam's report is awaited with much interest.
Regular monthly meeting-, Tuesday evening,
Present : Messrs. Crane, Chandler, Staples, Rice,
Hubbard, Taft, Meriam, Chase, C. Jillson, Paine,
Cutler, Seagrave, Stiles, Sumner, Gould, Lee, Peck,
Simmons, Leonard, T. A. Dickinson, Clark, Estey,
Forehand, Miller, Nichols, Mellen, Pierce, Stedman,
H. M. Smith, Woodward, Tucker, Edwards, Wall
and Abbot, members ; and Henry H. Chamberlin,
Joseph Lovell, A. B. Lovell, E. W. Shumway, John
C. Otis, W. H. Sawyer, Dexter Rice, H. G. O. Blake,
J. P. Houghton and Samuel A. Porter, visitors. â€” 44.
The Librarian reported 26 volumes, 2,3 pamphlets,
20 papers, and 4 articles for the museum as the ad-
ditions for the month.
Mr. Henry H. Chamberlin was then introduced,
and read a paper entitled "Worcester Main Street
sixty-three years ago." This paper vividly described
the appearance of the principal thoroughfare of the
town at the time of the author's earliest recollection,
and comprised many entertaining reminiscences of
persons and places. Remarks in relation to the
incidents recalled were made by Messrs. Samuel A.
Porter, Joseph Lovell, A. B. Lovell, Nathaniel Paine,
H. G. O. Blake, Dr. Chandler and others. On
motion of Mr. Paine the thanks of the Society were
given to Mr. Chamberlin, and a copy of his paper
was requested for publication.
The meeting was then adjourned.
Mr. Chamberlin prefaced his paper with a brief
introduction as follows :
In the preface to Lincoln's History of Worcester is the follow-
ing remark :
" It seemed desirable, while it was yet possible, to gather the
fast fading traditions and scattered records of the past, and present
more full view of our local history than was permitted by the limits
of religious discourse and festival address, or accorded with the
plan of former writers."
In the spirit of this sentence I wish to add my modest gleanings
to the fuller sheaves of others.
I am indebted to Lincoln's History, and to the pubHcations of
Mr. Nathaniel Paine and Mr. Caleb A. Wall for much information.
I also gratefully acknowledge the courteous aid of three ladies of
the city to whose recollections I am indebted for interesting and
With this assistance, and relying upon my own memory, I pro-
pose to speak of Worcester Main Street sixty-three years ago.
WORCESTER MAIN STREET
Â» SIXTY-THREE YEARS AGO.
BY HENRY H. CHAMBERLIN,
The quiet village of 1822, now a busy and bustling city, was
perhaps as remarkable for the elegant leisure of its inhabitants, as
it has since become for its active and successful enterprise.
It is the purpose of this paper to place on record the location of
the principal dwellings and other buildings of the town, particularly
on Main Street, with the names of their occupants, at the above
Beginning at Paine's Hill in Lincoln Street and going southerly,
the first house we come to is that of Dr. William Paine, a sub-
stantial mansion, with its ample grounds, known as "The Oaks."
This had been begun by Hon. Timothy Paine, the founder of the
family in Worcester, just before the commencement of the Revo-
lutionary War, but was not finished or occupied till after the war ;
at the death of Timothy Paine the estate came into the possession
of Dr. William Paine, who, after many vicissitudes, came to reside
at "The Oaks" in 1793, and made his home there till his death
in 1833, thus having spent the last forty years of a long and event-
ful hfe in the peaceful shades of his paternal home.
His son and successor was Frederick William Paine, who was
one of our most honored, as he was one of our most useful citizens.
The extensive garden at "The Oaks," sloping southerly from
the house, always kept in fine order by his assiduous care, and
remarkable fur the variety, beauty and novelty of its plants and
flowers, was a constant witness to Mr. Paine's rare taste and
skill in his favorite pursuit.
Just south of the above estate was the "Hancock Mansion."
This had been the property of Thomas Hancock, who, at his de-
cease, willed it to his nephew, Gov. John Hancock. In 1781 it
became the property of Gov. Levi Lincoln, senior, who lived here
till his decease in 1820, a period of nearly forty years. It soon
afterwards came under the management of William Lincoln, who
enlarged and embellished the garden and grounds. The house
was finally removed to Grove Street, where it now stands. The
late William A. Wheeler built on the site of the Hancock Mansion
an elegant and spacious house, which is now the residence of
Philip L. Moen, Esq.
At some distance south of this, standing under two magnificent
elms which still shelter it, was and still is, a large plain house,
which was occupied by Hon. Timothy Paine (who came here with
his widowed mother while still a child) until he built the family
mansion known as "The Oaks" above mentioned. At this time
(1822) it was occupied by the Misses Kennedy and Mr. Levi
At a little later period Mr. Isaac Goodwin built and occupied a
pleasant house which was afterwards the residence of Edwin
Conant, Esq., and is still standing just south of what was the Lin-
Next south of the Paine house, at a short distance, stood the
" Hancock Arms," for many years known as the " Brown and But-
man Tavern." A part of this house had been used as the jail till
1753 ; subsequently it was used as a tavern for many years, but
had been abandoned some time before 1822. It was burned in
1824. Near it stood the jail built of wood in 1753, which had
been the prison till the building of the stone jail opposite. I be-
lieve this wooden jail shared the fate of the " Hancock Arms."
A short distance further south brings us to a wooden building
which had been Mr. Salisbury's store for many years till he moved
his goods into a part of his house, which had been enlarged and
altered for the purpose. The store remained unoccupied except
as a storehouse for the residue of his goods on his retiring from
business. In 1823 or 4 it was used as a painter's shop by Mr.