thread from one point to another. Regarding this
spider as a type of himself, he watched it with inter-
est, and when the insect succeeded in his purpose,
Bruce interpreted it as a favorable augury, and con-
tinued his efforts, which were at last as successful as
those of the spider had been.
" Though the war \vas continued for fourteen years
longer, the independence of Scotland v/as finally ac-
knowledged. During the next centurj- the crown was
worn by three successors of Bruce. Robert II. was the
son of the ' Steward of Scotland,' which fact gave a
name to the house of Stuart, of which he was the first
king. The son of Robert III. became JamxCS I. of Scot-
land, who was succeeded by five more kings of the
same name, which brings this history down to James
VI., the last of the Scottish kings. Mary Stuart,
commonly called 'Mary Qiieen of Scots,' was the
daughter of James V. Of her history we shall have
more to say at Stirling and Edinburgh.
"James IV. of Scotland married Margaret Tudor,
daughter of Henry VII. of England. Henry VIII.
left three children, Edward, Mary, and Elizabeth ; and
when the last died without children, James VI. of
Scotland, directly descended through Mary Qrieen of
Scots from Henry VII., became James I. of England ;
and here ends the separate history of Scotland. The
two countries were united by a common sovereignty ;
but it was not till one hundred years later that they
were joined together by law. The government is
essentially thÂ« same now as that of England, and the
people are represented in the two houses of Parlia-
2IO SHAMROCK AND THISTLE, OR
" This is all I have to say at present, young gen-
tlemen ; but I shall have frequent occasion to allude to
the history of Scotland as we visit various scenes of
" You ha.ven't said a word about Rob Roy," added
a student, when the lecture was finished.
" I do not consider Rob Roy a person of sufficient
consequence to occupy a place in a brief history of
Scotland. The scene of his exploits was the region
around Loch Lomond and Loch Katrine. He was
simply a freebooter. Rob Roy, in plain English, was
Robert the Red. His true name was Robert Mac-
gregor. He was a cattle-dealer before the insurrec-
tion of 1 715 in Scotland. George I. was the first sov-
ereign of the Brunswick family, and some of the people
of Scotland wished to have the succession continued
in the line of the Stuarts. James II., who left his
throne and v^ent to France, was succeeded by his
daughter Mary and her husband William of Orange.
James made several attempts to recover his crov/n, as
I told you, on the battle-field by the Boyne in Ireland.
He had an only son, whom the people of Scotland
v/ished to call to the throne. He is known in history
as the Pretender. He went to Scotland, and the peo-
ple there rallied under his banner. Among them was
Rob Roy, the cattle-dealer. His lands were seized,
and he commenced a war of reprisal. His daring
exploits and a certain nobility of character ixiade him
a hero, and his name is a household word in Scot-
Rob Roy ^' stock" was rather at a discount, even
with those who had read Sir Walter Scott's novel,
YOUNG AMERICA IN IRELAND AND SCOTLAND. 211
after the professor's rather contemptuous allusion to
that worthy. The students devoted themselves to the
studies of the forenoon, and at tv^o o'clock in the after-
noon they heard the welcome pipe of the boatsvs^ain
which called together the crew for an excursion on
shore. The boats were lowered, and all hands em-
" What is there here ? " asked Paul Kendall of his
constant friend the surgeon, v^hen they landed at
" Nothing of especial interest ; but the place is a
thriving commercial town, and noted for its ship-
building," replied Dr. Winstock. " Did you ever read
Burns's poems, Paul?"
" A little, sir."
" Then of course you have heard of Highland
Mary. She was buried in this town."
" I never read much of Burns's poetry, for the reason
that I could not understand the Scotch it contains,"
" There are plenty of his poems which contain no
Scotch, though I think that is the charm of his works.
His native humor and pathos are best expressed in
the dialect in which he used to think and speak.
You will find many memorials of Burns, and perhaps
you will have a deeper interest in him when you have
seen them. Certainly he was a wonderful poet ; and
in spite of his intemperance and the irregularities of
his life, the people of Scotland almost worship his
" I have often heard of Greenock, but I can't think
what it is noted for," said Paul. " I know it is an
212 SHAMROCK AND THISTLE, OR
important seaport, but it is famous for something else
that I have heard about."
" It is the birthplace of a very celebrated man ; one
who had added more to the wealth of Great Britain
than any other man ; one w^ho has increased the value
of its productive industry more than a hundred fold."
" I know who he is now ! " exclaimed Paul. " It
is Watt, the man who invented the steam engine."
" You are right. He is generally called the in-
ventor of the steam engine, though he did not discover
the principle upon which the machine is constructed.
But he made it applicable to the purposes for which
the engine is now used, and he is justly entitled to all
the honor which is awarded to him."
The party visited the Watt memorial in Union Street,
which is a structure erected by the son of the great in-
ventor, and contains a beautiful statue of Watt, by Sir
Francis Chantrey, purchased by subscription.
After a walk through the town, the party took seats
in the train for Glasgow. On this railroad the boys
saw fourth-class cars, in which the passengers, paying
less fare than the third class, are huddled in without
seats â€” cheap, but not comfortable.
" Renfrew ! " exclaimed Paul, and the train stopped
at a village with this name. " I have heard of the
" Probably you have heard of Baron Renfrew, who
recently visited the United States. Do you know
whom I mean? "
" Yes, sir ; it was the Prince of Wales."
" It was ; and in every official mention of the prince
he was called Baron Renfrew. The barony belonge(
YOUNG AMERICA IN IRELAND AND SCOTLAND. 313
to the Stuart family, of whose origin Mr. Mapps
spoke to you this forenoon, and came by descent to
the Prince of Wales."
The train stopped a few moments at Paisley, which
is an important manufacturing place. After leaving
this town, the viev/ from the windov/ of the carriage
was very pleasant. The houses of the poorer people
were neat and comfortable, and the thrift of the Scotch
was apparent in their dwellings and in their gardens.
When the party arrived at the station in Glasgow, a
sufficient number of carriages were in readiness for
them, Mr. Fluxion having engaged them an hour
before. The vehicles were a kind of barouche, drawn
by one horse, accommodating four persons. They are
let by the hour for three shillings. The ordinary cab
fare for any distance within a mile and a half is one
shilling, and sixpence for every additional half mile,
which are only from a quarter to a half of the rates
charged in the principal cities of the United States.
The procession of carriages left the station and
crossed the Clyde by the Glasgow Bridge, a granite
structure five hundred feet in length by sixty in width.
A penny toll is collected on this bridge, which Paul
Kendall declared no American city would tolerate in
" Before you have travelled long in Scotland and
England, you will find a great many places where your
passage is obstructed by a demand for a penny," said
Dr. Winstock, \vith a smile.
" This is the Broomielaw," he added, pointing to
the left of the bridge.
214 SHAMROCK AND THISTLE, OR
" The Broomielaw."
" I don't see any such thing as that," laughed Paul,
looking in the direction indicated.
" It is the harbor or basin of the port. You see the
forest of masts and the crowd of steamers, extending
for a mile down the river. Fifty years ago the water
here was not more than three and a half feet deep,
and there are men now living in Glasgow who have
often waded across the Clyde. The river had been
doubled or tripled in width, and now vessels drawing
twenty feet of w^ater can come up at full tide.''
" There are plenty of steamers here, and some of
the smallest ones I ever saw," said Paul, as they
passed from the bridge.
" Clyde-built steamers are celebrated all over the
world, and the building of them is one of the most
important branches of business in Glasgow, which you
know is the third city in size in the United Kingdom."
" London is the first, and Liverpool the second,"
Glasgow, though its importance as a commercial
and manufacturing place is of modern origin, is an
ancient city, and is said to have been founded about
the year 500. Before the American revolution the
trade of the city was almost wholly in tobacco, in
which large fortunes were made. The war between
England and her colonies interrupted this trade, and
the people turned their attention to the manufacturing
of cotton goods, which has become one of the most
productive sources of wealth to the city.
The iron trade, however, is the most notable branch
of industry. x\bout the time the revolution in Amer-
YOUNG AMERICA IN IRELAND AND SCOTLAND. 215
ica suspended the tobacco importation, Watt came
upon the stage of action with the steam engine, and
Glasgow, where Watt spent so many years of his Hfe
in studying the principle and perfecting the mechan-
ism of his invention, derived immense benefit from
his genius. The coal and iron mines in the vicinity
afford abundant material for the iron works.
In 181 3 Henry Bell launched on the Clyde the first
steamboat ever seen in the United Kingdom, though
some abortive attempts had been made by others to
apply the steam engine as a motive power to vessels.
This was five years after Fulton, the real inventor of
the steamboat, had made his celebrated trip from
New York to Albany in the Clermont. The immense
improvements made in the port of Glasgow^ have
opened new sources of wealth to the city. The build-
ing of iron steamers and their engines is now one of
the chief branches of business.
'' There is not much to be seen in Glasgow, and
the city is of little importance to the tourist," said Dr.
Winstock, as the procession of carriages turned into
Argyle Street. " This is the principal street, and a
ride of half an hour will give you a very good idea
of the city, which is just like every other commercial
The odd names of the streets which the doctor or
the driver mentioned amused the boys, as the Tron-
gate and Gallowsgate, â€” which are a continuation of
Argyle Street, â€” the Saltmarket, Sauchiehall, and the
suburbs of Strathbungo and Crossmjloof.
In George Square there is a monument to Sir Wal-
ter Scott, a pedestrian statue of Sir John Moore, the
2l6 SHAMROCK AND THISTLE, OR
hero of Corunna, another of James Vv^att, and a fourth
of Sir Robert Peel, the famous statesman. There are
other commemorative monuments or statues in the
The carriages stopped before a gloomy and massive
Gothic structure, v^diich proved to be Glasgow Cathe-
dral, described by Sir Walter Scott in Rob Roy. It
is a very ancient building, but has been " restored,"
and eighty-one beautiful stained glass windows added.
Adjoining the Cathedral is the Necropolis, which is
an immense burial-ground, and the last resting-place
of some of the most renowned Scottish worthies. It
contains a noble and chaste monument to John Knox,
the fiery reformer. From the suminit of the hill in
this city of the dead, the party obtained a fine pano-
ramic view of the city, the river, and the surrounding
country, which proved to be more interesting to the
boj^s than deciphering the epitaphs on the monuments.
A visit to the series of parks on the Clyde in the
eastern part of the city completed the round of the
excursion, and the ship's company arrived at the rail-
way station just in time to take the train for Greenock.
Of course they had not thoroughly explored Glasgow,
but they had accomplished all the principal proposed,
which was to give them " an idea" of the city.
YOUNG AMERICA IN IRELAND AND SCOTLAND. 21 7
THE DESERTERS IN GLASGOW.
'ITH aching heads, and stinging consciences,
the three runaways sat on the beds and
stared at each other in silence, after the full extent
of their misfortune had become apparent. Their
united funds would not amount to more than four
shillings, "which was not enough to pay the hotel bill,
to say nothing of going to London and Paris, or even
of leaving Glasgow. Each of them was thoroughly
ashamed of himself, not so much for his vicious and
immoral conduct as for his weakness and stupidity
in permitting himself to be filched or robbed of his
It was Sunda}^ morning. The clock of a church in
the vicinity struck nine while they sat staring in dumb
misery at each other, so appalled by the fearful mis-
fortune which had overtaken them that they could not
finish dressing themselves. There was no tyranny on
board the Young America which bore so heavily upon
them as the tyranny of their own misconduct, and all
of them wished they had not embarked upon such a
desperate venture. They were now fully convicted
of inability to manage their own affairs, and perhaps
could see the necessity of Mr. Lowington's stringent
regulation in regard to the finances of the students.
2l8 SHAMROCK AND THISTLE, OR
These three boys, even with the burden of taking
care of themselves resting upon them, at the first
opportunity after they felt secure from pursuit, had
become intoxicated, and lost, by gambling and being
robbed, all the money in their possession but a few
shillings. These facts were a triumphant vindication
of the principal's policy ; and though the deserters
realized the truth, they did not acknowledge it to each
Wilton was the v/orst boy of the three, if not the
worst belonging to the ship's company. His reckless-
ness in the use of the wine had been the initial step
to their present disgrace and helplessness. He was
the first to speak after the long silence which followed
the realization of the miseries of their situation. Each
was reproaching himself for his own folly, and trjdng
to devise a plan by which the party could be extricated
from the desperate circumstances which surrounded
" It's no use to cry about it," said he, after he had
made up his mind what could be done.
" Nobody is crying about it," added Monroe. " I'm
" I think we had better join the Scottish Temper-
ance League," replied Peiham, with a faint attempt
" Or an anti-gambling league," suggested Wilton,
looking sourly at the lieutenant.
" If we hadn't drank any wine, I don't think we
should have lost any money by gambling," retorted
" You drank as much wine as I did," said Wilton.
YOUNG AMERICA IN IRELAND AND SCOTLAND. 219
"â– Not quite ; at any rate I didn't keep forcing the
drinks upon others. One would have thought, from
the way you kept calling for sherry, Wilton, that you
had a thousand pounds in your pocket. You treated
the whole crowd three or four times, and then you
didn't know whether you stood on your head or your
heels," continued Pelham, sharply.
" And one would think, from the way 3'^ou gambled,
that you had ten thousand pounds in your pockets,"
added Wilton, angrily.
" If a glass of wine fuddled me as it does you, I
shouldn't take more than one."
" Lords and dukes don't play for more than a sov-
ereign, or so, but you put down five."
" I think the pot needn't call the kettle black," said
Pelham. " In my opinion it's six one and half a
dozen the other ; and w^e may as well dry up on this
line of talk. We have all been stupid and weak, and
the less we say about it the better. I gambled away
all. my money â€” "
" And some of mine," interposed Monroe, rather
" If I hadn't lost it, you would ; but you are two
sovereigns better off than 3'ou would have been if I
hadn't borrowed them of you, for I shall pay all I
owe you," replied Pelham, with dignity. " I gam-
bled away my money, and you lost yours. We are all
in the same box, and we had better not quarrel about
it. What's to be done ? That's the interesting ques-
" I don't see that there is anything we can do,"
replied Monroe, despondingly.
220 SHAMROCK AND THISTLE, OR
" We are not going to be hung, or anything of that
sort," said Pelham, with an effort to be cheerful.
" The case isn't half so desperate as it might be."
'' It's bad enough, any how," added Wilton. " We
are cornered here, without any money ; and of course
we can't go to London, or anywhere else. We are
beggars in a strange land. I suppose we can write
to Lowington, and ask him to get us out of this
" You may do that, but I never will," replied Pel-
*' I don'f want to do it; but there is only one other
thing we can do."
" What is that?" asked Pelham, eagerly, when the
conversation began to take a practical turn.
" We are all sailors, and we can ship on board
some vessel bound to the United States."
" Ship ! What, go into the forecastle of a mer-
chantman as common sailors ! " demanded the aristo-
cratic young lieutenant.
"Why not? We can get home that way, if we
can't get anywhere else ? "
" We are not reduced to such an extremity as that."
" Arn't we? Well, I thought we were," said Wil-
ton. " It's no use for you to put on airs here, Pel-
ham. We are hard up, in a foreign country. You
can't borrow, and you don't want to steal. I should
like to know what you intend to do."
" I think you will have to trust me in the future, as
you have in the jDast," replied the lieutenant, with a
little pardonable vanity.
" Trust you ! " exclaimed Wilton, with a sneer.
YOUNG AMERICA IN IRELAND AND SCOTLAND, 231
" That's easy enough when we can't muster a sov-
ereign among the three. I don't know that you are
any bigger man than Monroe or I."
" If I hadn't managed this business, you would have
been in the brig on board of the ship at this present
" I don't know that."
"I do ; and if you had taken my advice last night,
when I told you not to drink any more, we should not
have got into this scrape."
" You drank yourself, and gambled away all your
money and some of Ike Monroe's. You needn't say
anything ! " snapped Wilton.
" I don't complain now. I only say if you had
heeded me, we should not have been in trouble."
" I don't know about that."
" Don't quarrel about it, fellows," interposed Mon-
roe, who had proved himself to be a cipher in
" I don't care ! I don't believe in Gus Pelham's
putting on airs."
" All right, Wilt ; we won't have any trouble,"
added the lieutenant, rather haughtily. " I don't care
about being snubbed ; and since we can't agree, we
can disagree. I will go my way, and you may go
Pelham rose from his seat on the bed, and com-
pleted his toilet without any further remark.
"What are you going to do to-day, Pelham?"
" Nothing," replied the lieutenant.
" To-day is Sunday. I suppose we can't do any-
223 SHAMROCK AND THISTLE, OR
thing ; but I should like to get hold of that fellow tliat
took us to the saloon," added Wilton.
" You can if you like ; I don't want an3'thing to do
with him. You can make your plans now to suit
yourself, Wilton. I told you I wasn't going to be
snubbed ; and what I do, I shall keep to myself"
" Don't be so short, Gus," said Wilton.
" To-morrow you can go your way, and I will go
" What do you mean ? "
" I mean that we will part company. I'm not going
to have a fellow talk to me about putting on airs. I
don't like your way of doing things. In the morn-
ing we will part company, and I will sail on my own
" You don't mean that, Pelham," added Wilton,
who, though crabbedly unwilling to ackno^vledge that
the lieutenant was the ablest and most skilful mana-
ger in the party, was not the less conscious of the fact.
" I mean it."
" That isn't fair."
" Why not? If we can't agree, we had better sepa-
rate. I don't want to be responsible for your blun-
ders, and I won't ask you to be responsible for mine."
" I don't know what you mean by that kind of talk,"
replied Wilton, who really felt that the loss of Pelham
would be a great misfortune.
" It's no use for us to run about this country as \ve
did last night. You made friends with that Jock, and
he has been the ruin of us. I shouldn't have done it.
You insisted upon drinking, and I couldn't refuse with-
out being mean. I shouldn't have done that. You
YOUNG AMERICA IN IRELAND AND SCOTLAND. 233
wouldn't mind what I said, and here we are head over
heels in trouble. Last night I followed your lead, and
we are cleaned out. Up to this time you followed my
lead, and we -were safe. We can't get along with
" I suppose you mean that you must be ' cock of
the walk,' or you will leave us," said Wilton, smartly.
" I mean just that," added Pelham, boldly.
" Then you may go when you please. I would as
lief have Lowington to tyrannize over me as you."
" All I have to say is, that one of us must lead. I
won't follow your lead, and if you won't follow mine,
that is the end of the whole matter."
" I won't," replied Wilton, decidedly. " I think it
is mean for one fellow to attempt to lord it over an-
" There will be no lording about it. If you had
taken my advice last night, we should not have got
into this scrape. I think I am better able to take care
of the party than you are. If you don't think so, I
haven't a word to say. You can go where you like,
and I will do the same. Nobody's bones will be
broken ; I shall not tyrannize over you, and you will
not get me into any scrape."
" Come, come, fellows," interposed Monroe, alarmed
by this conflict for the leadership ; " don't get into any
. " No row at all," said Pelham. " It's all right
" I don't ask to be captain," added Wilton ; " and
I don't want any ruler over me. If we can't go as
equals, we won't go together any longer."
234 SHAMROCK AND THISTLE, OR
" All right, I'm going down to get some breakfast,"
continued Pelham, as he put on his cap and moved
towards the door.
" Don't go yet, Pelham," pleaded Monroe. " Let
us fix this thing up. I am willing to follow Pelham's
lead," he added, turning to Wilton, " as we have done
from the beginning."
" I'm not," added Wilton, doggedly. " I haven't
done it yet, and I don't mean to begin now. Shall
we see you again, Pelham ? " he asked with a sneering
" I shall not leave you to-day. To-morrow, Mon-
roe, I will pay you the two sovereigns I borrowed.
"Where will you get the money?" demanded
" That's my affair," replied the lieutenant, sternly.
" Where are you going to-morrow?"
" Don't trouble yourself any more about me. If I
want any help from you, I will call upon you for it."
" And when I want a fellow to boss me, I'll give
you an invitation to take the situation," sneered Wil-
ton, as Pelham left the room.
" What was the use of doing that?" said Monroe,
with deep disgust at the conduct of his companion.
" Do you think I have come here to have a good
time, and mean to submit to Gus Pelham ? He'll find
he isn't a lieutenant here, if he is on board the ship,"
replied Wilton, with a proper exhibition of indepen-
" Humph ! here we are v\dthout an}^ money, and
you are splitting hairs over a silly question about who
shall be the leader."
YOUNG AMERICA IN IRELAND AND SCOTLAND. 225
" I don't want any more tyrants. I didn't sell out
one to take another aboard so soon."
" Pelham is a good fellow, and knows how to man-
age things. You can't deny that you got us into that
scrape last night. You made friends with that Jock,
and asked him out to drink. You made him take us
to that gambling hole."
"Are you going to turn upon me, too?" demanded
" You can't deny it, and you don't. Pelham told
you not to drink any more, two or three times. If
you had heeded what he said, we should have been
" You are a flunky, Ike Monroe. If you want to
put yourself under Mr. Pelham's thumb, you can ; I
" All I've got to say is, if we are going to break up
in this way, I am going with Pelham. He is twice
as safe a fellow to be with as you are."